"temporary" or part-time positions has been much higher than the fraction of men, but the difference narrowed from 1973 to 1995. Graduates of the highest-rated institutions found positions later than their colleagues from other schools. However, the difference might be explained primarily by the fact that graduates of the leading institutions were more likely to take postdoctoral apprenticeships and more likely to hold postdoctoral or other nonfaculty positions in academe 5–6 years after graduation. Similarly, recent biomedical-science PhDs were more likely than graduates in nonbiomedical life-science disciplines to hold temporary (non-tenure-track) appointments in universities. Those and other differences in the career patterns of individual groups indicate that the observed national employment patterns of all life-science PhDs do not necessarily apply to those in a particular field, department, or group. For that reason, it is imperative that the employment histories of graduates of individual university departments be made available to prospective graduate students and postdoctorals.
The changes in career prospects for young scientists occurred while the total numbers of life scientists in the workforce continued to increase. Figure 3.14 shows the numbers of life-science PhDs (US citizens and permanent residents only) in the workforce. The figure reveals that the numbers employed in every sector continued to grow throughout the 22-year period. Much of the growth in the faculty at PhD-granting institutions occurred before 1989. In contrast, the most pronounced and persistent trend in the 22-year period is the growth in the numbers in industry, postdoctoral