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Inclex A Abbreviations and acronyms, 139-141 Advisory committees, 136 Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), 61 AMO physics, see Atomic, molecular, and optical physics Artificially structured materials, 25, 26, 41 Astrophysical plasma, 67 Astrophysics, 7, 67 vigorous space program in, 68 Asymptotic freedom, t9 Atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics, 2, 13 federal obligations for, 129, 132 funding history for, 79 panel on, 157 progress in, 28-31 Atoms, 13, 18 B BCX (Burning Core Experiment), 56 Big bang, 14, 16, 37-38 Biophysics, 8 interface of physics with, 40 161 Black holes, 37 BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory), 59 Bosons, 24 Bottom quark, 18, 19 Breathing mode, 23 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 59 Burning Core Experiment (BCX), 56 C CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scat- tering), 28 CDF (Collider Detector) at Fermilab, 60 CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Ac- celerator Facility), 56, 61, 62 CERN (Conseil Europeen de Recherche Nucleaire), 79, 86 CESR (Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring), 54, 61 Chaotic motion, 17 Charm quark, 18, 19 Chemistry, interface of physics with, 39- 40 Chromodynamics, quantum, 19

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1 62 INDEX Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), 28 Collaborative exchange programs, 86-87 Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), 60 Combustion, 42 Committee on Education of the American Physical Society, 47-48 Computers, 72-73 Condensed-matter physics, 2, 13 federal obligations for, 129, 132 funding history for, 79-80 major advances in, 84-85 panel on, 157-158 progress in, 24-28 recommended program for, 63-65 Conseil Europeen de Recherche Nu- cleaire (CERN), 79, 85-86 Construction facilities, 134- 135 Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), 56, 61, 62 Cooperation, international, 90 Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring (CESR), 54, 61 Cosmic rays, 15 federal obligations for research in, 130, 133 ground-based, 69 highest-energy, 39 long-duration experiments with, 69 panel on, 158 progress in study of, 38-39 Cosmological principle, 37 Cosmology, 3, 7, 14 federal obligations for, 130, 133 panel on, 158 progress in, 37-38 vigorous space program in, 68 CPI-Windex, 119 D Data bases, 73 Degree holders, physics, retention of, 98- 99 Degree production, physics, 94 Demand projections, physicists, 103- 108 in academe, 103-105 in 4-year colleges, 105-106, 108 in industrial and other nonacademic sectors, 106-108, 109 in universities, 105, 106, 107 Demand-supply balance, physicist, 112- 114 Department of Defense (DOD), 71 Department of Defense-University In- strumentation Program, 51 Disordered materials, 27 Doctoral degrees, physics, 93 Doctorates, physics, by subfield, 98 DOD (Department of Defense), 71 Down quark, 18, 19 E Economic growth, 10 Education, 2, 45 Committee on, of the American Physi- cal Society, 47-48 of foreign physicists in U.S., 87-90 of foreign students enrolled in graduate physics programs in U.S., 89 graduate, 48-49 of next generation of physicists, 46-49 primary, 46-47 secondary, 46-47, 92 supply of physicists and, 91 - 114 undergraduate, 47-48 Electromagnetic force, 20-21 theory, 7 traps, 28-29 Electron-plasma oscillation, 14 Electron-positron collider, 60-61 pair, 31 Electrons, 19 Electroweak interactions, 11-12 Elementary-particle physics, 2, 11 - 12 avoiding duplication of research in, 86 construction projects in, 134 funding history for, 79-81 important achievements in, 84 major experimental advances in, 84 NSF and DOE funding for, 125, 126, 129, 131 panel on, 158 progress in, 18-21 recommended program for, 58-61 Employment, physics, patterns of, 101- 102 Endoscopes, fiber-optic, 43

