Index

A

Abortion. 71, 72, 85, 221, 222, 223

Academic achievement, 15, 70, 241

adolescents' transition to adulthood, 81, 82, 86-89 (passim), 91, 93, 96, 99

defined, 86

reproductive history, 67

school quality, 81, 82, 117, 119

socioeconomic factors, 67

South Africa, 139, 156, 157

see also Educational attainment;

Literacy;

Mathematics achievement/numeracy

Adolescents, 15, 70-71, 156, 186, 191

academic achievement, 81, 82, 86-89 (passim), 91, 93, 96, 99

cognitive factors, 81, 82, 86, 99

contraception, 84, 92

cultural factors, 81, 91, 97-98

family factors, 182, 183, 186

gender factors, 80-81, 84-85, 86, 87-99

Kenya, 82, 84, 87-88, 90, 92, 95, 99

knowledge factors, 84, 90, 91-92, 96, 97, 98

teen pregnancy, 81, 85, 209-210, 221-222, 233, 295

dropouts, 10, 83, 85, 105, 130, 185

transition to adulthood. 80-104

defined, 81

see also Secondary education

Africa, 2, 5, 9, 12, 37, 181, 184

adolescents' transition to adulthood, 81-82, 85, 87

family planning programs, 32-33, 36

spousal factors, 14

unintended pregnancies. 223

see also Sub-Saharan Africa;

specific countries

Age factors

childbearing age. 83, 84, 121, 199, 209-210

dropouts, 68, 229

economic models,

school quality, 116

South Africa, 149, 152-153, 154-156, 160, 163. 166, 168, 169, 170, 172, 191-192, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200

marriage, age at, 2, 5, 25, 84, 270

employment influences, 41

mass education, 31

post-secondary education, 30

primary education and, 28, 82-83

secondary education. 39, 83



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--> Index A Abortion. 71, 72, 85, 221, 222, 223 Academic achievement, 15, 70, 241 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 81, 82, 86-89 (passim), 91, 93, 96, 99 defined, 86 reproductive history, 67 school quality, 81, 82, 117, 119 socioeconomic factors, 67 South Africa, 139, 156, 157 see also Educational attainment; Literacy; Mathematics achievement/numeracy Adolescents, 15, 70-71, 156, 186, 191 academic achievement, 81, 82, 86-89 (passim), 91, 93, 96, 99 cognitive factors, 81, 82, 86, 99 contraception, 84, 92 cultural factors, 81, 91, 97-98 family factors, 182, 183, 186 gender factors, 80-81, 84-85, 86, 87-99 Kenya, 82, 84, 87-88, 90, 92, 95, 99 knowledge factors, 84, 90, 91-92, 96, 97, 98 teen pregnancy, 81, 85, 209-210, 221-222, 233, 295 dropouts, 10, 83, 85, 105, 130, 185 transition to adulthood. 80-104 defined, 81 see also Secondary education Africa, 2, 5, 9, 12, 37, 181, 184 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 81-82, 85, 87 family planning programs, 32-33, 36 spousal factors, 14 unintended pregnancies. 223 see also Sub-Saharan Africa; specific countries Age factors childbearing age. 83, 84, 121, 199, 209-210 dropouts, 68, 229 economic models, school quality, 116 South Africa, 149, 152-153, 154-156, 160, 163. 166, 168, 169, 170, 172, 191-192, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200 marriage, age at, 2, 5, 25, 84, 270 employment influences, 41 mass education, 31 post-secondary education, 30 primary education and, 28, 82-83 secondary education. 39, 83

