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Index
A
Absolute rate theory (ART), 134-135
Actinide magnets, 103-105
Adsorbate overlayers, 145-146
Adsorbed gas systems, 87-88
Algorithmic complexity, 226, 231
Almost-broken symmetry, 88-89
Amorphous
semiconductors, 121- 122
state, 207-209
physical properties of, 15
Amphiphilic systems, 200
Anderson transition, 47, 49-50
Angle-integrated photoemission, 40-41
Angle-resolved
photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES),
170
photoemission, 41, 160
Anharmonic systems, 59
Antiferromagnets, disordered, 106-108
Aqueous soap solutions, 198-199
ARPES (angle-resolved photoelectron
spectroscopy), 270
Arrhenius plot for diffusion, 137
ART (absolute rate theory), 134-135
Artificially structured materials, 6-7, 15,
251-252
Astrophysical problems, 232
295
Atom scattering, 156
Atom/phonon interactions, 162
Atom/surface potential, 156
Atomic
jump rates, 134-135, 143
mobility, 134-137
resolution
defect imaging at, 141-142
experimental probes at, 13-14
Atoms on surface
experimental techniques used in study
of, 145
interactions of molecules and, 155-157
Attractors, 216-217
strange, see Strange attractors
Auger spectroscopy, 130
B
Backscattering studies, ion, 150-151
Band calculations, 101
Band-theory density-functional methods,
41
Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory,
165, 176
Bechgaard salts, 251
Bifurcation sequences, 227-228
Biological subcellular structures, 200

OCR for page 295

296 INDEX
Bipolymers, 212
Block copolymers, 212
Boiling transition, 77-78
Bose condensation temperature, 173, 174
Boundary defects, 127
Bragg beams, 149
Brillouin scattering, 63, 155
Brownian rate theory (BRT), 135
C
Cage effect in liquids, 196
CDWs (charge-density waves), 8-9, 278
Chalcogenides, transition-metal, 8, 249-
250
Chaos
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
237, 242, 245
quantum mechanics and, 231
term, 219
Chaotic
dynamics, 215
fluid flow, 221-222
motion, 216-217
in conservative systems, 225-226
nonlinear behavior, 12
Charge-density waves (CDWs), 8-9, 278
Chemisorbed adsorbates, 145
CHESS (Cornell High Energy Synchro-
tron Source), 267-268
Chevrel phases, 16, 180, 250
Classical liquids, 190-199
dynamical properties of, 193-198
static properties of, 191-193
Cluster
approximation, 117
calculation, 143
Codimension-two bifurcations, 227
Coherent Raman spectroscopy, 260
Colloidal systems, 198-199, 200
Complexity, maximum, 226
Computer-enhanced shadowgraph im-
ages, 217, 218
Computers, 5
magnetism and, 110-112
need for, 24, 25-26
Condensed matter, 3; see also Con-
densed-matter physics
at high pressure, 53-54, 55-56
laser spectroscopy of, see Laser spec-
troscopy
Condensed-matter physics
applications of discoveries in, 4
connections between subareas of, 5,
236-245
consequences of research in, 4-6
discoveries in, 6-14
emphasis in, 19
experimental techniques in, 246, 247
impact of new synthesis techniques on,
252-256
importance of, 3-6
needs of, in next decade, 19-35
number of papers by number of au-
thors in, 20
ordered microcondensed-matter in, 57
purposes of research in, 3-4
research opportunities in next decade
in, 14-18
· .< r .~.
s~gn~ncance or, vail
subareas and subfields of, vat
subareas of, 38
Conductance, Hall, 7, 43-44
Conduction electrons, 52-53
Conductors
ionic, 70
organic, 250-251
superionic, 70
Conservative systems, 230-231
nonlinear dynamics of, 225-226
Continuous-phase transition, 75-76
Contributors to this volume, 291-294
Convective-pattern evolution, 224
Cooling, nuclear magnetic, 186- 187
Cooperative recombination, 50
Copolymers, block, 212
Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source
(CHESS), 267-268
Correlation length, variation of, 83
Couette flow, 228
Crazes and microcracks, 213
Critical phenomena, 75-77
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
239, 243
history of, 78-80
neutron scattering and, 280
quantities measured in, 80-84
studies of, 100
term, 75

