APPENDIX A
Speaker Biographies

George H. Baker III Dr. Baker is currently chief of the Springfield Research Facility, the national center of excellence for underground technologies of the Defense Special Weapons Agency. He began his career at the Harry Diamond Laboratories in nuclear electromagnetic effects protection and instrumentation design and later transitioned to the Defense Special Weapons Agency, initially managing survivability programs for the Air Force Peacekeeper and Army ballistic missile defense systems. He developed the agency's source region electro-magnetic pulse program and launched several associated underground test programs. He also developed new models to explain global fallout dispersion from U.S. and Russian atmospheric tests. In 1983 Dr. Baker chaired the working group that defined the U.S. high power microwave program. In 1987 he was appointed team leader for the agency's integrated electromagnetic effects program. During 1994–1996 he served as chief of the Innovative Concepts Division overseeing space nuclear power technology, the electrothermal chemical gun program, and the agency's university grants programs. He assumed leadership of the Springfield Research Facility in 1996. Dr. Baker currently cochairs the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Groups, Underground Focus Group and the Underground Site Infrastructure Assurance Applications Working Group. He is a member of the Technology Panel on Directed Energy Weapons, the New York Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and Who's Who in Science and Engineering.

James E. Beck Mr. Beck deals with structural engineering issues at the Defense Special Weapons Agency's Springfield Research Facility and is a member of the Underground Site Infrastructure Assurance Applications Working Group. He has over 26 years of experience in structural mechanics; structural dynamics; matrix-computer analysis; concrete, wood, masonry, and steel structural design; and analysis of structures. His capabilities have been used to examine the effects of nuclear and conventional weapons on structures; to design structures to resist accidental explosions at gas-handling facilities and oil refineries; and to evaluate the capabilities of structures to resist the effects of natural disasters, including high winds, hurricanes, tornadoes, and earthquakes. He holds B.S. (University of Maryland) and M.S. (Stanford University) degrees in Civil Engineering.

Michael Brandenburg Mr. Brandenburg is director of AT&T's Special Government Services, located in Oakton, Virginia. He leads a 150-person



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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop APPENDIX A Speaker Biographies George H. Baker III Dr. Baker is currently chief of the Springfield Research Facility, the national center of excellence for underground technologies of the Defense Special Weapons Agency. He began his career at the Harry Diamond Laboratories in nuclear electromagnetic effects protection and instrumentation design and later transitioned to the Defense Special Weapons Agency, initially managing survivability programs for the Air Force Peacekeeper and Army ballistic missile defense systems. He developed the agency's source region electro-magnetic pulse program and launched several associated underground test programs. He also developed new models to explain global fallout dispersion from U.S. and Russian atmospheric tests. In 1983 Dr. Baker chaired the working group that defined the U.S. high power microwave program. In 1987 he was appointed team leader for the agency's integrated electromagnetic effects program. During 1994–1996 he served as chief of the Innovative Concepts Division overseeing space nuclear power technology, the electrothermal chemical gun program, and the agency's university grants programs. He assumed leadership of the Springfield Research Facility in 1996. Dr. Baker currently cochairs the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Groups, Underground Focus Group and the Underground Site Infrastructure Assurance Applications Working Group. He is a member of the Technology Panel on Directed Energy Weapons, the New York Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and Who's Who in Science and Engineering. James E. Beck Mr. Beck deals with structural engineering issues at the Defense Special Weapons Agency's Springfield Research Facility and is a member of the Underground Site Infrastructure Assurance Applications Working Group. He has over 26 years of experience in structural mechanics; structural dynamics; matrix-computer analysis; concrete, wood, masonry, and steel structural design; and analysis of structures. His capabilities have been used to examine the effects of nuclear and conventional weapons on structures; to design structures to resist accidental explosions at gas-handling facilities and oil refineries; and to evaluate the capabilities of structures to resist the effects of natural disasters, including high winds, hurricanes, tornadoes, and earthquakes. He holds B.S. (University of Maryland) and M.S. (Stanford University) degrees in Civil Engineering. Michael Brandenburg Mr. Brandenburg is director of AT&T's Special Government Services, located in Oakton, Virginia. He leads a 150-person