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--> unintended pregnancies, 220-221, 224, 226, 228-235, 238, 242 see also Adolescents Agricultural populations, see Rural populations Anthropological research, 49, 50, 52, 55, 57-75, 188, 209, 210, 268 Apprenticeships, 9, 50, 51, 53, 58 Asia, 4, 29, 32 South Asia, 17, 40-41, 44, 270-284 see also specific countries Attitudes, 1, 37, 42, 130, 131 employment and, 1, 42, 111 female autonomy, 10. 13, 26, 27, 39-40, 57, 81, 268-269 parental, toward education, 6, 11-13, 15, 29, 111, 112, 114, 115, 127-128, 185, 188, 210 school quality and motivation, 109, 111, 114 teachers, 15, 86, 94-97, 99 traditional forms of contraception, 10-11, 71 ''wanted" vs unwanted births, 16, 224 see also Emotional factors; Individualism B Bangladesh, 3, 4, 26, 34-36, 39-43 (passim) Behavioral factors, 26, 181 see also Individual-level data; Reproductive behavior; Sexual behavior Bias, see Measurement error Birth control, see Abortion; Contraception; Family planning Bolivia, 3 Botswana, 5, 9, 184, 185-187, 188, 197 family planning programs, 32-33, 142, 187 Brazil, 68-71, 75, 105, 127-128 Breastfeeding, 4, 35-36, 38, 267 Bureaucracy, 8, 9, 14, 25-26, 59, 115, 229, 299 systematic school gender policy, 17 Burundi, 3, 44 C Caribbean region, 32, 223 see also specific countries Chad, 184 Child mortality, see Infant mortality China, 26, 33 Class size, 117 Cognitive factors, 4-6, 7-11, 15-16, 34-37, 40, 60, 139, 174, 181 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 81, 82, 86, 99 autonomous process, education as, 49-50, 52, 66 economic models, 106-137, 139 ideational, 38-39 health care services use, 30-31, 56 personal autonomy, and, 26, 27 school quality and, economic models, 106-137 social context, 52, 53, 59, 60-75 see also Decision making; Knowledge factors; Literacy; Problem solving College education, see Post-secondary education Community-level factors, see Local factors Computers, 119, 298 Conjugal factors, see Marriage and marital status; Spousal factors Consumption patterns, economic models, 42, 110, 112, 121, 123, 166 , 182, 191, 197, 205, 255-260 Contextual factors, see Cognitive factors; Employment factors; Political/ ideological factors; Social factors Contraception, 57, 71-74, 157-158 abortion, 71, 72, 85, 221, 222(n.6), 223 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 84, 92 educational attainment and, 10-11, 28, 57 individual-level data, 25 mass media role, 71-74 modern forms, 1, 2, 5, 10-11, 71-74, 267 primary education and, 28 school environment, 84, 92 traditional forms, 10-11, 71 postpartum abstinence, 4, 11, 55, 267 Costs and cost-effectiveness, 56, 186 child-rearing, 29-30, 36, 39, 41, 42, 55, 56, 58, 59, 166, 182, 251, 293, 295 utility maximization models, 110-113, 136-137, 183, 219, 255-260

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--> family planning programs, 33, 217 interventions, 131 mass education, 12 opportunity costs, 14, 39, 41-43, 68, 84, 119(n.15), 210, 262 parental decisions and, 12, 13 school quality, factor in economic models of, 107, 108, 109, 112, 113, 114, 119, 121-123, 126, 128-129 secondary education, 29-30, 42 unintended pregnancies, 218, 246, 262 Cross-country/cultural studies, 2 apprenticeships, 9 contraception, traditional forms, 10-11 decision-making skills and schooling, 36 infant mortality, 4(n.3)(n.3) methodological drawbacks, 23-25, 66 schooling and rationality, 36 social aspects of education, 52 unintended pregnancies, 216, 222-233, 237, 239-265 Cultural factors, 6-7, 26-28, 37-38, 44-45, 181, 185, 271 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 81, 91, 97-98 anthropological studies, 49, 50, 52, 55, 57-75, 188, 209, 210, 268 contraception, traditional forms, 10-11, 71 postpartum abstinence, 4, 11, 55, 267 educational attainment, general, 26, 28, 45, 181 education in context of, 6, 44-45, 53, 55, 57-58, 91-92, 97 gender roles, general, 91-93, 271-272 literacy and, 9, 71 knowledge in traditional cultures, 6, 49, 91-92, 97 marriage, 16-17, 185, 271-272 see also Cross-country/cultural studies; Local factors; Modernity/development; Social factors Curriculum, 15, 35, 61, 63, 83, 89-93 (passim), 106, 107, 124, 127 hidden vs overt, 41 learning vs teaching, 53-54 see also Textbooks D Death rates, see Infant mortality Decision making, 26, 36, 53, 139, 184 female autonomy, 10, 13, 26, 27, 39-40, 57, 81, 268-269 marriage, egalitarian marriages, 57-58 family factors, 16-17, 84, 274, 275, 277(n.14) spousal choice, 106, 107, 124, 128, 268-285 utility maximization models, 110-113, 136-137, 183, 219, 255-260 see also Economic models; Household studies; Problem solving; Reproductive goals; Unwanted/ unintended pregnancies Demographic and Health Surveys, 2-4, 14, 290, 299-300 Bangladesh, 34-37 (passim) contraception, 11 literacy, 34-37 sub-Saharan Africa, 25, 32, 168, 185 unintended pregnancies, 216, 223-226, 234, 236-241, 256, 261, 263 Demographic factors, general, 7, 17, 30, 80, 172, 182, 184, 210, 216, 268, 275, 280, 278, 298-300 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 80-84, 98, 99 education, definition and measurement, 49-75 (passim) policy factors, 132, 267, 295-296, 299-300 selection effects, 7, 12-13, 119, 139, 157, 200 South Africa, 138, 139-140, 148, 154, 157, 158-170, 172, 173-174, 189, 291 see also Age factors; Educational attainment; Family size; Fertility transition; Gender roles; Household studies; Marriage and marital status; Race/ethnicity; Rural populations; Socioeconomic status; Unwanted/ unintended pregnancies; Urban populations

