Appendix A Survey Descriptions

This appendix provides detailed descriptive information for each of the surveys that were represented at the workshop. These summary overviews include a brief introduction, a statement about the central substantive issues that guided development of the survey, the study design, the sampling strategies, and the constructs being assessed. Data collection instruments and methods are also listed, as well as information on the current status of the survey. All of the information appearing in this appendix was reviewed and approved by the survey's principal investigator and was current at the time of publication of this report. An attempt was made to ensure the consistency of the information provided for each survey, but for some surveys certain information was not available. The information on the surveys provided in Appendix A was then summarized and appears in table format in Appendix B.



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--> Appendix A Survey Descriptions This appendix provides detailed descriptive information for each of the surveys that were represented at the workshop. These summary overviews include a brief introduction, a statement about the central substantive issues that guided development of the survey, the study design, the sampling strategies, and the constructs being assessed. Data collection instruments and methods are also listed, as well as information on the current status of the survey. All of the information appearing in this appendix was reviewed and approved by the survey's principal investigator and was current at the time of publication of this report. An attempt was made to ensure the consistency of the information provided for each survey, but for some surveys certain information was not available. The information on the surveys provided in Appendix A was then summarized and appears in table format in Appendix B.

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--> Dataset Name: British National Child Development Study (NCDS) Sponsoring Organization: National Birthday Trust Fund (London) Data Collection Organization: Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, London Principal Investigators: John Bynner and Peter Shepherd; Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, London Purpose The NCDS is a continuing multidisciplinary longitudinal study that takes as its subjects all those living in Great Britain who were born March 3-9, 1958. It has its origins in the Perinatal Mortality Survey. Sponsored by the National Birthday Trust Fund, the NCDS was designed to examine social and obstetric factors associated with stillbirth and death in early infancy among the 17,000 children born in Great Britain in that one week. It was the second in a series of three such perinatal studies, the others being based on a week's births in 1946 and 1970. Each has formed the basis of a continuing longitudinal study. Design The sample size is approximately 16,500 and includes all persons born in Great Britain the week of March 3-9, 1958. In 1991 a random sample of children of one-third of the NCDS respondents (age 33) was added. No subpopulations were oversampled. Periodicity To date, there have been five attempts to trace all members of the birth cohort in order to monitor their physical, educational, and social development. These were carried out by the National Children's Bureau in 1963 (NCDS1), 1969 (NCDS2), 1974 (NCDS3), and 1981 (NCDS4) and by the Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, in 1991 (NCDS5). In addition, in 1978, contact was made with the schools attended by members of the birth cohort at the time of the second follow-up in 1974 in order to obtain details of public examination entry and performance. Similar details were sought from sixth-form colleges and other education colleges, and so forth, where these were identified by schools.

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--> Content The major topics covered by the survey include factors associated with birth outcomes, family formation, employment, education, training, housing, income, health, smoking, drinking, and voluntary activities. Also included are children's cognitive, socioemotional, and behavioral outcomes. Contexts studied include the family, school, and community. With regard to the type of data collection, interviews are conducted with parents, teachers, spouses, cohabitees, and children. Medical exams and educational tests also are used as data collection instruments. Planned linkage capacities include census data and school records. Contact John Bynner Peter Shepherd NCDS User Support Social Statistics Research Unit City University Northhampton Square London ECIV 0HB Phone: (0171) 477-8484 Fax: (0171) 477-8583 E-mail: ncds@ssru.city.ac.uk Robert Michael University of Chicago Harris Graduate School of Public Policy 1155 E. 60th St. Chicago, Illinois 60637 Phone: (312) 702-9623 Fax: (312) 702-0926

