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PHYSICS THROUGH THE 1990s Condensed-Mauer Physics Pane} on Condensed-Matter Physics Physics Survey Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1986

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self- governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The Board on Physics and Astronomy is pleased to acknowledge generous support for the Physics Survey from the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Commerce, the American Physical Society, Coherent (Laser Products Division), General Electric Company, General Motors Foundation, and International Business Machines Corporation. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Main entry under title: Condensed-matter physics. (Physics through the 1990s) Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Condensed matter. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on Condensed-Matter Physics. II. Series. QC173.4.C65C66 1985 530.4 85-21778 ISBN 0-309-03577-5 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, April 1986 Second Printing, October 1986 Third Printing, March 1987

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PANEL ON CONDENSED-MATTER PHYSICS ALEXE! A. MARADUDIN, University of California, Irvine, Chc~irmc~n NEIL w. ASHCROFT, Cornell University JOHN D. AXE, Brookhaven National Laboratory PRAVEEN CHAUDHARI, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center c. PETER FLYNN, University of Illinois JERRY GOELUB, Haverford College BERTRAND l. HAEPERIN, Harvard University DAVID L. HUBER, University of Wisconsin RICHARD M. MARTIN, Xerox Corporation DOUGLAS L. MILLS, University of California, Irvine ROBERT c. RICHARDSON, Cornell University JOHN M. POWELL, AT&T Bell Laboratories /

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PHYSICS SURVEY COMMITTEE WILLIAM F. BRINKMAN, Sandia National Laboratories, Chairman JOSEPH CERNY, University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory RONALD c. DAVIDSON, Massachusetts institute Of Technology JOHN M. DAWSON, University of California, Los Angeles MILDRED s. DRESSEEHAUS, Massachusetts institute of Technology VAL L. FITCH, Princeton University PAUL A. FLEURY, AT&T Bell Laboratories WILLIAM A. FOWLER, w. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory THEODOR w. HANSCH, Stanford University VINCENT JACCARINO, University of California, Santa Barbara DANIEL KEEPPNER, Massachusetts institute of Technology ALEXE! A. MARADUDIN, University of California, Irvine PETER D. MACD. PARKER, Yale University MARTIN L. PERK, Stanford University WATT w. WEBB, Cornell University DAVID T. WILKINSON, Princeton University DONALD c. SHAPERO, St`~ffDirect`'r ROBERT L. RIEMER, Staff Officer CHARLES K. REED, Cons`'ltc~nt IV

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BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY HANS FRAUENFEEDER, University of Illinois, Chc~irmc~n FELIX H. BOEHM, California Institute Of Technology RICHARD G. BREWER, IBM San Jose Research Laboratory DEAN E. EASTMAN, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center JAMES E. GUNN, Princeton University LEO P. KADANOFF, The University Of Chicago W. CARE LINEBERGER, University Of Colorado NORMAN F. RAMSEY, Harvard U Diversity MORTON S. ROBERTS, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARSHALL N. ROSENBEUTH, University Of Texas at Austin WILLIAM P. SEICHTER, AT&T Bell Laboratories SAM B. TREIMAN, Princeton University DONALD C. SHAPERO, Sta~Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Sta~Offiicer HELENE PATTERSON, StaJAssistc~nt SUSAN WYATT, Stap Assistant v

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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND RESOURCES HERBERT FRIEDMAN, National Research Council, Chairman THOMAS D. BARROW, Standard OH Company (Retired) ELKAN R. BLOUT, Harvard Medical School WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University BERNARD F. BURKE, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology GEORGE F. CARRIER, Harvard University CHARLES L. DRAKE, Dartmouth College MILDRED s. DRESSEEHAUS, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology JOSEPH L. FISHER, Office Of the Governor, Commonwealth Of Virginia JAMES c. FLETCHER, University Of Pittsburgh WILLIAM A. FOWLER, California Institute Of Technology GERHART FRIEDEANDER, Brookhaven National Laboratory EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, Scripps Institution Of Oceanography MARY L. GOOD, Signal Research Center J. Ross MACDONALD, University of North Carolina THOMAS F. MALONE, Saint Joseph College CHARLES J. }/1ANKIN, Oklahoma Geological Survey PERRY L. MCCARTY, Stanford University WILLIAM D. PHILLIPS, Mallinckrodt, Inc. ROBERT E. SIEVERS, University of Colorado JOHN D. SPENGEER, Harvard School of Public Health GEORGE w. WETHERIEE, Carnegie Institution of Washington RAPHAEL G. KASPER, Executive Director LAWRENCE E. MCCRAY, Associate Executive Director V1