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--> Demographic transition, 15, 55, 57, 138, 184, 216, 218, 247, 251, 293, 297 see also Fertility transition DHS. see Demographic and Health Surveys Diseases and disorders reproductive morbidity, 9-10 see Infant mortality Dominican Republic, 216, 222-233, 237, 239-251, 265-266 Dose-response theory, 3-4, 15, 16, 64-75 Dropouts, see School leavers E East Asia, mass education, 32 Economic factors, general, 14 country's level of development, 4(n.4), 25 family planning programs, 33 globalization, 38-39 see also Costs and cost-effectiveness; Employment factors; Socioeconomic status; Wages and salaries Economic models, 54-60 age factors in, school quality, 116 South Africa, 149, 152-153, 154-156, 160, 163, 166, 168, 169, 170, 172, 191-192, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200 cognitive factors in, 106-137, 139 consumption patterns, 42, 110, 112, 121, 123, 166, 182, 191, 197, 205, 255-260 educational attainment, 106-117 (passim), 124, 128, 130, 136-137, 182-187 South Africa, 138-180 (passim), 187-212 (passim) employment and, 109, 110, 113, 166-167, 183, 187-188 family factors. 108, 109, 182, 183, 185-187, 191, 197, 199-205, 209 income, 108, 109, 182, 183, 185-187, 191, 197, 199-205, 209 parental factors, 183, 110-115 (passim), 121, 183-184 school quality, 107, 108, 109, 115 family planning, 140, 142, 167, 173, 182, 185-187, 221 household surveys, use of, 16, 110, 120, 126, 138-180, 182-212 literacy, 106, 124, 128, 130 South Africa, 170-172, 177-181, 189, 191, 211 local factors, 181-187 school quality, 115, 121, 126, 130 South Africa, 16, 139, 142, 144, 145, 158, 160-163, 167-169, 172, 173, 174, 187-212 (passim) opportunity costs, 14, 39, 41-43, 68, 84, 119(n.15), 210, 262 school quality, 105-132, 136-137 cost factors, 107, 108, 109, 112, 113, 114, 119, 121-123, 126, 128 -129 educational attainment, 106-117 (passim), 124, 128, 130, 136-137 employment and, 109, 110, 113, 166-167, 183, 187-188 family factors, 107, 108, 109, 115 knowledge factors, 106, 124-125, 126, 128, 130, 131 local factors, 115, 121, 126, 130 measurement error, 106, 114, 115-116, 118, 119, 120, 126, 130 parents, 110-115 (passim), 121 reproductive goals, 121, 123-126, 127-130, 139 socioeconomic status, 106-110 (passim), 123 teachers, 117, 119 theory, 121-126 socioeconomic status, 106-110 (passim), 123, 139, 163-165, 168, 169 , 170, 172, 182, 183, 185-187, 191, 197, 199-205, 209 unintended/excess fertility, 217-221, 233-265 utility maximization models, 110-113, 136-137, 183, 219, 255-260 Education, general culture, education in context of, 6, 44-45, 53, 55, 57-58, 91-92, 97

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--> definitional issues, 49-79, 84-86 knowledge and, 50-55 (passim), 60, 61, 66, 72, 73 model of education, 14-15, 26, 31, 35, 44 see also Mass education; Mass media; Post-secondary education; Primary education; School quality; Secondary education; Teachers Educational attainment, general, 1-3, 7, 15, 16, 28-31, 57, 268 community norms, 37-38, 44-45, 91 contraception, 10-11, 28, 57 cultural factors, 26, 28, 45, 181 defined, 2(n. ), 28, 57 economic models, 106-117 (passim), 124, 128, 130, 136-137, 182-187 South Africa, 138-180 (passim), 187-212 (passim) employment, 39, 40-44 (passim), 109, 110, 113, 139, 184 South Africa, 157, 165, 166-167, 187-188, 197, 200, 205, 209 wages and, 157, 158 enrollment rates, 1, 32, 86, 89, 181, 184, 185, 186, 189-190, 211, 223, 229, 295 family factors, 13, 16, 29, 30, 42, 57, 68, 86, 126, 148, 174, 216 , 218, 234, 241, 275 gender differentials, 278-279, 281 school leavers, 181-212 school quality, 107, 108, 109, 115 see also "parents" infra female autonomy and, 10, 13, 26, 27, 39-40, 57, 81, 268-269 gender differentials, 17, 270 family factors, 278-279, 281 spousal, 26, 27, 30, 39, 44, 277-278 infant mortality, 3-4, 23, 27, 35-36, 55-56, 84 marriage and, 269-285 spousal choice, 106, 107, 124, 128 parents, 5, 109, 127-128, 189, 283 child mortality and, 3-4 South Africa, 144-148, 165, 173, 199 unintended pregnancies, 241-243, 250-251 research methodology, general, 75, 86, 99, 290, 293-294, 296, 302, 303 school quality, economic models, 106-117 (passim), 124, 128, 130, 136-137 South Africa, 139, 143-148, 157, 158, 167, 174, 187-212 South Asia, 266-285 spousal, 106, 124, 139, 159, 161-163, 165, 169, 173, 239, 269-285, 294 education differentials, 26, 27, 30, 39, 44, 277-278 reproductive goals and, 269, 273-276, 278-284 unintended pregnancies/births, 222, 226, 233, 234, 236-263 (passim) post-secondary, 242-243, 250 primary, 227, 228, 241, 242-245, 250 secondary, 227, 228, 232, 240-245, 250, 265-266 wages and, 157, 158 see also Academic achievement; Literacy; Post-secondary education; Primary education; School leavers; Secondary education Egypt, 216, 222-233, 237, 239-251, 265-266 Emotional factors, 26, 81, 183 female autonomy, 10, 13, 26. 27, 39-40, 57, 81, 268-269 unintended pregnancies, 222, 261-263 see also Attitudes Employment factors, 10, 14, 16, 25, 27, 40-42, 43, 56, 165, 166 apprenticeships, 9, 50, 51, 53, 58 attitudes, 1, 42, 111 economic models, 109, 110, 113 educational attainment and, 39, 40-44 (passim), 109, 110, 113, 139, 184 South Africa, 157, 165, 166-167, 187-188, 197, 200, 205, 209 gender factors, 184 local factors, 166-167, 183, 187-188 marriage and, 31, 39, 159 post-secondary education, 30, 44 primary education, 40-41, 42 school quality, economic model of outcomes, 109, 110, 113 secondary education, 39, 41, 42, 44 see also Wages and salaries