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--> Dataset Name: Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) Sponsoring Organizations: Human Resources Development Canada Statistics Canada Data Collection Organization: Special Surveys Division, Statistics Canada Principal Investigators: Gilles Montigny, Project Manager; Special Surveys Division, Statistics Canada; Susan McKellar, Project Coordinator; Human Resources Development Canada Purpose The purpose of the NLSCY is to collect information over time on critical factors affecting the development of children in Canada. The NLSCY is the first nationwide household survey on child health, development, and well-being in Canada. Data on the prevalence of and interaction among various characteristics and conditions will assist policy makers in understanding the processes that modify risk and protect and encourage the healthy development of children. Such information will enhance the capacity of various partners in society to develop effective strategies, policies, and programs to help children succeed in our changing society. Description The NLSCY follows a sample of children (22,831) ages 0 to 11 in 1994-1995 from infancy to adulthood, collecting information every two years. Children are the statistical unit. For the first three data collections, information is collected from a person knowledgeable about the child (in most cases the child's mother). Children 10 and over are asked to complete a questionnaire; teachers and school principals are asked to provide information on school-aged children and their schools also by completing a questionnaire. The survey casts a wide net, gathering information on children, families, schools, and communities. Objectives The primary objective of the NLSCY is to develop a national database on the characteristics and life experiences of Canadian children as they grow from infancy to adulthood. The more specific objectives are (1) to determine the prevalence of various characteristics and risk factors of children and youth in Canada and (2) to monitor the impact of such risk factors, life events, and protective factors on the development of these children. Underlying these objectives is the

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--> need to (1) fill an existing information gap regarding the characteristics and experiences of Canadian children, particularly in their early years; (2) focus on all aspects of the child in a holistic manner (i.e., child, family, school, and community); and (3) explore subject areas that are amenable to policy intervention and that affect a significant segment of the population. Study Design The first NLSCY collection took place in 1994-1995. Some 13,439 households (22,831 children) participated. In addition, information on some 2,300 children was collected in the territories. The sample was divided into seven age groups: children 0-11 months old, 1 year olds, 2-3 year olds, 4-5 year olds, 6-7 year olds, 8-9 year olds, and 10-11 year olds. The sample included all children ages newborn to 11 years residing in the selected households who were members of the same economic family and who lived the majority of time in the household. A maximum of four children in the age range of measurement were surveyed in each economic family: in families with more than four children under 12, four children were selected randomly. The 1994-1995 children sample is the longitudinal sample and will be followed biennially until adulthood. In the second cycle the NLSCY sample was upgraded in age groups no longer covered by the longitudinal sample, to maintain coverage of the lower age ranges for cross-sectional purposes. It is anticipated that a similar sample upgrading will take place for the third cycle. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in children's homes with a person knowledgeable about each child. Children age 10 and over were asked to complete a questionnaire during the interview with the knowledgeable person. Children 4 and 5 years of age (4-6 in cycle 2) were administered a vocabulary test (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) during the home interview. For school-age children a follow-up in the school was done by mailing a questionnaire to be completed by the teacher and the school principal. Math and reading comprehension tests were also part of the school follow-up for children in grade 2 and above. Questionnaire Topics Household-level information: Demographic and detailed relationship and dwelling characteristics. Parent questionnaire: Health, education, labor force activity and income, family functioning, depression, social support, neighborhood. General child questionnaire: Child care, family and custody history, parenting style, health status and injuries. Child questionnaire (children 0-3): Perinatal information, temperament, activities, motor and social development. Child questionnaire (children 4-11): education/school experience, literacy

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--> activities, activities and responsibilities, behavior, relationships with others. Children 10 and over (self-completed): friends and family, feelings and behavior, school experience, puberty, smoking, alcohol, drugs, self-esteem, activities, health. Teacher questionnaire: Academic progress and problems of the child, parental involvement, characteristics of the classroom, teaching practices, feeling of efficacy, and teacher characteristics. Principal questionnaire: Composition of student population, school discipline, attendance and stability of school population, material and human resources, parental involvement. Tests: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, math computation, reading comprehension. Plans for Future Cycles Cycle 3 data collection will be conducted in 1998-1999. With the exception of a new questionnaire for 14 to 15 year olds, the rest of the collection instruments should remain relatively stable. In addition, approval from respondents to link to taxation records to derive income variables will be sought. For cycle 4 the plans are to reexamine the current design and collection methodology to adjust to a young adult population. Consideration will be given to introduction of a cohort of newborns, with greater emphasis on a more extensive measure of school readiness. Available Results and Data Files The results of the first cycle of the NLSCY are available, with the exception of the section on family and child custody history and data for the territories. A public microdata file is available and can be purchased from Statistics Canada at a cost of $2,000 (CAN). The public microdata contain weighted and edited estimates. Also available is a collection of articles based on the results of the NLSCY first cycle, grouped in a publication entitled Growing Up in Canada (catalog no. 89-550-MPE). The publication can also be purchased from Statistics Canada at a cost of $25 (CAN). Release of the results from the second collection is planned for the fall 1998. A file containing longitudinal and cross-sectional estimates will then be made available.