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Preface In this survey of condensed-matter physics we describe the current status of the field, present some of the significant discoveries and developments in it since the early 1970s, and indicate some areas in which we expect that important discoveries will be made in the next decade. We also describe the resources that will be required to produce these discoveries. Condensed-matter physics is divided roughly into two broad subareas devoted, respectively, to solids and to liquids. In this volume the subarea of solids is subdivided into several subfields, including the electronic properties of solids, their structures and vibrational excita- tions, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetic properties of solids, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, and surfaces and inter- faces. The subarea of liquids is divided into the subfields of classical liquids, liquid crystals, polymers and nonlinear dynamics instabilities, and chaos. The subareas of solids and liquids are roughly linked by the subfield of low-temperature physics, which is concerned with phenom- ena occurring in both of them. This subdivision of condensed-matter physics reflects the manner in which the community organizes itself, through its conferences, workshops, and seminars. Each of the subfields was reviewed by a member of the community working in that subfield, chosen both for technical expertise and scientific breadth who, in general, had the assistance of many other members of that community. These reviews of the subfields of con . . V11

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Viii PREFACE densed-matter physics were supplemented by reviews of the new materials that are exciting interest because of the unusual physical properties that they display and the opportunities for technological applications that they may afford, of new experimental techniques whose use has led to remarkable discoveries, and of the National Facilities that have provided researchers in condensed-matter physics with capabilities beyond those available in their own institutions. These reviews were also prepared by experts in the corresponding subject areas. This volume is organized as follows. Part I is devoted to a discussion of the importance of condensed-matter physics; to brief descriptions of several of the most significant discoveries and advances in condensed- matter physics made in the 1970s and early 1980s, and of areas that appear to provide particularly exciting research opportunities in the next decade; and to a presentation of the support needs of condensed- matter physicists in the next decade and of recommendations aimed at their provision. In Part 11, the subfields of condensed-matter physics are reviewed in detail. The volume concludes with several appendixes in which new materials, new experimental techniques, and the Na- tional Facilities are reviewed. As one reads through this volume, one cannot help being struck with the conclusion that condensed-matter physics is an intellectually exciting field of physics in which discoveries have had, and are continuing to have, significant impacts on other fields of physics, as well as on chemistry, mathematics, and the biological sciences. At the same time, it is the field of physics that has the greatest impact on our daily lives through the technological developments to which it gives rise. It has witnessed a decade in which remarkable discoveries and advances in our understanding of the condensed states of matter have been made. It is currently experiencing a period of intensive activity in existing subfields and growth of new subfields, and it offers the promise of significant new discoveries and advances in the decade to come. However, research in condensed-matter physics at a world-class level today is becoming increasingly sophisticated in both theoretical and experimental techniques. With this increasing sophistication is associ- ated a rapidly increasing cost of doing research, in dollars and in manpower, which must somehow be met if the opportunities facing this field are to be achieved. This is a challenge that together with the opportunities will be facing condensed-matter physics in the United States in the next decade. Finally, I am grateful for the technical contributions of the members of the Panel on Condensed-Matter Physics and for their assistance in

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PREFACE iX drafting the recommendations made in this report. In addition, I want to thank the many members of the U.S. condensed-matter physics community who contributed to every part of this survey, either by writing parts of it or by reading it and making suggestions for its improvement. They are listed at the end of this volume. Their valuable contributions are greatly appreciated.