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--> Enrollment rates, 1, 32, 86, 89, 181, 184, 185, 186, 189-190, 211, 223, 229, 295 see also Mass education; School leavers Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity Ethnography, see Anthropological research F Family factors, 40, 59-60, 64-66, 86, 293, 298, 303 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 81, 84, 86, 87(n.3), 88, 158 economic models. 108, 109, 182, 183, 185-187, 191, 197, 199-205, 209 income, 108, 109, 182, 183, 185-187, 191, 197, 199-205, 209 parental factors, 110-115 (passim), 121, 183-184 school quality, 107, 108, 109, 115 educational attainment. 13, 16, 29, 30, 42, 57, 68, 86, 126, 148, 174, 216, 218, 234, 241, 275 gender differentials, 278-279, 281 school leavers, 181-212 school quality, 107, 108, 109, 115 family-life education, 5(n.5), 89, 90, 93, 94, 97, 124; see also Family planning, formal programs female autonomy, 13, 39 female teachers, 41 income, resources, and consumption, 139, 145, 165, 181-212 (passim), 218, 219, 275 economic models, 108, 109, 182, 183, 185-187, 191, 197, 199-205, 209 language, 65-66 marriage choices, 16-17, 84, 182, 183, 186, 274, 275, 277(n.14)(n.14) mass education, 31, 35, 37 rural areas, 58-60, 68, 75 South Africa, 139, 145, 148. 158, 159, 165, 166, 174, 181-212 South Asia, 274-284 (passim) theory, behavioral, 182, 183, 186 traditional values, 55-57, 60, 65, 84 see also Fathers; Household studies; Parents and parental factors; Spousal factors Family planning comprehension skills and, 14, 16 cost effectiveness, 33, 217 economic models, 140, 142, 167, 173, 182, 185-187, 221 egalitarian marriages, 58 female autonomy and, 40 fertility knowledge, 5, 124-125, 126, 128, 131, 240 formal programs, 26, 27, 31, 32-34, 35-36, 43, 129, 142, 187, 223, 234, 240, 265-266 individual welfare rationale, 217 school programs, 89-90, 93-94 South Africa, 140, 142, 167, 173 literacy and, 9 local factors, 35, 128, 142, 223 unintended pregnancies, family planning as factor in model, 216, 218, 223, 234, 240 see also Contraception; Reproductive goals Family size, 2, 6, 25, 36, 57, 188, 222 excess fertility, 13, 16, 36, 84, 216-265 defined, 217, 224, 235-236 mass education and, 13, 43 post-secondary education, 29 rural areas, 68 secondary education and, 29 South Africa, 161, 195, 198, 200 see also Reproductive goals Fathers, 14, 186, 188, 209, 210 unintended pregnancies, reaction to, 222, 224, 238(n.19) Fertility transition, 4, 5, 40, 55, 74, 275, 280, 297, 303 South Africa, 138, 142, 143, 173, 184 unwanted pregnancies/excess fertility, 249-251 Finland, 222 G Gender roles, 3, 15, 39, 75, 91-93, 186, 191, 194 adolescent transition to adulthood, 80-81, 84-85, 86, 87-99 cultural factors, general, 91-93, 271-272 modernity, 92, 98