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--> Contact Gilles Montigny Special Surveys Division Statistics Canada Phone: (613) 951-9731 Fax: (613) 951-7333 E-mail: montgil@statcan.ca Susan McKellar Applied Research Branch Human Resources Development Canada Phone: (819) 953-4230 Fax: (819) 994-2480 E-mail: susan.mckellar@spg.org

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--> Dataset Name: Children and Young Adults of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Sponsoring Organizations: Bureau of Labor Statistics National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Data Collection Organization: National Opinion Research Center Principal Investigator: Randall Olsen; Center for Human Resource Research; Ohio State University. Purpose The purpose of this ongoing study is to collect child development information on children born to NLSY79 female respondents and to create a large nationally representative data resource for the study of child outcomes. The data available about the children and their mothers and families create an opportunity to study the effects of parental characteristics and experiences on the well-being and development of children. Following these children into late adolescence and early adulthood offers the chance to examine the effects of development on (1) success in school, (2) transition to work, and (3) family formation. Content The NLSY79 child dataset contains information on health, school and family background, attitudes, cognitive and socioemotional development, and quality of the home environment of the sample children. Reports are also recorded on schooling, grade repetition, school behavior and expectations, peer relations, and religious attendance and training for children 10 and older. Information for these preadolescents is also available on family decision making, school attitudes, work activities, peer relationships, religious attendance, smoking, alcohol and drug use, sexual activity, computer use, and gender roles. The following cognitive, socioemotional, and physiological assessments were administered to age eligible children during the 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, and 1996 surveys: Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Abbreviated Scale; Body Parts Scale; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Memory for Locations; McCarthy Scale of Children's Abilities; Verbal Memory Subscale; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised; Digit Span Subscale; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT); Math, Reading Recognition, & Reading Comprehension Subscale; Temperament Scale; Behavior Problems Index; Self-Perception Profile; and Motor & Social Development Scale. The young adult file for children 15 and older contains details about their

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--> employment, education, training, family-related experiences, behaviors, and attributes. Transcript information for schools attended in 1993-1994 or 1994-1995 will be added to the files for release with the 1996 data. Design As of 1994, the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults sample consists of the more than 10,000 children ever born to NLSY79 female respondents. The NLSY79 children may be considered representative of (1) children born to a nationally representative cross-section of women age 29-36 in 1994 and (2) all children born to a nationally representative sample of women age 14-21 in 1979. Of these children, a high percentage of those eligible were assessed in each survey year. Starting in 1994, children 15 or older on the date of interview in the household within the previous two rounds were interviewed regardless of current residence status: In 1986, there were 5,255 children; 4,971 were assessed. In 1988, there were 6,543 children; 6,266 were assessed. In 1990, there were 6,427 children; 5,803 were assessed. In 1992, there were 7,255 children; 6,509 were assessed. In 1994, there were 6,622 children, not young adults; 6,109 were assessed. In 1994, there were 1,240 young adult children; 980 were interviewed. The NLSY79 child and young adult surveys are an extension of the NLSY79, a comprehensive multipurpose survey of more than 12,600 individuals who have been interviewed annually since 1979. The NLSY79 includes an overrepresentation of black, Hispanic, and (through 1990) economically disadvantaged white respondents. The child interviews, home observations, and assessments are primarily administered in person, with follow-ups every two years. The children range in age from newborns to those in their early 20s. The advisory committee consists of experts in child development, demography, economics, and education. Plans for Future Waves The 1996 child and young adult data were released in 1997. Plans are currently under way for a 1998 child and young adult survey round. Data and Documentation The NLSY79 child and young adult files are available at low cost on compact disk. Child-specific data include information on each child's demographic

