Appendix A
Biographic Information

Shirley Tilghman (Chair) is the Howard A. Prior Professor of the Life Sciences at Princeton University and an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. She is a molecular geneticist whose work focuses on the regulation of genes during development. She is a member of the Royal Society of London, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Institute of Medicine.

Helen S. Astin is a psychologist, professor of higher education, and associate director of the Higher Education Research Institute at the University of California at Los Angeles. Her research and writings have focused on the education and career development of women and on faculty careers, productivity, and rewards.

William Brinkley is Distinguished Service Professor of Cell Biology, vice president for graduate sciences, and dean of the graduate school of biomedical sciences, Baylor College of Medicine. His research involves studies of mitosis and genome instability in eukaryotic cells. He is interested in PhD education in academic health centers and was the founder of the Association of American Medical Colleges Graduate Research Education and Training Committee which explores issues also dealt with in this report.

Mary Dell Chilton is Distinguished Science Fellow at Ciba-Geigy Biotechnology, where she continues research on the molecular biology of plant genes. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Michael P. Cummings was, at the beginning of this study, a postgraduate research plant geneticist in the Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside. He is now at the Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution, Marine Biological Laboratory. His research focuses on empirical and computer-based investigations in molecular evolution, population genetics, and systematics.

Ronald G. Ehrenberg is vice president for academic programs, planning, and budgeting at Cornell University. A member of the Cornell faculty for 21 years, he is the Irving M. Ives Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Economics and the author or co-author of over 100 papers and books. He was the editor of Research in Labor Economics , and is a co-editor of the Journal of Human Resources. He is also a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and a member of the Executive Committee of the American Economic Association. Much of his recent research has focused on higher-education issues. He regularly taught a popular course titled "Economic Analysis of the University".

Mary Frank Fox is professor of sociology, School of History, Technology, and Society, Georgia Institute of Technology. Her research focuses on women and men in scientific and academic organizations and occupations; her current work is a study of gender and doctoral education in five science and engineering fields. Her publications, appearing in over 30 scholarly journals and collections, include analyses of salary, publication productivity, and educational and career patterns among scientists. She is associate editor of Sex Roles, past associate editor of Gender & Society, and chair of the Editorial Board of the international Handbook of Science and Technology Studies.

Kevin Glenn is a fellow in cardiovascular diseases research at Searle. He has served on previous National Research Council committees involved with PhD issues.

Pamela J. Green is associate professor, Michigan



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--> Appendix A Biographic Information Shirley Tilghman (Chair) is the Howard A. Prior Professor of the Life Sciences at Princeton University and an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. She is a molecular geneticist whose work focuses on the regulation of genes during development. She is a member of the Royal Society of London, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Institute of Medicine. Helen S. Astin is a psychologist, professor of higher education, and associate director of the Higher Education Research Institute at the University of California at Los Angeles. Her research and writings have focused on the education and career development of women and on faculty careers, productivity, and rewards. William Brinkley is Distinguished Service Professor of Cell Biology, vice president for graduate sciences, and dean of the graduate school of biomedical sciences, Baylor College of Medicine. His research involves studies of mitosis and genome instability in eukaryotic cells. He is interested in PhD education in academic health centers and was the founder of the Association of American Medical Colleges Graduate Research Education and Training Committee which explores issues also dealt with in this report. Mary Dell Chilton is Distinguished Science Fellow at Ciba-Geigy Biotechnology, where she continues research on the molecular biology of plant genes. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Michael P. Cummings was, at the beginning of this study, a postgraduate research plant geneticist in the Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside. He is now at the Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution, Marine Biological Laboratory. His research focuses on empirical and computer-based investigations in molecular evolution, population genetics, and systematics. Ronald G. Ehrenberg is vice president for academic programs, planning, and budgeting at Cornell University. A member of the Cornell faculty for 21 years, he is the Irving M. Ives Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Economics and the author or co-author of over 100 papers and books. He was the editor of Research in Labor Economics , and is a co-editor of the Journal of Human Resources. He is also a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and a member of the Executive Committee of the American Economic Association. Much of his recent research has focused on higher-education issues. He regularly taught a popular course titled "Economic Analysis of the University". Mary Frank Fox is professor of sociology, School of History, Technology, and Society, Georgia Institute of Technology. Her research focuses on women and men in scientific and academic organizations and occupations; her current work is a study of gender and doctoral education in five science and engineering fields. Her publications, appearing in over 30 scholarly journals and collections, include analyses of salary, publication productivity, and educational and career patterns among scientists. She is associate editor of Sex Roles, past associate editor of Gender & Society, and chair of the Editorial Board of the international Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. Kevin Glenn is a fellow in cardiovascular diseases research at Searle. He has served on previous National Research Council committees involved with PhD issues. Pamela J. Green is associate professor, Michigan

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--> State University/Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory and Department of Biochemistry at Michigan State. Her research focuses on the control of mRNA stability and ribonuclease regulation and function in higher plants. She is past cochair of the North American Arabidopsis Steering Committee and is a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society for Plant Molecular Biology. She has organized "Choices Day" at the Plant Research Laboratory and has contributed to workshops at American Society of Plant Physiologists meetings to inform students about the spectrum of careers in science. Sherrie L. Hans was a graduate student in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of California, San Francisco until the summer of 1996, when she received her PhD. She was supported by a National Science Foundation graduate fellowship during the first 3 years of her graduate career. Currently, she is a program officer for biomedical research policy at the Pew Charitable Trusts in Philadelphia. Bruce R. Levin is professor of biology and director of the Graduate Program in Population Biology, Ecology and Evolution at Emory University. Dr. Levin's current research includes theoretical and experimental studies of the population biology and evolution of bacteria and infectious disease. He received his PhD in Genetics from the University of Michigan in 1967. He has taught at Brown University and the University of Massachusetts. Arthur Kelman is a University Distinguished Scholar in the Department of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, and Emeritus Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Professor of Plant Pathology and Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research has been in the area of mechanisms of pathogenesis of bacterial plant pathogens and the nature of disease resistance in plants. He has served as chairman of the Board on Basic Biology, on a number of other committees of the National Research Council, and as chief scientist of the National Research Initiative Competitive Research Grants Program of the US Department of Agriculture. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of the Arts and Sciences. J. Richard McIntosh is professor of cell biology at the University of Colorado, Boulder and a research professor of the American Cancer Society. His principal research interest is the mechanisms by which cells organize and segregate their chromosomes in preparation for cell division. He is also principal investigator of the Laboratory for Three-Dimensional Fine Structure, a national research resource that is developing new technologies for the study of cellular architecture. He has taught cell biology at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Henry W. Riecken is the Boyer Professor emeritus of Behavioral Sciences at the School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania. He is a psychologist who formerly headed the Divisions of Scientific Personnel and Education at the National Science Foundation. He was Chairman of the National Research Council Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel. He is a founding member of the Institute of Medicine Paula E. Stephan is associate dean and professor of economics, School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University. She is a labor economist by training and her recent research focuses on the economics of science and innovation. She has also studied the relationship of age, career stage, and birth origin to productivity. She is the author of over 50 books and papers. She has served as a consultant to a number of organizations and as a visiting scholar at the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, Berlin, Germany.