Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures

Summary of a Workshop

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

Richard G. Little

Paul B. Pattak

Wayne A. Schroeder

Editors

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1998



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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures Summary of a Workshop Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council Richard G. Little Paul B. Pattak Wayne A. Schroeder Editors NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1998

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract No. S-FBOAD-94-C-0023 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of State on behalf of the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The views presented in this report are solely those of the workshop participants and do not represent the position or opinion of the Defense Special Weapons Agency, the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, the National Research Council, or the National Academy of Sciences. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06288-8 Available in limited supply from: Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, HA 274, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418, (202) 334-3376 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Cover art: Schematic line drawing of underground facilities in Norway is reprinted by permission of the Norwegian Defence Construction Service Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop Board On Infrastructure And The Constructed Environment WALTER P. MOORE,* (Chair), Texas A&M University, College Station BRENDA MYERS BOHLKE, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., Herndon, Virginia CATHERINE BROWN,* University of Minnesota, Minneapolis NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Woolwich, Maine RICHARD DATTNER, Richard Dattner Architect, P.C., New York CHRISTOPHER M. GORDON, Massachusetts Port Authority, Boston NEIL GRIGG, Colorado State University, Fort Collins DELON HAMPTON, Delon Hampton & Associates, Washington, D.C. SUSAN E. HANSON, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts JAMES O. JIRSA, University of Texas, Austin GEORGE D. LEAL, Dames & Moore, Inc., Los Angeles VIVIAN LOFTNESS, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh NRC Staff RICHARD G. LITTLE, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment LYNDA L. STANLEY, Director, Federal Facilities Council JOHN A. WALEWSKI, Program Officer LORI DUPREE, Administrative Associate *   Deceased.

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Dr. Brenda Meyers Bohlke, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., Reston, Virginia Mr. Reuben Samuels, NAE, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., New York, New York Dr. Eugene Sevin, NAE, Lyndhurst, Ohio Mr. Peter Smeallie, Research Opportunities Management, Alexandria, Virginia Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the NRC.

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop Contents     Introduction   1     Background   1     Organization of the Workshop   2     Key Issues Identified   3     Welcoming Address Maj. Gen. Gary L. Curtin   5     Findings of the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection Frederick M. Struble   7     Key Issues in Going Underground Donald Woodard   12     Infrastructure Protection in the United States: A Norwegian Perspective Arnfinn Jenssen   14     Panel Discussions   15     Panel 1:Infrastructure Protection Issues Moderator: George Baker   15     James Werth   15     Robert Minehart   17     John Reingruber   19     Raymond Daddazio   20     Questions and Answers   21     Panel 2:Needs and Requirements of the Infrastructure Community Moderator:Richard Little   24     Michael Brandenburg   24     Paul Rodgers   24     Daniel Schutzer   27     Michael Shannon   28     Questions and Answers   28

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop     Panel 3:Experience with Underground Facilities: Capabilities, Limitations, and Applications Moderator: Angelo Cicolani   30     Angelo Cicolani   30     Paul Ryall   31     Donald Woodard   33     Arnfinn Jenssen   35     Questions and Answers   37     Panel 4:Factors Influencing the Decision-Making Process Moderator:Paul Byron Pattak   38     John B. Copenhaver   38     Derek Long   39     Carl Peterson   40     Irwin Pikus   41     Eugene Sevin   41     Questions and Answers   42     Summary   44     Breakout Sessions   45     Technical Session Summary James Beck and Gary McIntire   45     Policy Session Summary Paul Byron Pattak and Wayne Schroeder   46     Closing Remarks   48 Appendix A:   Speaker Biographies   50 Appendix B:   Workshop Agenda   59 Appendix C:   Workshop Participants   62 Appendix D:   Underground Site Infrastructure Applications Working Group   64