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--> and family background; pre- and postnatal health history; home environment; child care experience; and all items and scores from the 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, and 1994 child assessments. Constructed mother-specific variables on the child file include information on each mother's household composition, income and earnings, and education. Software on the CD allows merges between the child and young adult cases and any item from the entire longitudinal main youth record of NLSY79 mothers. Comprehensive documentation and bibliographies are available at no charge. Contact the NLS Public Users Office at the address below or at usersvc@pewter.chrr.ohio-state.edu. Contact Randall Olsen Center for Human Research 921 Chatham Lane, Suite 200 Columbus, OH 43221 Phone: (614) 442-7300 Fax: (614) 442-7329 Frank Mott Center for Human Research 921 Chatham Lane, Suite 200 Columbus, OH 43221 Phone: (614) 442-7328 E-mail: mott@pewter.chrr.ohio-state.edu

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--> can be understood. It is against this background that the OJJDP launched the Program of research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency. This program involves three coordinated projects: Denver Youth Survey (University of Colorado), Pittsburgh Youth Study (University of Pittsburgh), and Rochester Youth Development Study (University of Albany). Among the salient features of the program are the following: It includes three highly coordinated longitudinal projects, so key findings can be replicated and cross-validated. The three research teams collaborated extensively in the design of the studies, identification of key theoretical constructs, and development of "core" measures of these constructs. The studies have a large representation of minorities and include both boys and girls. Using accelerated longitudinal designs at two sites, the studies cover a large age span, currently ages 7 to 24. The studies maintain frequent contact and interview assessments with respondents (six-month or annual interviews). The studies have maintained high retention rates: over 90 percent in the first five years, and over 80 percent during years six through eight. Objectives Epidemiology and cooccurrence of delinquency, drug use, and other problem behaviors over the life course. Understanding delinquent careers: onset, duration, termination; causal factors associated with initiation, maintenance, escalation, and termination. Identifying developmental pathways through multiple contexts from childhood through early adulthood that lead to successful outcomes or serious delinquency. Examining whether delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial behaviors are a single phenomenon, or whether they are distinctly different antisocial outcomes with different sets of causal factors. Providing information about the timing and nature of successful prevention and intervention strategies. Study Design Three coordinated projects. Baseline: face-to-face interviews in private settings with child/youth respondents and a principal caretaker. Semiannual or annual face-to-face follow-ups (supplemented by telephone interviews for those at a distance from study sites).

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--> Respondents: 4,544 children and youth, ages 7-15 in 1987 and a principal caretaker. Archival data from police, courts, schools, and social services. Oversample of youth at high risk for serious delinquency. Interview Schedule Topics Child and adolescent problem behavior: delinquency and violent behavior (self-reports and official reports), drug use/abuse, gang membership, psychopathology, victimization, and sexual behavior and pregnancy. Child and adolescent characteristics/experiences: employment, attachment to family, involvement in conventional activities, attitudes toward delinquent behavior, impulsiveness, religion, other. Family variables: family demographics (family structure, occupation, education, income of parents), child supervision and monitoring, discipline style and practices, family life events, marital discord/violence. School variables: academic attendance and achievement, commitment/attachment to school, involvement in school activities. Peer variables: involvement with delinquent peers, involvement with drug-using peers, involvement with conventional peers. Neighborhood variables: neighborhood economic and physical characteristics, cultural heterogeneity, neighborhood crime and deviance, neighborhood illegitimate opportunities. Use of mental health services (by family members and individual respondent). Plans for Future Waves All three projects are ongoing. The Rochester project anticipates continuing into 1998-2002, with the children born to the original youth respondents of the survey becoming a part of the future survey years. The Denver and Pittsburgh projects are ongoing through 1999 and may continue later. Available Results and Data Files Results are available in several annual and special reports from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), 633 Indiana Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20531. A sequence of publications (Youth Development Series) that contain program findings has also been initiated by the OJJDP. Results are also available from the individual projects and in several academic publications. Planning for procedures and format of public release data files from the

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--> program is in process. Collaborative efforts with other researchers using program data in conjunction with other longitudinal datasets are in process. Contact Program Information: David Huizinga Institute of Behavioral Science 810 7th St., NW Boulder, CO 80303 Phone: (303) 492-1266 Fax: (303) 449-8479 Denver Study: David Huizinga, PI (see above) Pittsburgh Study: Rolf Loeber, PI Life History Studies University of Pittsburgh 3811 O'Hara St. Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Phone: (412) 383-1015 Fax: (412) 383-1112 Rochester Study: Terrence Thornberry, PI School of Criminal Justice University of Albany 135 Western Ave. Albany, NY 12222 Phone: (518) 442-5218 Fax: (518) 442-5603