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INDEX
Critical point, 75-76; see also Phase tran-
sitions
examples of, 77-78
liquid-vapor, 87
multicritical points, 88
Cross-linked networks, 209-210
Crossover
effects, 208
phenomena, 94
Cryogenic technology, 185- 187
Crystal surface structure, 147- 151
Crystalline solids, 14-15
Crystals, 190
liquid, see Liquid crystals
melting of two-dimensional, 89-90
nonlinear optical, 264
plastic, 70
polymer, 210-211
quantum, 136- 137, 182- 184
two-dimensional Wigner, 126
Curie point, 77
Curie-Weiss susceptibility, 101
Cyclotron energy levels, 7
D
Dangling bonds, 122
Data communications, connections be-
tween subareas of condensed-mat-
ter physics and, 236-240
De Broglie wavelength, 149, 152
Deep-level transient spectroscopy, 117
Defect
calculations. 132- 134
imaging at atomic resolution, 141 - 142
physics, 127- 128
Defects
boundary, 127
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
237, 242
line, 127
in pair-wave functions, 171
point, see Point defects
types of, 127
Density-functional formalism, 40, 133
band-theory, 41
Department of Defense (DOD), 24-25
Deuterium, spin-polarized, 173- 174
297
Diamagnetic materials, 95
Diamond cell, ultrahigh-pressure, 53-54
Dichalcogenides, transition-metal, 8, 249
250
Dielectric relaxation, 195
Diffusion
Arrhenius plot for, 137
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
237, 242
surface, 138- 139
Dilute-solution state, 207
Dilution refrigerator, 186
Dimensionality
reduced, 8
future prospects in, 125-126
in semiconductors, 118- 119
spatial, 79
of strange attractors, 222
Dipole interaction, 86-87
Dislocation
glide, 139
motion in glasses, 140-141
Disorder, quenched, 91-92
Disordered
ferromagnets, antiferromagnets, and
paramagnets, 106-108
magnets, 105- 110
materials, 9- 10
systems, 47, 49-53, 70, 215
Displacive phase transitions, 72
Dissipative systems, instabilities in, 223
225
DOD (Department of Defense), 24-25
Dynamic
properties of systems, 83-84
random-access silicon memory chip,
114
techniques, 53
Dynamical systems
analysis of experiments, 221-222
systems theory, 216, 217
of routes to turbulence, 219-220
E
Elastomers, 209-210
Electron
energy-loss spectroscopy, 152- 153

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298 INDEX
gases, 7
microscopes/microscopy, 13, 151
advances in past decade in, 289-290
facilities for, 31-32, 287-290
scanning transmission, 13-14
transmission, 13, 141
tunneling, 149
U.S. facilities, 288-289
spin resonance (ESR), 117
Electron-charge-density contours, 160
Electron-electron interactions, 41
Electron-hole droplets, 45, 46
Electron-phonon interactions, 65-69
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
240, 243, 245
neutron scattering and, 278-279
spin resonance (ESR), 117
Electron-stimulated Resorption, 163
Electronic
properties
connections between other subareas
of condensed-matter physics and,
238, 243, 245
neutron scattering and, 278
structure
determination of, advances in, 40-41
properties of matter and, 39-57
synchrotron radiation and, 270
Electronically ordered states, 45-47
Electrons
conduction, 52-53
on helium surfaces, 175-176
Energy, connections between subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
236-240
Enhancement effect, 55
Entropy, metric, 226
Epitaxial materials, 252-253
Epithermal neutrons, 18, 283
Equipment, experimental, need for, 23-25
ESR (electron spin resonance), 117
EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine
structure), 30, 62, 272, 275
Excitations, elementary, on surface
experimental techniques used in study
of, 145
spectroscopy and, 151-155
Excluded volume problem, 207
Experimental
equipment, need for, 23-25
techniques, new, 246, 247
Explosive techniques, 255
Extended x-ray absorption fine structure
(EXAFS), 30, 62, 272, 275
F
F centers, 139
Faraday effect, 83
Femtosecond
laser spectroscopy, 17-18, 262, 263
pulses, 73
Fermi temperature, 172, 187, 188
Fermions, heavy, 10
Ferroelectric liquid crystals, 203, 205
Ferromagnets
disordered, 106-108
transition-metal, 100-103, 112
Feynman path integral methods, 136
Field ion microscope, 151, 152
Filamentary materials, 255
First-order phase transition, 92-93
Fixed valence, 10
Flow
Couette, 228
fluid, chaotic, 221-222
patterns, evolution of, 223
properties of polymers, 208
turbulent, 218-219
Fluids
inhomogeneous, 193
polyatomic, 204
quantum, see Quantum fluids
Flux quantization, 51, 52
Four-wave mixing, 260
Fractal structures, 233
Fractional effective dimension, 108
Franz-Keldysh effect, 263
Free-electron lasers, 18
Frustration, property of, 109
Funding, need for, 26-27
G
GaAs semiconductors, 116
Gas systems, adsorbed, 87-88
Gases, electron, 7
Gels, 209-210

