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  • How can hazard management systems, including insurance strategies, subsidies, technological investment, and warning systems, be organized to increase resilience in the face of major surprises, and at what cost?

  • What are the best ways of communicating uncertainty, providing early warnings of food and health problems, and introducing climate information in the policy process?

  • How can environmental quality be incorporated into national accounting systems so it can be more easily considered in the policy-making process?

  • How can information about the nonmarket values of environmental resources be incorporated effectively into decision making about resource use?

  • How can we better represent, propagate, analyze, and describe uncertainties and surprises in integrated assessment (e.g., integrating quantitatively specified uncertainty with subjective probability distributions, clarifying the relationship between uncertainty and disagreement)?

  • What are the characteristics of institutional processes that ensure that scientific analyses are organized to meet the needs of the full range of decision-making participants for information and involvement?

  • How can the knowledge and concerns of those participating in or affected by environmental decisions be used to inform scientists about how to make environmental information more decision relevant?

  • How do expert advice and assessment influence policy, decision making, and collective knowledge of global change issues, and how do policy makers interpret information about scientific uncertainty as they frame global change issues?

  • How can decision-making procedures be structured to bring the quantitative and formal information embedded in assessment models together with scientific judgment and the judgments, values, preferences, and beliefs of elite and nonelite citizens in decision-making processes that meet the informational needs of the participants and are appropriate to the decision at hand?

  • How can the integration of human dimensions research within the USGCRP and other international research programs be improved?

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