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--> Dataset Name: Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods Sponsoring Organizations: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation; National Institute of Justice; National Institute of Mental Health Principal Investigator: Felton Earls Coprincipal Investigator: Stephen Buka Investigators' Institution: Harvard University Purpose The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods is designed to offer a comprehensive understanding of human development and social behavior, with particular attention to the multilevel causes and effects of social competence versus antisocial behavior. The study will enhance current knowledge on factors leading to some of the nation's most serious public health problems, including delinquency, criminal behavior, violence, and substance abuse. In addition, the study will provide important new information about a major urban area, Chicago, in the 1990s. Perhaps, most important, information generated by the study will help build a rational foundation for urgently needed policy decisions. The study's findings can point the way to a more coordinated approach to social development and its failures—an approach that involves families, schools, communities, and public institutions working together. The findings can help policy makers make more effective use of limited resources in promoting social competence and designing new strategies for preventive intervention, treatment, rehabilitation, and sanctions. Design The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods studies both the effect of the community on the individual and the effect of the individual on the community. The study will look at the individual in the context of family, peers, school, neighborhood, and community, using an interdisciplinary point of view, combining observations and insights from such fields as psychiatry, psychology, sociology, criminology, public health, medicine, education, human behavior, and statistics. The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods is essentially two studies in one. The first component is the community design, which employs four data collection approaches to characterize neighborhoods across

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--> Chicago: (1) a community survey (CS) of 8,500 Chicago residents, (2) a systematic social observation component, (3) a neighborhood experts' survey of 3,000 key neighborhood representatives, and (4) a variety of agency and administrative datasets. These are designed to acquire information concerning social, economic, organizational, political, and cultural structures; formal and informal social control; and social cohesion of Chicago neighborhoods. The project used data from the 1990 Census to split Chicago into 343 neighborhood clusters. Information was gathered on all 343 neighborhood clusters through interviews with households and key community members, systematic observations of the communities' physical and social characteristics, and official records. The second component is the Longitudinal Cohort Study (LCS). Using an accelerated longitudinal design, the LCS will follow children and youth as they move through childhood and adolescence into adulthood. From 1995 to 2003, field interviews will be conducted annually in English, Spanish, and Polish with the help of computer-assisted interviewing. The approximately 7,000 participants in the LCS were chosen from 80 randomly selected, representative neighborhoods and split into seven cohorts (children and youth ages 0-1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 in 1996). Participants have been drawn from a balanced representation of African American, Latino, white, and mixed communities and from all social classes in each ethnic group. In 1994, an infant study was added that will follow the development of 400 infants who were between 5 and 7 months old in 1994. Contact Stephen Buka Assistant Professor Harvard School of Public Health 677 Huntington Ave. Boston, MA 02115-6028 Phone: (617) 432-1080

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--> Dataset Name: Survey of Program Dynamics for Assessing Welfare Reform (SPD) Sponsoring Institution: U.S. Bureau of the Census Data Collection Organization: U.S. Bureau of the Census Principal Investigators: Michael McMahon and Daniel H. Weinberg U.S. Bureau of the Census Purpose To collect data on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population in order to evaluate recent federal welfare reform legislation and its impact on the American people. These data will provide the basis for an overall evaluation of how well welfare reforms are achieving the aims of the Clinton administration and the Congress and meeting the needs of the American people. Survey Design and Sample Size Congress mandated that the Census Bureau continue to collect data on the 1992 and 1993 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) as necessary to obtain information on changes in program participation, employment, earnings, and measures of adult and child well-being through the SPD. The data collected from the 1992 and 1993 SIPP panels provide three years of longitudinal baseline data prior to major welfare reform. Data collected in these panels include program eligibility, access and participation, transfer income and in-kind benefits, detailed economic and demographic data on employment and job transitions, income, and family composition. The three years of SIPP data combined with the six years of SPD data collection will provide panel data for up to 10 years (1992-2001). The SPD survey has three phases: The Bridge Survey. This survey was used to collect income and program participation data in the spring of 1997 for calendar year 1996 from the SPD sample. The Bridge Survey allowed investigators to recontact the interviewed sample persons in the 1992 and 1993 SIPP panels and bring them back into the sample for the SPD. To collect these data, investigators used a modified version of the March 1997 Current Population Survey (CPS), since the data collected from the CPS income supplement are similar to the data to be collected in the 1998 SPD. The Bridge Survey also included additional questions to obtain data not collected for 1995 from the 1992 SIPP panel. The sample size was approximately 35,000 households, which included all persons interviewed in the last