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INDEX 299
Glancing-incidence neutron spectrosco-
py, 149
Glass
atomic structures of, 69
creation of, 251
dislocation motion in, 140-141
importance of, 9-10
physical properties of, 15
pure, 209
spin, 108-109
transition, 56
Glassy metals, 56
Global scaling procedure, 93
Godel's theorem, 231
Government-university-industry rela-
tions, 33-35
Green's function Monte Carlo approach,
133
H
H centers, 139
Hall
conductance, 7, 43-44
effect, 7, 43
T
quantized, see Quantized Hall effect
resistance, 43
voltage, 43
Hartree-Fock approach, 133- 134
Heisenberg model of magnetism, 85-86
Helium
interface between liquid and solid, 184
surfaces, electrons on, 175-176
3He
mixtures of, in 4He, 173
superfluid, 10-11, 166-172, 187
4He
liquid, in unusual geometries, 174-175
mixtures of 3He in, 173
superfluid, 18, 87, 165, 170
Heterojunctions, 118-119
Heterostructures, 126
quantum-well (QWHs), 118, 120- 121
Hexatic
"floating raft" phase, 128
liquid-crystal phase, 89-90
High-magnetic-fields facilities, 285-287
recommendations, 31
High-resolution spectroscopy, 284
Hole burning in inhomogeneously broad-
ened spectra, 259-260
Hubbard bands, 50
Hydrogen
phase diagrams of, 60-61
spin-polarized, 173-174
Hydrogenated amorphous semiconduc-
tors, 121
Hyperfine interaction, 186
I
Incommensurate phase transitions, 71-72
Incommensurate structures, 68, 71
Industry-university-government relations,
33-35
Inelastic atom/surface scattering, 152,
153-154
Inelastic-electron-tunneling spectroscopy,
159
Information
processing, connections between sub-
areas of condensed-matter physics
and, 236-240
theory, 226
Infrared
lasers, 63
spectroscopy, 154
Inhomogeneous fluids, 193
Instabilities
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
237, 242, 245
in dissipative systems, 223-225
phase transitions and, 225
in semiconductors, 232
sequences of, 219
Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP),
31
Instrumentation
aging, 24
need for, 23-25
Insulators, magnetic, 95, 96, 97-100
Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS),
28-29, 277
Interfaces
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
238, 242, 244
experimental techniques used in study
of, 145
between liquid and solid helium, 184

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300 INDEX
semiconductor-metal, 116-117, 124
semiconductor-semiconductor, 123
solid-gas and solid-liquid, 145
of solids, 144- 163
between solids and dense media, 157-
159
synchrotron radiation and, 272-273
Interferometry, 284
Intermittency, 219, 220
Internal friction, 128
Intramolecular rearrangement times, 194
Inverse photoemission, 41
Ion
backscattering studies, 150- 151
implantation, 131
Ion-beam
microfabrication, 131 - 132
mixing, 131
Ionic conductors, 70
IPNS (Intense Pulsed Neutron Source),
28-29, 277
Ising model, 78, 80, 84-85. 97
Isothermal compressibility, 81
Isotope effect, 134
ISSP (Institute for Solid State Physics),
31
J
Josephson
effects, 177-178, 182, 183
junction oscillators, 223-224
Jump rates, atomic, 134-135, 143
K
KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser) theo-
rem, 226
Kinetic theory, liquid-state, 196
Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser (KAM) theo-
rem, 226
Kondo effect, 100
L
Landau energy levels, 7
LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Scatter-
ing Center), 28-29, 277
Laser spectroscopy
of condensed matter, 258-264
directions for future research, 262-264
femtosecond, 262, 263
picosecond, 261-262
ultrafast, 261-262
Laser-induced
Resorption, 157
phonons, 195
Lasers
free-electron, 18
infrared, 63
semiconductors and, 254-255
surfaces and, 263
Layered compounds, 47-49
LCD, see Liquid-crystal displays
LEED (low-energy electron diffraction),
148, 161
Lennard-Jones
pair potential, 192
triple-point viscosities, 197
Light scattering, 62-63
Line defects, 127
Liquid crystals, 199-203
ferroelectric, 203, 205
Iyotropic, 17
Liquid metals, 51
Liquid-crystal displays (LCD), 201-203,
204-205
Liquid-state
kinetic theory, 196
physics, 190-205
opportunities for future work in, 203-
205
Liquid-vapor critical point, 87
Liquids, 190-191
cage effect in, 196
classical, see Classical liquids
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
239, 243, 245
Lithography, 132
x-ray, 273
Local tunneling systems, 28
Local-band scheme, 102
Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center
(LANSCE), 28-29, 277
Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED),
148, 161
Low-temperature
physics, 164-189