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop organization in AT&T government markets that provides government industrial security, engineering, and operations support to DoD and various other agencies. He has worked at AT&T for 27 years in assignments that included computer systems development, systems engineering, and operations, in Washington and at AT&T headquarters in New Jersey. Mr. Brandenburg has a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Iowa State University. Angelo Cicolani Mr. Cicolani is technical director of the Defense Special Weapons Agency's Springfield Research Facility. Mr. Cicolani served in the U.S. Navy from 1950 to 1975 in the last of the all-gun ships, amphibious forces, first of the all-missile ships, fast attack and ballistic missile submarines. A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy, he was one of a few chief reactor operators of both nuclear ships and submarines. From 1970 to 1975 he was special assistant for systems analysis at the Polaris, Poseidon, and Trident Strategic Systems Program Office. Since 1975 he has been a program manager for survivability studies of command, control, communications, and information systems and has been involved at SRF in developing many of the techniques for improving survivability or exploiting the vulnerabilities of underground facilities. His specialty in underground facility analysis is damage control and recovery operations. He has degrees in marine engineering and operations research. John B. Copenhaver Mr. Copenhaver was appointed as director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's Region IV office in Atlanta, Georgia, in late 1997. As regional director, Mr. Copenhaver is responsible for administering a variety of federal emergency preparedness, prevention, and disaster relief programs for Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Mr. Copenhaver is a long-time Georgia resident with extensive private-sector emergency management experience. Prior to joining FEMA, he was team adviser for the Worldwide Crisis Response Team of IBM's Business Recovery Services. He also worked as director of business continuity services for Bell South Business Systems and earlier served as that organization's marketing manager with responsibilities for development and deployment of Bell South's Emergency Preparedness Program. Mr. Copenhaver holds a bachelor's degree in planetary geology from Brown University and a law degree from the University of Georgia School of Law. He is a member of the state bar of Georgia and is a certified business continuity professional. Maj. Gen. Gary L. Curtin Gen. Curtin has been Director of the Defense Special Weapons Agency since mid-1995 after long experience in intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) operations, arms control, intelligence, command control, and international affairs. As a young officer he filled positions as an ICBM missile launch officer, an intelligence targeting officer and politico-military affairs staff officer. Gen. Curtin served as commander of

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop the 90th Strategic Missile Wing, Cheyenne, Wyoming from 1986–1988, commanding 200 Minuteman III ICBMs and managing the deployment of 50 new Peacekeeper ICBMs. He was director of Command Control of Strategic Air Command (SAC) in Omaha, Nebraska from 1988–1989, responsible for the SAC underground command center and the Looking Glass airborne command post. He also managed the construction and activation of SAC's new underground command center, now used by the U.S. Strategic Command. From 1990–1991, Gen. Curtin was the senior US military member of the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) during negotiation of the START I treaty in Geneva. He subsequently became the Joint Staff's deputy director for international negotiations during conclusion of the START II, open skies, and chemical weapons treaties. Gen. Curtin also served as director of Intelligence for U.S. Strategic Command from 1993–1995, dramatically downsizing and refocusing that organization in light of changes in the post-Cold War threat. Gen. Curtin holds a B.S. in aerospace engineering from the University of Maryland and an M.S. in economics from South Dakota State University. He is a graduate of the National War College and Harvard University's Program for Senior Executives. Gen. Curtin wears the Command Missile Operations badge and the Senior Officer Aircrewmember badge, reflecting his 2500 aircrew flying hours and 105 combat missions in Southeast Asia. He has been awarded the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the Defense Superior Service Medal, the Legion of Merit, the Bronze Star, three Meritorious Service Medals, and three Air Medals. Raymond P. Daddazio Dr. Daddazio is director of the Applied Science Division of Weidlinger Associates. He is a registered professional engineer with 23 years of experience in elastic and inelastic analysis of structures. He is a developer of the first principles, finite element computer program EPSA (elastic-plastic shell analysis) used to perform large-deflection elastic-plastic structural analysis of structures subjected to dynamic loading. He is the principal investigator for structures programs sponsored by the Carderock Division/Naval Surface Warfare Center, Office of Naval Research, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and Naval Sea Systems Command. He was codeveloper of several innovative approaches for quantifying the effects of uncertainties in structural systems. Dr. Daddazio received his Eng.Sc.D. degree from Columbia University in 1982. He also received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in civil engineering from Columbia in 1975 and 1976, respectively. Arnfinn Jenssen Mr. Jenssen joined the Norwegian Defence Construction Service (NDCS) in 1957 and served as chief of test and development from 1964 until his retirement in 1996. He was responsible for research and development of all military and NATO installations in Norway, including many underground facilities. During the same period, he was a member of committees such as the KLOTZ Club (an international explosives safety committee), the NATO committee to establish criteria for War Headquarters, and the NATO ad hoc