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--> wave who were also interviewed in the first wave of the 1992 and 1993 SIPP panels. Successful interviews were obtained from approximately 82 percent of eligible households. 1998 SPD including a 1997 pretest. The second phase of the SPD is full implementation of the core SPD questionnaire developed in 1995 with a supplemental self-administered adolescent questionnaire. Information on these sample persons will be obtained using a computer-assisted SPD instrument, with annual recall for the preceding calendar year. The SPD instrument includes a set of retrospective questions for all persons 15 and older that focus on such topics as jobs, income, and program participation. Additional questions on children in the household will gather information on school status, activities at home, child care, health care, and child support. A few additional questions will be asked for sample persons who moved prior to the Bridge Survey and with whom an interview could not be obtained during 1997. The self-administered adolescent questionnaire will obtain information from persons 12 to 17 years of age using an audio cassette-administered instrument. A pretest was conducted for the 1998 SPD in October 1997 using a sample of 400 retired March 1996 CPS households in four of the Census Bureau's regional offices. The sample for the 1998 SPD will be approximately 17,500 households. Subsampling plans will focus on retaining households with children at the low end of the income distribution. 1999 SPD and later. The third phase of the SPD is the 1999 SPD, which will include a topical module focusing on issues pertaining to children's well-being as well as the core SPD questionnaire instrument. Topics are being identified for the topical module and a decision on the content will be made in the next few months. Type of Respondent A household respondent, who must be a knowledgeable household member at least 15 years old, provides information for each household member. Sponsoring Agency and Legal Authorities The Census Bureau conducts the survey under the authority of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-193), Section 414. Periodicity A longitudinal survey conducted on a yearly basis, with interviewing planned for April through June.

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--> Release of Results The Census Bureau will collect and process the data to create a public-use microdata file. Historical Background P.L. 104-193 requires and funds a new survey by the Census Bureau, the Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD), to ''continue to collect data on the 1992 and 1993 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) as necessary to obtain such information as will enable interested persons to evaluate the impact [of the law] on a random national sample of recipients of assistance under state programs funded under this part and (as appropriate) other low-income families, and in doing so, shall pay particular attention to the issues of out-of-wedlock birth, welfare dependency, the beginning and end of welfare spells, and the causes of repeat welfare spells, and shall obtain information about the status of children participating in such panels." Special Features The survey meets a specific need, to evaluate the effects of the 1996 welfare reforms, not currently addressed by other surveys. Future Outlook Plans are to conduct this survey through the year 2002 to collect data that will enable interested persons to evaluate the 1996 federal welfare reform legislation and its impact on the American people. Contact Michael McMahon SPD Operations Manager Demographic Surveys Division Washington, DC 20233-8400 Phone: (301) 457-3819 Fax: (301) 457-2306 E-mail: Michael.F.McMahon@census.gov