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INDEX 30 1
connections between other subareas
of condensed-matter physics and,
236, 241, 244
research opportunities in, 187- 189
technology, 185-187
Lubrication, 17
Lyotropic liquid crystals, 17
M
Magnetic
dipole interaction, 86-87
fields, high, 31
insulators, 95, 96, 97-100
metals, theories of, 17
superconductors, 180, 250
susceptibility, 81
systems, quasi-one-dimensional, 8
Magnetism, 95-112
computer simulations in, 110-112
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
236, 241, 244
neutron scattering and, 279-280
synchrotron radiation and, 270
Magnetization, 77
Monte Carlo methods and, 111-1 12
Magnets
disordered, 105- 110
metallic, 100- 105
Magnons, 98, 107
Manpower, need for, 21-23
Many-body theory, 6
Many-electron effects, 41-42
Mapping, magnetic, 99
Materials
artificially structured, 6-7, 15, 251-252
epitaxial, 252-253
filamentary, 255
major concerns in, 256
modification of, 254-255
neutron scattering and, 281-282
new, 248-257
in last decade, 249-252
projections for the future, 256-257
Matter
MD, see Molecular dynamics
Mean spherical approximation, 192
Medical field, connections between sub-
areas of condensed-matter physics
and, 244-245
Melts, 207-209
Memory
chip, dynamic random-access silicon,
114
human, 233
Metal clusters, 255-256
Metal-insulator transition, 49-51, 92
Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS), 7
Metallic
films, thin, 252
magnets, 100-105
superlattices, 254
Metallo-organic chemical vapor deposi-
tion (MOCVD), 7
Metric entropy, 226
Microcondensed-matter science, 57
Microcracks and crazes, 213
Microfabrication, ion-beam, 131 - 132
Microscopes
electron, see Electron microscopes/mi
croscopy
field ion, 151, 152
Minimum temperature, 185
Mixed or granular media, 53, 56
Mixed valence, 10
Mixed-valence behavior, 104- 105
Mixing, concept of, 226
MOCVD (metallo-organic chemical vapor
deposition), 7
Molecular dynamics (MD), 139- 140, 196
197
nonequilibrium (NEMD), 196- 197
Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE), 6, 256
Molecule-surface interactions, 157, 163
Molecules on surface
experimental techniques used in study
of, 145
interactions of atoms and, 155-157
Monte Carlo methods
Green's function and, 133
magnetization and, 111- 112
condensed, see Condensed matter statistical, 42
electronic structure and the properties
of, 39-57
MBE (molecular-beam epitaxy), 6, 256
MOS (metal-oxide semiconductor), 7
Mott transition, 50
Multicritical points, 88