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INDEX 1 63 Energy, environment and, 42 Enrollments, 95-98 U.S. and foreign composition, 95, 96 women and minorities, 95-98 Environment, energy and, 42 EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure), 63, 64 Exchange programs, collaborative, 86-87 Expenditures for scientific research, 76- 81 Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), 63, 64 F Federal funding for research, 119-135 for applied research, 122, 123 for basic research, 120, 121 for subfields of physics, 129-130 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), 59, 61 Fiber-optic endoscopes, 43 Fluctuations, 27 Fluid physics, 2 federal obligations for, 130, 133 panel on, 159 progress in, 35 Fluids, nonideal, 35 Fly's Eye facility, 69 FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Lab- oratory), 59, 61 Forces, four fundamental, 20-21 Free-electron laser, 14 I Funding process, research, 45-46 Fusion magnetic, 32-33 physics, construction projects in, 134 plasma, 66 Fusion-oriented research, 86 G G (Newton's gravitational constant), 36 Galactic plasma, 14 Gamma rays, 15 discrete sources of, 39 General relativity, 35-37 Generation model, 20 Geophysics, physics interface with, 40-41 Glasses, 27 spin, 27-28 Glossary of physical terms, 142-156 Gluons, 2, 12 GNP (gross national product), 76-81 Graduate education, 48-49 students, physics, 92-94 Grand Unification Theory, 37-38 Gravitation physics, 3, 15 federal obligations for, 130, 133 panel on, 158 progress in, 35-37 Gravitational constant G. Newton's, 36 force, 20-21 radiation, 36, 68 redshift, 36 Gravity Probe B Satellite, 56 Gravity-Wave Detector, 56 Gross national product (GNP), 76-81 Gyrotron, 32 H Hadrons, 18 Hall effect, quantized, 25 HEP indices, 119 High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP), 136 Hypernuclei, 12, 23 Industry expenditures on basic research, 124 physics and, 43 research in, 117-118 role of, in basic research, 71 Inertial fusion research, 66-67 Information, free flow of, 87 Instrumentation, 53 advanced, 50 scale and costs of, 85-86 Interacting boson model, 24 Interfaces of physics, 15 with biophysics, 40 with chemistry, 39-40 with geophysics, 40-41 with materials science, 41

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1 64 INDEX panel on, 159-160 progress in, 39-41 International aspects of physics, 75-90 competition and cooperation, 85-87, 90 enterprise, physics as, 71 position of U. S. physics, S Internationalization, increased, of phys- ics community, 85 Ion traps, 29, 30 J Joint European Torus (JET), 33 L Lamb shift, 29 Large-amplitude space-charge waves, 31- 32 Laser interferometer, 56 spectroscopy, 28 Lasers, 2, 13, 17, 42-43 free-electron, 14 Lawson confinement parameter, 33 Leptonic atoms, 29 Leptons, 2, 11-12 as elementary particles, 18-20 Localization, 27 M Magnetic fields high, 65 fusion, 32-33 Fusion Advisory Committee (MFAC), 136 fusion research, 65-66 resonance imaging (MRI), 8-9 Magnetic-field reconnection, 32 Magnetospheres, 14, 34 Manpower, see Physicists Mansfield Amendment, 130 Mass, missing, in universe, 17 Materials science, physics interface with, 41 Medicine, physics and, 42-43 Meson exchange currents, 62 hIetallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), 26 MFAC (Magnetic Fusion Advisory Com- mittee), 136 Microcomputers, 8 Microelectronics, 41, 43 Mirror confinement systems, 33 Mission agencies, role of, in basic search, 71 Mobility, outward, physicists and, 99 MOCVD (metallorganic chemical vapor deposition), 26 Molecular channels, single, 40 physics, see Atomic, molecular, and optical physics Mortality schedules, TIAA-CREF, 104 MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), 8-9 Multidisciplinary facilities, 135 Muon neutrino, 19, 20 Muonium, 29 N National laboratories, 116-117 Science Foundation (NSF), 72-73, 116 security, 43 Synchrotron Light Source, 57 Neutral currents, 20-21 Neutrino astronomy, 69 Neutrinos, 17, 19-20 Neutron facilities, 64-65 Neutrons, 12 Newton's gravitational constant G. 36 Nobel Prize in Physics, 81, 82 recipients of, 83 Nonideal fluids, 35 NSAC (Nuclear Science Advisory Com- mittee), 136 NSF (National Science Foundation), 72- 73, 116 Nuclear physics, 2, 12 construction projects in, 134 NSF and DOE funding for, 127' 128, 129, 131 panel on, 159 progress in, 21-24 recommended program for, 61-63 Science Advisory Committee (NSAC), 136

