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the art in various fields as well as directories of specialists in particular areas; and


Supplemental ways of disseminating the results of research, such as by providing testimony at hearings held by policy makers or organizing specialized briefings for policy makers.


1. Throughout this report, the term ''impacts" is used as a shorthand expression to indicate a complex set of multicausal, multidimensional outcomes of the use of technology. Technology does not typically have a single impact, but rather a range of different outcomes depending on the context or settings. For more discussion, see Box 1.1 in Chapter 1 and Attewell's and Kling's papers in Appendix B of this volume.

2. Universal service is the practice of making telecommunications and information services—such as basic telephone service—available at an affordable price to all people within a specified jurisdictional area.

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