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302 INDEX
N
National facilities, 265-290
general recommendations concerning,
32-33
support for, 27-33
National Magnet Laboratory (NML), 31,
285-286
National Science Foundation (NSF), 24-
25
National security, connections between
subareas of condensed-matter
physics and, 241-243
National Synchrotron Light Source
(NSLS), 268
Nematic phase, 91, 199
NEMD (nonequilibrium molecular
dynamics), 196-197
Networks, research on, 233
Neural networks, 232-233
Neutron
facilities, 28-29
guides, 283-284
scattering, 61-62
small-angle (SANS), 208, 285
spin-echo spectrometer, 62
Neutron-scattering facilities, 276-285
description of existing U.S., 276-278
future directions, 282-284
growth of community using, 284-285
research highlights of, 278-282
Neutrons
epithermal, 18, 283
fundamental characteristics of, 266
NML (National Magnet Laboratory), 31,
285-286
NMR, see Nuclear magnetic resonance
Noise
in pattern selection, 228
quantum limits of, 182
Nonequilibrium
molecular dynamics (NEMO), 196- 197
superconductivity, 179
systems, 92, 231-232
Nonlinear
dynamics, 216
connections between other subareas
of condensed-matter physics and,
237, 242, 245
of conservative systems, 225-226
excitations, 72
optical crystals, 264
optical spectroscopy, 259-260
stability theory, 222
numerical simulations and, 228-229
NSF (National Science Foundation), 24-
25
NSLS (National Synchrotron Light
Source), 268
Nuclear
magnetic cooling, 186- 187
magnetic resonance (NMR), 176, 177
in superfluid 3He, 170
Nucleation theory, 92, 93
Nuclei, 58
Numerical simulations, nonlinear stability
theory and, 228-229
o
appease transition, 66-67
Onsager solution, 97
Open-crystal structures, 250
Optical
breakdown in solids, 263-264
crystals, nonlinear, 264
fibers, 264
spectroscopy
nonlinear, 259-260
transient, 260
Optoelectronics, 119-120
Order parameter, 78, 80
correlation function, 83
susceptibility, 81, 83
Ordered microcondensed matter, 57
Organic
compounds, 17
conductors, 250-251
p
Pair interactions, 191
Pair-distribution function, 192
Pairing transition temperature, 188
Paramagnetic
materials, 95-96
refrigerant, 186
Paramagnets, disordered, 106-108
Paramagnon model, 102

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INDEX
Participating research teams (PRTs), 33,
268
Pattern evolution, 223, 224
in condensed-matter systems, 228
noise in, 228
Percolation, 76, 92, 108
Period doubling, 219, 220
PES (photoemission spectroscopy), 261
Phase
diagrams
of hydrogen, 60-61
of solids, 60
generation, radiation, 129
microstructure, 129
transitions, 15-16; see also Critical
point
boiling, 77-78
connections between other subareas
of condensed-matter physics and,
239, 243, 245
continuous-phase, 75-76
displacive, 72
examples of, 77-78
first-order, 92
incommensurate, 71-72
instabilities and, 225
neutron scattering and, 280
synchrotron radiation and, 270-271
theory of, 11
Phason excitations, 71
Phonon
dispersion curves, 61
surface, 153
focusing, 65, 66
transport, 64-65
research in, 73
transport coefficient, 64
winds, anisotropic, 65
Phonon/atom interactions, 162
Phonon-electron interactions' 65-69
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
240, 243, 245
neutron scattering and, 278-279
Phonons, 59
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
240, 243, 245
high-frequency, 64
laser-induced, 195
303
low-frequence transverse, 65
neutron scattering and, 278-279
Photoacoustic spectroscopy, 157
Photochemical processes, 139
Photodesorption, 139
Photoelectron spectroscopy, 275
Photoemission, 40-41, 148, 162
Photoemission spectroscopy (PES), 261
Photon
monochromators, 30
spectroscopy, 158
Photon-stimulated Resorption, 163
Physics
condensed-matter, see Condensed-mat-
ter physics
defect, 127- 128
liquid-state, see Liquid-state physics
low-temperature, see Low-temperature
physics
Physisorbed adsorbates, 145, 146
Picosecond laser spectroscopy, 261-262
Plastic crystals, 70
Poincare maps, 221-222
Point defects, 127
in simple solids, 137- 138
Point-contact spectroscopy, 68
Point-defect mechanism, 89
Polariton, surface, 154
Polyacetylene, 9, 46, 72, 211-212
Polyatomic fluids, 204
Polymer crystals, 210-211
Polymers, 200, 206-214
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
240, 243, 245
electrical properties, 211-212
flow properties of, 208
neutron scattering and, 281
opportunities in, 213-214
properties of, 212
research problems with, 207-212
rheology of, 208
Polyvinylidene fluoride, 212
Potts model, 88
Powder profile analysis, 284
Power law, 80-81
Pressure, high, condensed matter at, 53-
54, 55-56
PRTs (participating research teams), 33,
268