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INDEX 1 65 stability, 23 Nucleons, 2, 12 Nucleus, 18 model of, 21-24 o Optical physics, see Atomic, molecular, and optical physics Optical-frequency counting methods, 13 Order-disorder transitions, 39-40 Organic conductors, 40 Outward mobility, physicists and, 99 p Packard report, 116, 117 Panel members, 157-160 Particle accelerators, 11, 61-63 Particle physics, see Elementary-particle - physics Particle-Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA), 55 Particle-trap techniques, 13 PBFA (Particle-Beam Fusion Accelera- tor), 55 Phase transitions, 2, 25, 27 Ph. D. production, physics, 109-114 Photoemission studies, 24 Physical terms, glossary of, 142-156 Physicists aging community of, 99-101 demand projections, see Demand pro- jections, physicists demand-supply balance, 112, 114 educating, 3, 45; see also Education, next generation of, 46-49 European, 8 excellence of, 69-70 female, 4, 70 foreign-born, 70 education of, in U.S., 87-90 freedom for, 87 future demand for, 69-70 producing trained young, 92-95 production of, 4 projections of demand and supply of, 102-113 retirement rate, 91 role of, 9 supply projections 9 108- 113 Physics, 1, 6 applications of, 15, 16 panel on, 159-160 progress in, 42-43 degree holders, retention of, 98-99 degree production, 94 discoveries in, 2-3 doctoral degrees, 93 doctorates by subfield, 98 education in, see Education employment, patterns of, 101- 102 enrollments in, see Enrollments excellence in, 44-45 graduate, foreign students in, 89 graduate students, 92-94 impact of, 3 increased internationalization in, 85 industry and, 43 interfaces of, see Interfaces of physics international aspects of, see Interna- tional entries large facilities and major programs in, 3-4, 53-69 maintaining excellence in, 44-73 medicine and, 42-43 nation and, 2-3 Nobel Prize in, see Nobel Prize in Physics organization and decision making in, 135-137 organization and support of, 115- 137 Ph.D. production, 109-114 progress in, 11-43 proposed large construction projects in, 56 research in, see Research research publications in, 82 role of, in U.S., 8-10 scientific manpower in, see Physicists small-group, 49-53 society and, 6-10 trends in specific areas of, 79-81 unity of, 15-18 U.S. leadership role in, 91 Plasma physics, 2, 4 construction projects, 134 federal obligations for, 130, 133 panel on, 159 progress in, 31-34

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1 66 INDEX recommended program for, 65-67 Plasmas, 14, 31 astrophysical, 67 fusion, 66 galactic, 14 quark-gluon, 12, 22, 24, 62 space, 34, 67 Policy issues connected with physics, 70- 71 Positive energy theorem, 37 Positronium, 29 Primary education, physics and, 46-47 Proton decay, 21, 84 Protons, 12 Publications, number of, 82 Pulsars, 36-37 Pulsed spallation sources, 64 Q Quantized Hall effect, 25 Quantum chromodynamics, 19 mechanics, 7 Quark-gluon model, 16 plasma, 12, 22, 24, 62 Quarks, 2, 11 - 12 confinement of, 23 as elementary particles, 18-20 R Relativistic Nuclear Collider (RNC), 56, 61, 62 Relativity general, 35-37 gyroscope experiment, 68 Renormalization group approach, 27 Research, I academic, 3 avoiding duplication in, 86 basic role of industry and mission agencies in, 71 U.S. position in, 81-85 collaborative, 86-87 complementary roles in, 118 cutting-edge, 53. 57 diversity of institutions for, 115- 118 funding process, 45-46 funding support for, 119-135 fusion-oriented, 86 in industry, 117- 118 location of, 75 main types of large facilities used in, 56 publications in physics, 82 quality of, 82 scientific, expenditures for, 76-81 in small groups, 3, 49-53 supporting, 4 trends in expenditures in, 79-81 universities and, 3, 48-49, 117 RNC (Relativistic Nuclear Collider), 56, 61, 62 S Scientists, see Physicists Secondary education crisis in, 92 physics and, 46-47 Security, national, 43 Seismology, 40-41 underwater, 41 Semiconductors, 7-8 Shell-model orbits, 23 Simulation physics, 72 SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Cen- ter), 59, 60 Small-group physics, 3, 49-53 Society, physics and, 6-10 Solar wind, 14 Solitons, 32 Space plasma, 34, 67 program, vigorous, in astrophysics, 68 Spectroscopy, 17 advances in, 39 Spin glass, 27-28 SSC (Superconducting Super Collider), 56, 58-59 Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 59' 60 Strange quark, 18, 19 Strong force, 20-21 Summary, 1-5 Supercomputers, 72 Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), 56, 58-59

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INDEX 1 67 Superconductivity, 13 Superconductors, 18 Supersymmetries, 24 Supply projections, physicists, 108- 112 Surfaces, understanding of, 24-25 Synchrotron Facility, 6-GeV, 56 radiation, 63 radiation facilities, 17- 18, 63-64 T Tandem mirror concept, 33 Tau lepton, 19, 20 neutrino, 19, 20 Tevatron, 60, 61 TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor), 33, 54, 66 Thermonuclear fusion, 65-67 TIAA-CREF mortality schedules, 104 Tokamak devices, 32-33 Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), 33, 54, 66 Top quark, 18, 19 Transistors, 7-8 Tunneling microscope, 24-25 Turbulence, 17, 35 fundamental theory of, 41 U Ultraviolet Radiation Synchrotron, 57 Undergraduate education, 47-48 Unification of forces of nature, 20-21 Universe isotropic, 37 missing mass in, 17 Universities demand scenarios for physicists in, 105, 106, 107 research and, 3, 48-49, 117 small-group research in, 3, 51-53 Up quark, 18, 19 W W particles, 20-21 Weak force, 20-21 z Z particle, 20-21

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