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Contents I HIGHLIGHTS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND NEEDS Condensed-Matter Physics and Its Importance, 3 Discovery, 6 Artificially Structured Materials, 6 The Quantized Hall Effect, 7 Ejects of Reduced Dimensionality, Charge-Density Waves, Disorder, 9 Mixed Valence and Heavy Fermions, 10 The Superfluid Phases of 3He, 10 The Renormalization Group Methods, ~ ~ Chaotic Phenomena in Time and Space, 12 Widespread Use of Synchrotron Radiation, 12 Atomic Resolution Experimental Probes, 13 Research Opportunities in Condensed-Matter Physics in the Next Decade, 14 Needs of Condenseci-Matter Physics in the Next Decade, 19 Support for Individual Researchers, 21 Manpower, 21; Instrumentation, 23; Computation, 25; Funding, 26 Support for National Facilities, 27 Neutron Facilities, 28; Synchrotron Radiation Sources Xl

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xii CONTENTS Recommendations, 29; High-Magnetic-Field Facilities Recommendations, 31; Electron-Microscope Facilities Recommendations, 31; General Recommendations Concerning National Facilities, 32 University-lndustry-Government Relations, 33 II A DECADE OF CONDENSED-MATTER PHYSICS 1 ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER.................. Introduction, 39 Advances in Electronic Structure Determinations, 40 Many-Electron Effects, 41 Quantized Hall Effect, 42 Electron-Hole Droplets, 45 Electronically Ordered States, 45 Disordered Systems, 47 Mixed Media, 53 Condensed Matter at High Pressure, 53 Opportunities, 55 2 STRUCTURES AND VIBRATIONAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS ............. Introduction, 58 Theoretical Calculations, 59 Measurements of Structures and Phonon Spectra, 61 Phonon Transport, 64 Electron-Phonon Interactions, 65 Disordered Solids and Incommensurate Phases, 69 Phase Transitions and Nonlinear Excitations, 71 Opportunities, 72 3 CRITICAL PHENOMENA AND PHASE TRANSITIONS ........................... Introduction, 75 What Are Critical Phenomena, and Why Are They Interesting to Physicists? 75 Examples of Phase Transitions and Critical Points, 77 History, 78 39 .. 58 75

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. . CONTENTS X111 What Does One Measure? 80 What Determines the Universality Class? 84 Experimental Realizations of Low-Dimensional Systems, 87 Multicritical Points, 88 Systems with Almost-Broken Symmetry, 88 Two-Dimensional Superfluid and XY Model, 89 Melting of a Two-Dimensional Crystal, 89 Smectic A-to-Nematic Transition, 90 Quenched Disorder, 91 Percolation and the Metal-Insulator Transition in Disordered Systems, 92 Nonequilibrium Systems, 92 First-Order Transitions, 92 Outlook, 93 4 MAGNETISM........ Introduction, 95 Magnetic Insulators, 97 Low-Dimensional Systems, 97 Critical Phenomena, 100 Metallic Magnets, 100 Transition-Metal Ferromagnets, 100 Rare-Earth and Actinide Magnets, 103 Disordered Systems, 105 Introduction, 105 Disordered Ferromagnets, Antiferromagnets, and Paramagnets, 106 Spin Glasses, 108 Computer Simulations in Magnetism, Il0 Future Developments, ~12 5 SEMICONDUCTORS Introduction, il3 Surfaces and Interfaces, I l5 Defects in Semiconductors, Il7 Reduced Dimensionality in Semiconductors, I lS Optical Properties of Compound Semiconductors, ~19 95 ~3