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop committee on protective construction measures. He retired in 1996 but remains an adviser to the NDCS. Richard G. Little Mr. Little is director of the National Research Council's (NRC) Division of Infrastructure. In this capacity, he develops and directs a program of studies in building and infrastructure research related to the social and technical interactions that occur between people and the built environment. The NRC's current activities in infrastructure are focused on the provision, performance, surety, and sustainability of constructed facilities. Mr. Little is also a consultant to the private sector and government agencies, prior to joining the NRC, served as director of the planning division in Fairfax County, Virginia. Mr. Little has over twenty-five years experience in the planning, management, and development of policy relating to public facilities and holds a B.S. in geology and an M.S. in urban-environmental studies from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Derek M. Long Mr. Long has been a managing business consultant with BT Syntegra since 1993. Following a 30-year career in the Royal Navy, initially in aviation and then with the Intelligence Service, Mr. Long served as a principal security consultant with ICL Defence Systems. An authority on information vulnerability, information assurance, and the impact of the new digital environment on the management of enterprise structures, he has been advising the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in the research and development of United Kingdom and MoD strategies and policies for information warfare (IW). Mr. Long was the founder of the BT corporate defensive IW program and currently provides advice on corporate strategy and the impact of IW upon BT development. He has developed the concept of a National Information Assurance Center for use by Her Majesty's Government (HMG), commerce, and the public. He is also a Board member of HMG's Defence Scientific Advisory Council, where he has served on various working groups. Gary McIntire Mr. McIntire is a program manager at the Defense Special Weapons Agency's Springfield Research Facility and is a member of the Underground Site Infrastructure Assurance Applications Working Group. He currently specializes in infrastructure survivability and vulnerability assessments. He has worked on systems survivability issues for over 20 years. Mr. McIntire served in the U.S. Air Force for 27 years in a variety of worldwide tactical aviation, research, and staff assignments. He has degrees in aeronautical engineering from Saint Louis University and psychology from the University of Northern Colorado. Robert F. Minehart Mr. Minehart is visiting professor for information warfare at the Army War College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania. A license professional engineer, Mr. Minehart's experience includes work at the National Security Agency and at Boeing as a flight test engineer. Mr. Minehart has conducted

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop extensive research in the fields of modeling, laser remote sensing, numerical analysis, computer programming, and engineering design. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in mechanical engineering from West Virginia University in 1979 and 1982, respectively. Mr. Minehart continued his education in electrical engineering at the University of Wisconsin, Georgia Tech, and George Washington University. Paul Byron Pattak Mr. Pattak served as a senior consultant to the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection and is currently working in the same capacity for the PCCIP Transition Office (PCCIPTO), which succeeded the commission. He currently coordinates the PCCIPTO outreach effort to brief various executive branch organizations on the work of the PCCIP and is involved in the editing and review process of PCCIP supporting documents to the Commission's report. He also serves as a resource to the PCCIP Advisory Committee. Mr. Pattak is a consultant, educator, and entrepreneur for corporate and government clients and has also served in the Bush administration as special assistant to the associate director for national preparedness at the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Previously, he was the transition office contact for FEMA in the office of the president-elect. He has also worked on the personal staff of the Secretary of Defense and at the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health. Carl R. Peterson Dr. Peterson is professor emeritus of mechanical engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and director of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Institute. His industrial experience includes employment at Ingersoll-Rand Research; Foster-Miller, Inc.; and his own company, RAPIDEX, Inc. Most of that work was associated with the design and development of advanced drilling, mining, and construction equipment. His academic work was largely in the teaching of design, with emphasis on encouraging student creativity, and he was an active member of the department's new curriculum development committee. He received a B.S.E. from the University of Michigan in 1956, as well as S.M. (1958) and Sc.D. (1963) degrees from MIT, all in mechanical engineering. Irwin M. Pikus A member of the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection, Dr. Pikus's career focus has been on the role of science and technology in addressing national goals and objectives. A charter member of the Senior Executive Service, he began his government career in 1975 with the U.S. Department of State. Since 1987, Dr. Pikus has been with the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Export Administration, where he led an office that collected and analyzed information dealing with foreign technology comparable to the advanced technologies whose exports are controlled by the United States. Prior to his government career, he was an individual contributor and project manager in applied research with the aerospace and electronics industries. Dr. Pikus holds a Ph.D. degree in physics and a J.D. from Temple University.