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--> educational attainment differentials, 17, 270 family factors, 278-279, 281 spousal, 26, 27, 30, 39, 44, 277-278 employment, 184 female autonomy, 10, 13, 26, 27, 39-40, 57, 81, 268-269 female teachers as role models, 41, 90 knowledge factors, 96 reproductive goals, 279-281 rural areas, 68-69, 75 school policy/quality, 17, 83-84, 86, 87-99 son preference, 39 unintended pregnancies, 222, 224, 237-238, 239, 246-247 see Men; Spousal factors Geographic factors, see Local factors; Rural populations; Urban populations; specific countries and world regions Ghana, 9, 105, 128-129 Government role abortion, illegal, 223 China, 26, 33 excessive fertility, 262 family planning programs, 26, 27, 32-34, 35-36, 43, 129, 142, 187, 223, 234, 240, 265-266 individual welfare rationale, 217 school programs, 89-90, 93-94 South Africa, 140, 142, 167, 173 mandatory education, 12; see also Mass education nature of/rationale for, 132, 183-185, 188, 209, 210, 216, 218, 293, 297 poor areas, funding, 87 schooling funding, 2, 32, 115, 126, 209 South Africa, 139-140, 142, 148, 151, 154, 157, 182, 209, 211, 291 see also Political/ideological factors Guinea, 94 H Health care services, 6, 59 abortion, 71, 72, 85, 221, 222(n.6), 223 cognitive factors, 30-31, 56 skills in use of, 30, 43 see also Family planning, formal programs Health practices, 181 see also Contraception; Family planning; Reproductive behavior Higher education, see Post-secondary education Historical perspectives Africa, 184 contraception, 71-74 individual-level data, 25 Latin America, 4 literacy, 7-8 mass education, 66-67 research trends, 1, 4, 6-7, 23, 55, 287-290, 298-300 South Africa, 140-143, 194 Hong Kong, 40 Household studies, 16, 41, 138-180, 183 economic models. 16, 110, 120, 126, 138-180, 182-212 South Africa, 130, 131, 138-180, 181, 187-212, 276 Human Sciences Research Council, 140 Husbands, see Spousal factors I Ideational influences, 38-39 Income, see Poverty; Socioeconomic status: Wages and salaries India, 84, 126 mass education, 32 spousal factors, 14, 270-273, 277 unintended pregnancies, 222 Individualism female autonomy, 10, 13, 26, 27, 39-40, 57, 81, 268-269 literacy and, 8 Individual-level data, 6, 10, 25, 30 cognitive benefits, economic model, 108, 109 contraception, 25 secondary education, 29 unintended pregnancies, 234 see also Behavioral factors; Emotional factors Indonesia, 3, 4, 29, 126

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--> Infant mortality, 3-4, 23, 27, 35-36. 55-56, 84, 99 educational attainment and, 3-4, 23, 27, 35-36, 55-56, 84 South Africa, 190 unintended pregnancies, 222 International comparisons, see Cross-country/ cultural studies International Conference on Population and Development, 2 J Jordan, 3, 5 K Kenya, 3, 32, 184, 185 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 82, 84, 87-88, 90, 92, 95,99 unintended pregnancies/excess fertility, 216, 222-233, 237, 239-251, 265-266 Knowledge factors, 5-6, 7, 9, 181, 262, 284, 301 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 84, 90, 91-92, 96, 97, 98 concepts of education, 50-55 (passim), 60, 61, 66, 72, 73 costs of childrearing, 30 cultural norms vs.6. 49, 91-92, 97 fertility knowledge, 5, 124-125, 126, 128, 131, 240 gender factors, 96 model of education, 14-15, 26, 31, 35, 44 school quality, economic models, 106, 124-125, 126. 128, 130, 131 teacher, 90 travel time to school, 241, 244 see also Literacy Korea, 30 L Language factors, 59-60, 64-66 familial involvement, 65-66 formal education and acquisition, 59-65 see also Literacy Latin America, 3, 4 developed economies, 3 historical perspectives, 4 mass education, 32 secondary education, 28-29 see also specific countries Legal issues abortion, 223 mandatory education, 12; see also Mass education Liberia, 3, 33 Literacy, 1, 3, 7-9, 15-16, 34-35, 43, 55, 60, 71, 75, 187 cultural factors, 9, 71 economic models, factor in, 106, 124, 128, 130 South Africa, 170-172, 177-181, 189, 191, 211 social factors, 9, 59, 60-66 spousal factors, 270-271, 272, 277, 278, 279 Local factors, 8, 9, 13, 28, 51-52, 55, 65-67, 87, 105, 268(n.8), 293, 298, 301 economic models, 181-187 school quality, 115, 121, 126, 130 South Africa, 16, 139, 142, 144, 145, 158, 160-163, 167-169, 172, 173, 174, 187-212 (passim) educational attainment and community norms, 37-38, 44-45, 91 employment, 166-167, 183, 187-188 family planning programs, 35, 128, 142, 223 mass education, 31-32 unintended pregnancies/excessive fertility, 223, 228, 234, 240, 241, 262 see also Family factors M Malawi, 94 Malaysia, 222-223 Mandatory education, see Mass education Marriage and marital status, 14, 276, 283 age at, 2, 5, 25, 28, 30, 31, 39, 41, 82-84, 270 cultural factors, 185, 271-272 arranged marriages, 16-17