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Xiv CONTENTS Amorphous Semiconductors, 121 Future Prospects, 122 Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces, 122 S e m i c o n d u c t o r - S e m i c o n d u c t o r I n t e r f a c e s , 1 2 3 ; Semiconductor-Insulator Interfaces, 123; Semiconductor Metal Interfaces, 124 Defects in Semiconductors, 124 Systems of Reduced Dimensionality, 125 Quantized Hall Eject, 125; Growth Techniques and Lithography, 125; Small Structures, 125; Heterostructures,126; The Two-Dimensional Wigner Crystal, 126 6 DEFECTS AND DIFFUSION ............ Introduction, 127 New Fields from Old: An Example, 128 Phase Microstructure and Phase Generation in Radiation Fields, 129 Surface and Near-Surface Probes, 130 Ion-Beam Microfabrication, 13 ~ Calculations of Defect Structure, 132 Fundamentals of Atomic Mobility, 134 Comments on Active Areas, 137 Point Defects in Simple Solids, 137 Surface Diffusion, 138 Photochemical Processes, 139 Molecular Dynamics, 139 Dislocation Motion in Glasses, 140 Defect Imaging at Atomic Resolution, 141 Some Directions for Future Research, 142 7 SURFACES AND INTERFACES ........... Introduction, 144 The Structure of the Crystal Surface, 147 Spectroscopy and Elementary Excitations on the Surface' 151 Interactions of Atoms and Molecules on the Surface, 155 ....... 127 ..... 144

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CONTENTS XV The Interface Between Solids and Dense Media, 157 Theory, 159 Opportunities, 160 8 LOW-TEMPERATURE PHYSICS....... Definition of Subfield, 164 Quantum Fluids, 164 Superfluid 3He, 166 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Superfluid 3He, 170; Ultrasound, 170; Other Sound Modes, 171; Defects, 171; Superfluid Flow and Hydrodynamics, 172 Novel Quantum Fluids, 172 Mixtures of 3He in 4He, 173; Spin-Polarized Hydrogen and Deuterium, 173; Liquid 4He in Unusual Geometries, 174; Electrons on Helium Surfaces, 175 Superconductivity, 176 Nonequilibrium Superconductivity, 179 Novel Superconducting Materials, 179 Magnetic Superconductors, I80 High-Transition-Temperature, High-Magnetic Field Materials, I80 The Josephson Effects, I82 Quantum Crystals, I82 Low-Temperature Technology, I85 Research Opportunities in Low-Temperature Physics, IS7 9 LIQUID-STATE PHYSICS Classical Liquids, 190 Introduction, 190 Static Properties, 191 Dynamical Properties of Classical Liquids, 193 Colloidal Systems Soap Solutions, 198 Liquid Crystals, 199 What Are Liquid Crystals? 199 Why Are Liquid Crystals Interesting? 200 Major Advances, 202 Opportunities for Future Work, 203 ... 164 ...... 190

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Xvi CONTENTS 10 POLYMERS ............................. Introduction, 206 Research Problems, 207 Amorphous State Solutions and Melts, 207 Glass, 209 . Elastomers, Gels, Cross-linked Networks, 209 Polymer Crystals, 210 Electrical Properties, 21 ~ Other Polymer Properties, 212 Opportunities, 213 11 NONLINEAR DYNAMICS, INSTABILITIES, AND CHAOS ............................. Introduction, 215 Major Advances, 2 ~ 6 A New Paradigm, 216 New Experimental Methods, 217 Routes to Chaos, 217 Dynamical Systems Theory of the Routes to Turbulence, 219 Dynamical Systems Analysis of Experiments, 221 Nonlinear Stability Theory, 222 Pattern Evolution, 223 Instabilities in Other Dissipative Systems, 223 Nonlinear Dynamics of Conservative Systems, 225 General Remarks, 226 Current Frontiers, 227 Bifurcation Sequences, 227 Patterns, 228 Numerical Simulations, 228 Experimental Methods, 229 Transition from Weak to Fully Developed Turbulence, 229 Conservative Systems, 230 Nonequilibrium Systems, 231 New Directions, 232 .... 206 ..... 215

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C0~ XV11 APPENDIXES ^ Connections Between Subareas of Condensed-~auer Physics and Applications of Nabona1 Interest .... ~ Nc~ Expedmenta1 Techniques C New Materials D Laser Spectroscopy of Condensed Anger E ~ As.. CONTR~UIOkS TO Tam VOLUME INDEX ..... 236 246 248 ~0 Ago 263 291 295

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