Critical Perspectives on Schooling and Fertility in the Developing World

Caroline H. Bledsoe, John B. Casterline, Jennifer A. Johnson-Kuhn, and John G. Haaga, editors

Committee on Population

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council


NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1999



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--> Critical Perspectives on Schooling and Fertility in the Developing World Caroline H. Bledsoe, John B. Casterline, Jennifer A. Johnson-Kuhn, and John G. Haaga, editors Committee on Population Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1999

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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by the United States Agency for International Development’s Office of Population, under award no. CCP-A-0095-00024-02, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Agency for International Development. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Critical perspectives on schooling and fertility in the developing world / Caroline H. Bledsoe ... [et al.] editors. p. cm. “Committee on Population, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council.” ISBN 0-309-06191-1 (pbk.) 1. Birth control—Study and teaching—Developing countries. 2. Fertility, Human—Study and teaching—Developing countries. 3. Teenage girls—Education—Developing countries. I. Bledsoe, Caroline H. II. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Population. HQ766.5.D44 C75 1999 363.9′6′07101724—dc21 98-40216 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Call 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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--> COMMITTEE ON POPULATION 1998 JANE MENKEN (Chair), Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder CAROLINE H. BLEDSOE, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University JOHN BONGAARTS, The Population Council, New York DAVID A. LAM, Department of Economics, University of Michigan LINDA G. MARTIN, RAND, Santa Monica, California MARK R. MONTGOMERY, Department of Economics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, and The Population Council, New York W. HENRY MOSLEY, Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University ALBERTO PALLONI, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison JAMES P. SMITH, RAND, Santa Monica, California BETH J. SOLDO, Department of Demography, Georgetown University LINDA J. WAITE, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago BARNEY COHEN, Director

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--> The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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--> CONTRIBUTORS ALAKA M. BASU, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University CAROLINE H. BLEDSOE, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University ANTHONY T. CARTER, Department of Anthropology, University of Rochester JOHN B. CASTERLINE, The Population Council, New York IAN DIAMOND, Department of Social Statistics, University of Southampton PARFAIT M. ELOUNDOU-ENYEGUE, RAND, Santa Monica, California BRUCE FULLER, School of Education, University of California, Berkeley PAUL GLEWWE, The World Bank JOHN G. HAAGA, Population Reference Bureau, Washington, D.C. JENNIFER A. JOHNSON-KUHN, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University XIAOYAN LIANG, The World Bank CYNTHIA B. LLOYD, The Population Council, New York BARBARA MENSCH, The Population Council, New York MARK R. MONTGOMERY, Department of Economics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, and The Population Council, New York MARGARET NEWBY, Department of Social Statistics, University of Southampton DUNCAN THOMAS, RAND, Santa Monica, California SARAH VARLE, Department of Social Statistics, University of Southampton

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--> Acknowledgments The committee is grateful to the many individuals who made substantive and productive contributions to the project. Most important, we are indebted to the authors of the papers for their willingness to participate and to contribute with their special knowledge. Primary organization and planning for the workshop and this report was overseen by committee member Caroline Bledsoe, former committee member John Casterline, and former staff director John Haaga. The committee would also like to thank Barney Cohen, project director; LaTanya Johnson, project assistant; and Rona Briere, contract editor. These papers have been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments to assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the purpose of the activity. The committee thanks the following individuals for their participation in the review of the papers in this report: William Axinn, Pennsylvania State University; Jere Behrman, University of Pennsylvania; Caroline Bledsoe, Northwestern University; John Casterline, Population Council; Teresa Castro-Martín, United Nations; Orieji Chimere-Dan, University of Witwatersrand; Elizabeth Colson, University of California, Berkeley; Barbara Entwisle, University of North Carolina; Bruce Fuller, University of California, Berkeley; Eugene A. Hammel, University of California, Berkeley; Jennifer Johnson-Kuhn, Northwestern University; Elizabeth King, World Bank; Anjini Kochar, Stanford University; David Lam, University of

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--> Michigan; Thomas Pullum, University of Texas at Austin; Brian Street, University of Sussex; Stephen Tollman, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; and Nicholas Townsend, Brown University. While these individuals provided constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this volume rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC. Finally, the committee gratefully acknowledges the United States Agency for International Development, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation for their generous financial support.

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--> Contents 1   Introduction Caroline H. Bledsoe, Jennifer A. Johnson-Kuhn, and John G. Haaga   1 2   Female Education and Fertility: Examining the Links Ian Diamond, Margaret Newby, and Sarah Varle   23 3   What is Meant, and Measured, by "Education"? Anthony T. Carter   49 4   Implications of Formal Schooling for Girls' Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries Cynthia B. Lloyd and Barbara Mensch   80 5   School Quality, Student Achievement, and Fertility in Developing Countries Paul Glewwe   105 6   Fertility, Education, and Resources in South Africa Duncan Thomas   138 7   Which Girls Stay in School? The Influence of Family Economy, Social Demands, and Ethnicity in South Africa Bruce Fuller and Xiaoyan Liang   181

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--> 8   Excess Fertility, Unintended Births, and Children's Schooling Mark R. Montgomery and Cynthia B. Lloyd   216 9   Women's Education, Marriage, and Fertility in South Asia: Do Men Really Not Matter? Alaka Malwade Basu   267 10   Fertility and Education: What Do We Now Know? Parfait M. Eloundou-Enyegue   287     INDEX   307 Critical Perspectives on Schooling and Fertility in the Developing World

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