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--> decision making, egalitarian marriages, 57-58 family factors, 16-17, 84, 274, 275, 277(n.14) spousal choice, 106, 107, 124, 128, 268-285 educational attainment, 269-285 spousal choice, 106, 107, 124, 128 employment factors, 31, 39, 159 engagement duration, 57 family factors, 16-17, 84, 182, 183, 186, 274, 275, 277(n.14) husband's education, 17 marital egalitarianism, 57 school policies, 15 South Africa, 140, 170 timing of, 83, 268, 269 unintended pregnancies, 239 see also Fathers; Spousal factors Mass education, 1, 11-12, 25, 29, 31-32, 43, 55, 58, 182, 185, 188, 226-232 family factors, 182, 183, 186 local factors, 31-32 see also Literacy Mass media, 25, 34-35, 37, 42, 55, 56, 71-74, 262, 282 contraception, 71-74 radio, 34, 35, 84, 117, 118, 161, 164(n.13)(n.13) television, 34-35, 58, 161, 164(n.13)(n.13), 239, 282 videotapes, 36 Mathematics achievement/numeracy, 34, 52, 106, 128, 130, 132, 170, 291 Measurement error income as proxy for household resources, 139, 145, 164-165, 172 school quality, economic models, 106, 114, 115-116, 118, 119, 120, 126, 130 selection effects, 7, 12-13, 119, 139, 157, 200 unintended pregnancies, 234, 247, 262 Medical care, see Health care services Media, see Mass media Men, 14, 28 economic assistance from, 14 high fertility demands of, 17 marriage, see Spousal factors South Africa, 139 unintended pregnancies, reaction to, 222, 224 see also Fathers; Spousal factors Mentors, see Role models Methodology, see Measurement error; Models and modelling; Theory Mexico, 34, 57 Middle East, 5, 223 see also specific countries Models and modelling, 27 computer, 298 literacy, 8 see also Economic models; Theory Modernity/development, 1, 6, 8, 11, 12, 31, 37, 38, 50, 55, 57, 58 , 182, 183, 288-290 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 81 contraception. 1, 2, 5, 10-11, 71-74, 267 defined, 10 female autonomy, 10, 13, 26, 27, 39-40, 57, 81, 268-269 gender roles, other, 92, 98 marriage and fertility, 276, 283 see also Fertility transition Morbidity and mortality, see Diseases and disorders; Infant mortality Morocco, 224 N National Family Health Survey (India), 270, 272, 273, 277 Nepal, 34 Nigeria, 33, 88 Numeracy, see Mathematics achievement/ numeracy P Pakistan, 3, 43, 105 secondary education, 29 Parents and parental factors, 6, 59-60, 64-66, 187, 188 attitudes toward education. 6, 11-13, 15, 29, 111, 112, 114, 115, 127-128, 185, 188, 210

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--> economic models, 183, 110-115 (passim), 121, 183-184 educational choices made for children, 11-14, 15 educational attainment of, 5, 109, 127-128, 189, 283 child mortality and, 3-4 South Africa, 144-148, 165, 173, 199 unintended pregnancies, 241-243, 250-251 egalitarian marriages, 57-58 mass education and, 11-12 rural areas, 58-60 school quality and economic outcomes, 110-115 (passim), 121 secondary education of children, 29 single parents, 188, 189, 198, 209, 210 unintended pregnancies, 241-243 see also Family factors; Fathers; Reproductive goals Philippines, 216, 222-233, 237, 239-251, 265-266 Political/ideological factors, 14, 38-39, 40, 66-75, 185 gender differences in schooling, 87(n.3) modernity/development, 1, 6, 8, 11, 12, 31, 37, 38, 50, 55, 57, 58 , 182, 183, 288-290 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 81 contraception, 1, 2, 5, 10-11, 71-74 defined, 10 gender roles, 92, 98 marriage and fertility, 276, 283 parental connections, 115 research agenda1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 288-289, 290, 294-296, 302 South Africa, apartheid, 138, 139-140, 148, 154, 157, 189, 291 see also Bureaucracy; Mass education Post-secondary education, 14, 29-30, 44, 71, 188 employment and, 30, 44 family size and, 29 South Africa, 154, 200, 207 unintended pregnancies/excess fertility, 242-243, 250 Poverty low fertility rates and, 3 marriage and reproductive goals, 279-281 post-secondary education, 30 South Africa, 144, 187-191, 210 Primary education, 28, 33-35, 43, 60-71, 127 adolescents' transition to adulthood, 82 contraception and, 28 employment and, 40-41, 42 reproductive goals, 28, 26 South Africa, 151 unintended pregnancy/excessive fertility, 227, 228, 241, 244, 242-245, 250 see also Literacy; Mass education Problem solving, 15, 36, 52-53, 56, 66, 177-180 morbidity management, 9-10 socialized-actor theory, 6 unintended pregnancies/excess fertility, 219, 255-257 Project for Living Standards Development (South Africa), 140-174 (passim) Punishment, 87-88, 91 Q Quality of schools, see School quality R Race/ethnicity, 75 South Africa, 138-174 (passim), 187, 189, 190-198, 204, 205, 207, 210 apartheid, 138, 139-140, 148, 154, 157, 189, 291 Radio, 34, 35, 84, 117, 118, 161, 164(n.13)(n.13) Reading skills, see Literacy Regional factors Brazil, 68 cultural, general, 26, 44 South Africa, 170, 182-184, 187, 189-212 (passim) see also Rural populations; Urban populations; specific world regions Reproductive behavior, general. 3, 25-26 morbidity management, 9-10