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop John K. Reingruber Mr. Reingruber is currently the assistant for science and technology in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict. In 1984 he established the Congressionally mandated Special Operations Special Technology Program to help revitalize Special Operations Forces through the rapid development and fielding of prototypes. In 1987 he was selected as a staff assistant to the director of special operations technology, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence. Later he became as acting head of the Munitions Countermeasures Department at the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center, in Indian Head, Maryland. In 1989 he returned to direct the Special Technology Program Office, which is now the Office of Special Technology. In 1992 Mr. Reingruber was assigned to his current position where he oversees special operations, low-intensity conflict, and interagency counterterrorism and counterproliferation technology development programs. Paul Rodgers A member of the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection, Mr. Rodgers was the executive director and general counsel for the National Association of Regulated Utilities Commissioners (NARUC) in Washington, D.C., from 1965 to 1996. NARUC includes all state and federal agencies engaged in the regulation of public utilities and carriers. While at NARUC Mr. Rodgers was influential in strengthening the role of NARUC as an organization known and respected in Congress, the executive branch, and federal agencies. From 1960 to 1965 Mr. Rodgers served as assistant attorney general for the state of Georgia, during which time he represented the Public Service Commission and other state agencies and argued three cases before the U.S. Supreme Court. From 1957 to 1960, Mr. Rodgers was an attorney for the Atlanta Gas Light Company. A member of the District of Columbia and Georgia bars, he holds a J.D. degree from Mercer University. Paul B. Ryall Mr. Ryall is a staff civil engineer with ENSCO, Inc., working with the Springfield Research Facility on hardened facilities issues, with a focus on fire protection and customers' mission recovery after an incident. A career Air Force officer, he was the base civil engineer (director of public works) of the Cheyenne Mountain Air Station in Colorado Springs, Colorado for four years. He commanded a 200-person organization that provided real property, utility, and emergency response functions to support NORAD and U.S. Space Command missions in the Cheyenne Mountain hardened complex. By converting to 100 percent commercial electric power, he helped the Cheyenne Mountain Complex reduce its annual operations and maintenance budget by over $2 million. His first experience with hardened facilities was in Europe as a safety engineer. He ensured that the facilities constructed through the NATO infrastructure construction program complied with life safety codes, and he designed and constructed numerous revetment projects to provide splinter protection for aircraft and facilities. Mr. Ryall has a B.S. in civil engineering