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--> Dataset Name: Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) Data Collection Organization: University of Wisconsin Principal Investigator: Robert M. Hauser Investigator's Institution: Center for Demography; University of Wisconsin, Madison Description The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. Survey data were collected from the original respondents or their parents in 1957, 1964, 1975, and 1992 and from a selected sibling in 1977 and 1993. These data provide a full record of social background, youthful aspirations, schooling, military service, family formation, labor market experiences, and social participation of the original respondents. The survey data from earlier years have been supplemented by mental ability tests (of primary respondents and 2,000 of their siblings), measures of school performance, and characteristics of communities of residence, schools and colleges, employers, and industries. The WLS records for primary respondents are also linked to those of three same-sex high school friends in the study population. Social background measures include earnings histories of parents from Wisconsin state tax records. In 1977 the study design was expanded with the collection of parallel interview data for a highly stratified subsample of 2,000 siblings of the primary respondents. In the 1992-1993 round of the WLS, the sample was expanded to include a randomly selected sibling of every respondent (with at least one brother or sister), and the content was extended to obtain detailed occupational histories and job characteristics; incomes, assets, and interhousehold transfers; social and economic characteristics of parents, siblings, and children and descriptions of the respondents' relationships with them; and extensive information about mental and physical health and well-being. The WLS cohort of men and women, born mainly in 1939, precedes by about a decade the bulk of the baby boom generation that continues to tax social institutions and resources at each stage of life. For this reason, the study can provide early indications of trends and problems that will become important as the larger group passes through its fifties. This adds to the value of the study in obtaining basic information about the life course as such, independent of the cohort's vanguard position with respect to the baby boom generation. In addition, the WLS is also the first of the large longitudinal studies of American adolescents and thus provides the first large-scale opportunity to study the life course from late adolescence through the mid-50s in the context of a complete record of ability, aspiration, and achievement.

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--> Design The WLS sample is broadly representative of white non-Hispanic American men and women who have at least a high school education. Among Americans ages 50 to 54 in 1990 and 1991, approximately 66 percent are non-Hispanic white persons who completed at least 12 years of schooling. The sample is mainly of German, English, Irish, Scandinavian, Polish, or Czech ancestry. Some strata of American society are not well represented. Everyone in the primary sample graduated from high school; about 7 percent of their siblings did not. It has been estimated that about 75 percent of Wisconsin youth graduated from high school in the late 1950s. Minorities are not well represented; there are only a handful of African American, Hispanic, or Asian persons in the sample; given the longitudinal design of the WLS and the miniscule numbers of minorities in Wisconsin at the time the study began, there is no way to remedy this omission. About 19 percent of the WLS sample is of farm origin, which is consistent with national estimates of persons of farm origin in cohorts born in the late 1930s. As in the later large longitudinal studies of school-based samples, age variation occurs in repeated observations, rather than in cross-section. Also, siblings cover several adjoining cohorts; they were mainly born between 1930 and 1948. In 1964, in 1975, and again in 1992, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. Investigators have completed the 1992-1993 follow-up survey of about 9,000 men and women who were first interviewed as seniors in Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and were subsequently followed up in 1957, 1964, and 1975; most respondents were 53 or 54 years old when interviewed. Also interviewed here were other members of the original sample who were not interviewed in 1975 (475 of 850 surviving nonrespondents). In all, 8,493 of the 9,741 surviving members of the original sample have been interviewed. Selected siblings of the high school graduates also have been randomly interviewed. Some 2,000 siblings were previously interviewed in 1977; they and approximately 2,800 more siblings have been interviewed in this round of the study. The surveys included a one-hour telephone interview, followed by a 20-page self-administered questionnaire. Brief close-out interviews have been carried out with a relative of each respondent who has died, and, in cases where the selected sibling has died, closeout data have been obtained from the original respondent. Available Results and Data Files These new follow-up data, linked with existing files, are a valuable public resource for studies of aging and the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning, social stratification, physical and mental well-being, and mortality. In the future the value of the sample and the data will be enhanced with additional data linkages, specifically, to locate high school test

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--> scores for brothers and sisters of primary respondents and death certificates for deceased primary respondents. Documentation, publication lists, and modular public-use data files from the WLS are available from the Data and Program Library Services Web-site (http://dpls.dacc.wisc.edu/WLS/). In addition, a program (WLSGV) is provided for VMS, PC, and UNIX platforms that will generate code in SPSS or SAS to extract variables and merge data from different modules. Additional source materials about the WLS are available from the Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1180 Observatory Dr., Madison, WI 53706, or by e-mail at cdepubs@ssc.wisc.edu. For additional information about the WLS, send e-mail to wls@ssc.wisc.edu. Public releases of the WLS data are also available from DPLS: Data and Program Library Services University of Wisconsin-Madison 3313 Social Sciences Bldg. 1180 Observatory Dr. Madison, WI 53706 Phone: (608) 262-7962 Fax: (608) 262-4747 E-mail: dpls@dpls.dacc.wisc.edu WWW: http://dpls.dacc.wisc.edu