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--> replacement behavior, 4(n.3)(n.3) school quality, factor in economic model of, 121 socialized actor, 6 spacing of births, 35, 221, 222, 236, 239, 247, 251, 256, 267 timing of births, 10, 11, 29, 81, 83, 224, 247, 256, 261, 293, 298 utility maximization model, 219, 255-260 see also Contraception; Family planning; Family size; Sexual behavior Reproductive goals, 4, 25, 54, 291 female autonomy and, 40, 269 mass education, 31 primary education and, 28, 26 school quality, factor in economic models of, 121, 123-126, 127-130, 139 spousal education/preferences and, 269, 273-276, 278-284 see also Unwanted/unintended pregnancies Research methodology, 54, 140, 276, 288, 289, 290, 295-296, 298-303 anthropological, 49, 50, 52, 55, 57-75, 188, 209, 210, 268 cross-cultural studies, drawbacks, 23-25, 66 educational attainment, general, 75, 86, 99, 290, 293-294, 296, 302 , 303 endogeneity, 86, 115, 119, 124, 126, 157-159, 288, 290, 291, 293, 298, 299, 301, 302 excess fertility, 237, 240, 248 historical trends. 1, 4, 6-7, 23, 55, 287-290, 298-300 policy and, 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 288-289, 290, 294-296, 302 school quality assessment, 86, 88, 106, 110, 113-120, 126, 129, 130 -131 survey response coding/interpretation, 11 unintended pregnancies/excess fertility, 233-237, 240 use of computers, 302 see Household studies; Measurement error; Models and modelling; Theory Role models, 9, 30, 38, 41, 44 see also Apprenticeships Rural populations, 30, 32, 57, 58-60, 67-71, 115, 153, 156, 186, 191, 210 family factors, 58-60, 68, 75 gender roles, 68-69, 75 parental factors, 58-60 unintended pregnancies, 240 S Salaries, see Wages and salaries School leavers, 70, 85-86, 130, 199-207, 229-231 academic expulsion, 109 pregnant students, 10, 70-71, 83-86, 105, 130, 185, 194, 196, 199, 293 unintended pregnancies, 216-217, 222, 226, 228-229 rural areas, 68 School quality, 81, 85, 86-99, 185 academic achievement, 81, 82, 117, 119 contraception, 84, 92 economic models. 105-132, 136-137 cost factors, 107, 108, 109, 112, 113, 114, 119, 121-123, 126, 128 -129 educational attainment, 106-117 (passim), 124, 128, 130, 136-137 employment and, 109, 110, 113, 166-167, 183, 187-188 family factors, 107, 108, 109, 115 knowledge factors, 106, 124-125, 126, 128, 130, 131 local factors, 115, 121, 126, 130 measurement error, 106, 114, 115-116, 118, 119, 120, 126, 130 parents, 110-115 (passim), 121 reproductive goals, 121, 123-126, 127-130, 139 socioeconomic status, 106-110 (passim), 123 teachers, 117, 119 theory, 121-126 funding. 2, 32, 115, 126, 209 gender roles, 17, 83-84, 86, 87-99 motivation and, 109, 111, 114 parents. 110-115 (passim), 121 research methodology, 86, 88, 106, 110, 113-120, 126, 129, 130-131 sexual harassment, 84-85, 89

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--> social actors, 80-99 see also Curriculum; Teachers Secondary education, 9, 14, 28-29, 44, 70, 71, 127, 185, 186 cost factors, 29-30, 42 employment, 39. 41, 42, 44 Latin America, 28-29 literacy and, 35 Middle East, 5 social factors, 37-38, 40, 186 South Africa, 189-190, 199-201, 206-209 unintended pregnancies/excess fertility, 227, 228, 232, 240-245, 250, 265-266 see also Adolescents Selection effects, 7, 12-13, 139, 157, 200 Sexual behavior education on, 5(n.5)(n.5), 84, 89, 90, 93, 94, 97, 124; see also Family planning, formal programs harassment of girls, 84-85, 89 intercourse frequency, 268 postpartum abstinence, 4, 11, 55, 267 start of, 268 see also Reproductive behavior Singapore, 40 Social factors, 5, 6-7, 11-14, 16-17, 26, 37-38, 43, 182, 187, 188 -189, 198, 293 cognitive factors and, 52, 53, 59, 60-75 female autonomy, 10, 13, 26, 27, 39-40, 57, 81, 268-269 literacy and social context, 9, 59, 60-66 role models, 9, 30, 38, 41, 44, 90 school quality, 80-99 secondary education, 37-38, 40, 186 unintended pregnancies, 222 see also Cultural factors; Demographic factors; Family factors; Local factors; Mass education: Political/ideological factors Socialized-actor theory, 6-7, 14-15, 49-57, 66, 67 Socioeconomic status, 3, 27, 29, 44-45, 268, 295, 297, 303 cognitive skills and, 106-109 (passim) economic models, 106-110 (passim), 123, 139, 163-165, 168, 169, 170, 172, 182, 183, 185-187, 191, 197, 199-205, 209 family income, resources, and consumption, 139, 145, 165, 181-212 (passim), 218, 219, 275 economic models, 108, 109, 182, 183, 185-187, 191, 197, 199-205,209 female autonomy, 10, 13, 26, 27, 39-40 income as proxy for household resources, 139, 145, 164-165, 172 literacy and, 9 per capita income, 4(n.4), 25, 191, 194 post-secondary education, 30 school quality and, economic models, 106-110 (passim), 123 social class influences, 13, 26, 27 South Africa, 139, 145, 163-165, 168, 169, 170, 172 unintended pregnancies/excess fertility, 216, 218, 219, 221, 239-240, 242-243 see also Consumption patterns, economic models; Employment factors; Poverty; Wages and salaries South Africa, 15-16, 130, 138-215, 291 apartheid, 138, 139-140, 148, 154, 157, 189, 291 demographic factors, general, 138, 139-140, 148, 154, 157, 158-170, 172, 173-174, 189, 291 family factors, 139, 145, 148, 158, 159, 165, 166, 174, 181-212 marriage, 140, 170 post-secondary education, 154, 200, 207 secondary education, 189-190, 199-201, 206-209 socioeconomic status, 139, 145, 163-165, 168, 169, 170, 172 poverty, 144, 187-191, 210 South Asia arranged marriages, 17 employment, 40-41 marriage and education attainment, 270-284 secondary education and employment, 44 spousal factors, 14, 270-273, 277 see also specific countries