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304 INDEX
Q
Quantized Hall effect, 7-8, 42-45, 125
fractionally, 16, 45
Quantum
crystals, 136-137, 182-184
fluids, 164-176
novel, 172
term, 164
limits of noise, 182
mechanics, chaos and, 231
turbulence, 230
Quantum-well heterostructures (QWHs),
118, 120-121
Quasi-periodic oscillations, 217
Quasi-periodicity, 219
Quenched disorder, 91-92
QWHs (quantum-well heterostructures),
118, 120-121
R
Radiation, synchrotron, see Synchrotron
radiation entries
Radiation-induced
homogeneous precipitation, 142
phases, 129
Raman
scattering, 62-63, 158
spectroscopy, 154-155
coherent, 260
Rare-earth magnets, 103- 105
Rare-gas atom/surface interactions, 156
Rayleigh number, 220
Reduced dimensionality, 8
Re-entrant spin glasses, 110
Refrigerant, paramagnetic, 186
Refrigerator, dilution, 186
Relaxation
process, collective, 195
rates, 84
times, 194
Renormalization group techniques, 11,
79-80, 219
Researchers
individual, support for, 21-27
need for, 21-23
Resonance scattering, 63
Reynolds numbers, 92
Rheology of polymers, 208
Rubber, 209-210
S
SANS (small-angle neutron scattering),
208, 285
SAXS (small-angle x-ray scattering) ge-
ometry, 271
Scaling law, 82
Scanning
transmission electron microscopes, 13-
14
vacuum tunneling microscopes, 13
Schottky barriers, 124-125
Scientists, need for, 21-23
Screening, concept of, 207-208
Second-sound pulse, 171
Secondary-ion mass spectrometry
(SIMS), 130
Self-avoiding walk problem, 207
Semiconductor growth techniques, 125
Semiconductor-insulator interfaces, 123-
124
Semiconductor-metal interfaces, 116-117,
124
Semiconductor-semiconductor interfaces,
123
Semiconductors, 6, 113-126
amorphous, 121-122
compound, optical properties of, 119-
121
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
236, 241, 244
defects in, 117-118; see also Defect en-
tries
future prospects in, 124-125
GaAs, 116
instabilities in, 232
lasers and, 254-255
reduced dimensionality in, 118-119
small structures for, 125-126
surfaces and interfaces of, 115-117
future prospects in, 122-124
Semidilute solutions, 207
SEXAFS (surface-extended x-ray absorp-
tion fine structure), 272
Shadowgraph images, computer-en-
hanced, 217, 218
Shear viscosity, 197
Silicon, surface of, 149, 150
SIMS (secondary-ion mass spectrome-
try), 130

OCR for page 295

SLs, see Superlattices
Small-angle
neutron scattering (SANS), 208, 285
x-ray scattering (SAXS) geometry, 271
Smectic
A-to-nematic transition, 90-91, 94
phases, 90, 199
Soap solutions, 198-199
Solid-gas interface, 145
Solid-liquid interface, 145
Solid-state catalysts, 146-147
Solidification patterns, 232
Solids
crystalline, 14-15
defects and diffusion in, 127-143; see
also Defect entries
interfaces of, see Interfaces
optical breakdown in, 263-264
phase diagrams of, 60
reduced dimensionality of, 8
simple, point defects in, 137-138
structures and vibrational properties
of, 58-74
surface of, see Surface entries
theoretical calculations of properties
of, 59-61
Solitons, 59, 72, 73-74, 127-128, 171
fractionally charged, 65
topological, 211
Solutions, 207-209
Space technology, connections between
subareas of condensed-matter
physics and, 241-243
Spallation sources, 62, 73
Spatial dimensionality, 79
Specific heat, 82
Spectral brightness, 267
Speech, connections between subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
236-240
Spin
freezing, 108
glass, 108-109
Hamiltonians, 96
wave, 161
Spin-polarization analysis, 101, 102
Spin-polarized hydrogen and deuterium,
173-174
Spinodal decomposition, 92, 93
SQUIDS (superconducting quantum in-
terference devices), 182, 183
INDEX 305
SRC (Synchrotron Radiation Center), 269
SSRL (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation
Laboratory), 268-269
Stability theory, 222
Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Labora-
tory (SSRL), 268-269
Statistical Monte Carlo methods, 42
Stoner model, 101
Strained-layer superlattices, 120, 126
Strange attractors, 217
dimensionality of, 222
String model of dislocations, 137
Structure, experimental techniques used
in study of, 145
Superconducting quantum interference
devices (SQUIDs), 182, 183
Superconductivity, 165, 176-182
future of, 189
nonequilibrium, 179
research in, 178-179
Superconductors
heavy-fermion, 180
high-transition-temperature, high-mag-
netic-field, 180-181
magnetic, 180, 250
new, 251
novel, 179-180
type II, 177
Superfluid
flow, 172
3He, 10-11, 166-172, 187
4He, 18, 87, 165, 170
interparticle spacing, 175
mass fraction, 172
Superfluidity, 165
Superionic conductors, 70
Superlattices (SLs), 120, 147
metallic, 254
strained-layer, 120, 126
Support
for individual researchers, 21-27
for national facilities, 27-33
SURF (Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radia-
tion Facility), 269-270
Surface(s)
connections between other subareas of
condensed-matter physics and,
238, 242, 244
crystal, structure of, 147- 151
diffusion on, 138-139
elementary excitations on, see Excita