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop from Rutgers University and is a registered professional civil engineer in California. He also holds an M.B.A. in business and marketing. Wayne A. Schroeder Dr. Schroeder, a senior research specialist with Logicon RDA, provides support to the Defense Special Weapons Agency's Springfield Research Facility on infrastructure assurance and is a member of the Underground Site Infrastructure Assurance Applications Working Group. A member of LRDA's systems engineering team since 1986, he has provided technical and analytical support to DSWA on counterproliferation, nuclear arms control, verification R&D, and test programs and policies. Over the past 20 years he has written extensively on defense planning, arms control, and international security in such publications as Strategic Review, Policy Review,Comparative Strategy, Military Engineer, Amphibious Warfare Review and the National Security Record. Dr. Schroeder received a B.A. in political science from the University of Oregon (1974), an M.A. in political science from Portland State University (1976) and A.M. and Ph.D. degrees in international relations from the University of Southern California (1979, 1981). Daniel Schutzer Dr. Schutzer is vice president and director of external organizations, standards, and advanced technology, at Citibank and the president of the Financial Services Technology Consortium. He previously held positions as technical director, naval intelligence, technical director, of the Navy's command, control, and communications and program manager at Sperry Rand. He also worked at Bell Labs, Syracuse University, and IBM. He currently has responsibility for interfacing with external organizations and standards bodies and for directing company-wide research. This includes coordinating research with business goals and priorities and keeping Citibank up to date with the latest technologies. His research projects include electronic commerce, risk management, customer behavioral modeling and mathematical marketing, and new product design. Advanced technology projects under investigation include agent technology, machine learning, multimedia, image and voice processing, and high performance computing. He has authored seven books and over 65 other publications. Dr. Schutzer received a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the College of the City of New York and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Syracuse University. Eugene Sevin An independent consultant, Dr. Sevin's research interests are in nuclear and conventional weapons effects, hardened facility design, and computational structural mechanics. Dr. Sevin has served as chief of the Strategic Structures Division of the Defense Nuclear Agency and as assistant to the deputy director for science and technology for experimental research, DNA. He joined the Office of the Secretary of Defense in 1986 as director, space and missile systems. Previously, he served as professor of mechanical engineering at the Israel Institute of Technology and was head of mechanical engineering at Ben Gurion University of the Negev, in Israel. Dr. Sevin is a member of the

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop National Academy of Engineering and holds a Ph.D. in applied mechanics from the Illinois Institute of Technology, an M.S. in mechanical engineering from the California Institute of Technology, and a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology. Michael Shannon Mike Shannon is chief of special operations, for the Oklahoma City Fire Department. He began his hazardous materials work in the U.S. Navy with nuclear, chemical, and biological warfare in 1972 and continued through 1976. Mr. Shannon has over 20 years of service with the Oklahoma City Fire Department. During the bombing incident in Oklahoma City in 1995, he served as rescue operations chief for 288 hours over a 16-day period. This placed him in charge of all technical rescue and recovery operations in the Murrah Building. He was the first firefighter to enter the building and made the recommendation to cease recovery operations. Frederick M. Struble A member of the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection, Dr. Struble has served as a member of the commission's Banking and Finance Sector Team and its Economic Team. He has insight and knowledge gained over several decades of professional service in banking and regulation, financial analysis, and economic policy. Dr. Struble worked for more than 25 years in various positions at the Federal Reserve Board, serving as deputy associate director responsible for the work of the government finance and the capital markets sections. He also served in the Division of Banking Supervision and Regulation. Previously, he worked as a financial economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City and as a teaching assistant in the Department of Economics at the University of Colorado. Dr. Struble received a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Colorado in 1965 and a degree in business administration from the University of Kansas. James A. Werth Mr. Werth is a supervisory special agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), where he has been worked for more than 26 years. Most of his investigative/operational experience has involved matters concerning foreign counterterrorism and counterintelligence. He has been stationed at a number of field offices in the country and has been FBI representative to U.S. embassies in Belgium and Switzerland. He is currently assigned to the Infrastructure Protection Task Force and National Information Protection Center at FBI headquarters in Washington, D.C. Mr. Werth received a B.A. degree from St. Benedicts's College and a Master of Public Administration from the University of Missouri, Kansas City. Donald P. Woodard Mr. Woodard is director of underground planning and development at Park College, Parkville, Missouri. He previously held similar positions for the Garney Company and Hunt Midwest. He has been in underground development for many years and is also currently the executive

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Use of Underground Facilities to Protect Critical Infrastructures: Summary of a Workshop director of the Underground Developers Association in Kansas City. Prior to focusing full time on underground development, he served as director of planning for the cities of Kansas City, Missouri and Tulsa and the state of Missouri. He is familiar with all 16 operating commercial undergrounds in the Kansas City area.