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--> Spousal factors, 7, 14, 140 cognitive skills and choice, 106, 107, 124 educational attainment, 106, 124, 139, 159, 161-163, 165, 169, 173 , 239, 269-285, 294 education differentials, 26, 27, 30, 39, 44, 277-278 reproductive goals and, 269, 273-276, 278-284 India, 14, 270-273, 277 literacy, 270-271, 272, 277, 278, 279 marriage market, spousal choice, 106, 107, 124, 128, 268-285 South Africa, 139, 159, 161-165, 169, 173 unintended pregnancies, 238(n.19), 239, 246-247 see also Fathers Sri Lanka, 3, 4, 40 Sub-Saharan Africa, 3-4, 24-25, 184 secondary education, 29 unintended pregnancies, 223, 251 see also specific countries T Taiwan, 5, 40 Tanzania, 40 Teachers, 41, 52, 61-64, 84, 90-92, 99 attitudes of, 15, 86, 94-97, 99 curriculum and, 53-54 economic models, factor in, 117, 119 salaries, 117 South Africa, 148 student interaction, gender factors, 88 Television, 34-35, 58, 161, 164(n.13), 239, 282 Tertiary education, see Post-secondary education Textbooks, 37, 83, 89, 93, 117, 119, 128, 129 Thailand, 5, 88, 222 Theory, 3-4, 7-9, 10, 288-290, 296-297, 303 anthropological, 49, 50, 52, 55, 57-71 autonomous process, education as, 49-50, 51, 66, 67 classification of theories, 23-24, 49-50 dose-response theory, 3-4, 15, 16, 64-75 education-fertility paradigm, 1-2, 4, 21 family behavior, 182, 183, 186 school quality, economic theory, 121-126 socialized actor, 6-7, 14-15, 49-57, 66, 67 unintended pregnancies/excess fertility, 219 see also Economic models; Models and modelling Togo, 94 U United Nations, 5, 94 University education, see Post-secondary education Unwanted/unintended pregnancies, 13, 16, 36, 84, 216-265 age factors, 220-221, 224, 226, 228-235, 238, 242 consumption patterns and, 255-260 cost factors, 218, 246, 262 defined, 217, 222, 223-224, 233-234 economic models, 217-221, 233-265 educational attainment, 222, 226, 233, 234, 236-263 (passim) post-secondary, 242-243, 250 primary, 227, 228, 241, 244, 242-245, 250 secondary, 227, 228, 232, 240-245, 250, 265-266 emotional factors. 222, 261-263 family planning, as factor in model, 216, 218, 223, 234, 240 fertility transition and, 249-251 gender roles, 222, 224, 237-238, 239, 246-247 Kenya, 216, 222-233, 237, 239-251, 265-266 local factors, 223, 228, 234, 240, 241, 262 marriage, 239 spousal factors, 238(n.19), 239, 246-247 measurement error, 234, 247, 262 parents, 241-243 problem solving, 219, 255-257 rural areas, 240 socioeconomic status, 216, 218, 219, 221, 239-240, 242-243

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--> spacing of births and, 247, 251, 256 timing of births and, 224, 247, 256, 261 urban populations, 14, 270-273, 277 Urban populations, 30, 32, 38, 44, 57, 70-71, 75, 142, 153, 156, 170 unintended pregnancies/excess fertility, 239, 240, 241, 244-245 Utility maximization models, 110-113, 136-137, 183, 219, 255-260 W Wages and salaries, 183 educational attainment, 157, 158 literacy vs,16 South Africa, 157, 160-165, 169, 172, 197 World Fertility Surveys, 25, 290 Z Zambia, 34 Zimbabwe, 5, 10, 142, 157-158, 185