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306 INDEX
tions, elementary, on surface
experimental techniques used in study
of, 145
helium, electrons on, 175-176
interactions of atoms and molecules
on, 155-157
lasers and, 263
and near-surface constitution of solids,
130-131
neutron scattering and, 280-281
opportunities for research on, 160- 163
phonon dispersion curves, 153
polariton, 154
reconstruction, 146
of silicon, 149, 150
of solids, 144- 163
synchrotron radiation and, 272
Surface-extended x-ray absorption fine
structure (SEXAFS), 272
Surface/inelastic-atom scattering, 152'
153-154
Surface/molecule interactions, 163
Surface/rare-gas-atom interactions, 156
Synchrotron radiation, 12- 13, 18, 267
research, 267-276
future directions in, 275-277
sources
present, 267-270
recommendations, 29-30
techniques in use in studies, 271
Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC), 269
Synchrotron-radiation-based spectrosco-
py, 148-149
Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facili-
ty (SURF), 269-270
Synthesis
loop, 249
techniques, new, 252-256
T
Temperature
minimum, 185
pairing transition, 188
Tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodi-
methane (TTF-TCNQ). 9, 46
Texture, property of, 167
Textures in liquid crystals, 128
Thermodynamic equilibrium, 231
Thin metallic films, 252
Time complexity theory, 231
Time-resolved studies, 273-274
Topography, improvements in field of,
273
Topological solitons, 211
Transient optical spectroscopy, 260
Transition-metal
chalcogenides/dichalcogenides, 8, 249-
250
ferromagnetism, 112
ferromagnets, 100-103
Translational invariance, 105- 106
Transmission electron microscopes, 13,
141
Transportation, connections between
subareas of condensed-matter
physics and, 241-243
TTF-TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene-tetracya-
noquinodimethane), 9, 46
Tunneling
centers, 10
electron microscope, 149
spectroscopy, 68
states, 56
Turbulence, 12, 16, 17, 92, 215
dynamical systems theory of routes to,
219-220
quantum, 230
strong, 229
transition from weak to fully devel-
oped, 229-230
weak, 219
Turbulent flow, 218-219
Two-dimensional
superfluid and XY model, 89
Wigner crystal, 126
Two-photon spectroscopy, 259, 262
U
Ultrafast laser spectroscopy, 261-262
Ultrahigh-pressure diamond cell, 53-54
Ultrasound in superfluid 3He, 170- 171
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
(UPS), 6
Undulator devices, 30, 267
Universality classes, 79, 84-87

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INDEX 307
University-industry-government rela-
tions, 33-35
UPS (ultraviolet photoelectron spectros-
copy), 6
V
Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range, 270,
271
Valence
fixed and mixed, 10
instability, 104
Van der Waals interactions, 156
Very-large-scale integration (VLSI), 113
Vortex excitations in XY model, 99
Vortices as defects, 172
VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) range, 270,
271
W
Weak
itinerant model, 102
localization, 50-51
turbulence, 219
Wetting problem, 193
Wiggler devices, 30, 267
Wigner
crystal, two-dimensional, 126
lattice, 176
X
X-ray
beams, fundamental characteristics of,
266
edge problem, 42
lithography, 273
microscopy, 273
photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), 6
spectral range, 270, 271
XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy),
6
XY model of magnetism, 85, 87, 89
vortex excitations in, 99
z
Zeolites, 250
Zero sound mode, 170

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