concentration reduction. One can use equation 8.1 to provide some insight into the relative efficacy of the two approaches. Indoor radon concentration is directly proportional to the source term and (again neglecting outdoor air as a source) inversely proportional to the removal terms. Considering the latter first, removal can mean either increased ventilation or some other method of removing radon or radon decay products from indoor air. In any case, for the previous example, to decrease the radon concentration by a factor of 2 by ventilation alone, the AER will need to be increased to 1.8 h-1. Although that is not an excessive ventilation rate and is often achieved naturally when doors and windows are open, AER values of 2 h-1 commonly have comfort and energy penalties during colder seasons. Thus, this means of reducing radon concentration has some practical upper limits. In addition, forced ventilation can result in additional depressurization of a building and potentially increase the radon entry rate.

Other nonventilation removal methods are possible, and two are described in more detail below. As with ventilation, substantial removal means processing indoor air at rates that are comparable with or greater than the ventilation rate (about 270 m3 h-1 in the example above). It also means that essentially the entire living space will need to be treated; this could require multiple single-room reduction devices (such as air cleaning, described below) or whole-house devices used in conjunction with a forced-air system. In the following sections, source-control methods are described first and then concentration-reduction methods.

Source Control

When high indoor radon concentrations in houses were found in various locations in North America in the middle 1970s, initial research on reduction methods was based on two key assumptions: that the source term was high concentrations of radium in soil materials derived from uranium mining and that the principal means of radon transport and entry was diffusion. Thus, initial attempts at source control focused on removal of the materials, typically uranium mill tailings used as back fill under floor slabs or adjacent to basement walls. In addition, several projects investigated the use of coatings and other sealants that would serve as an additional barrier to radon diffusion (see, for example, Culot and others 1978). Although removal of some of the high-radium-concentration materials had an effect, indoor radon concentrations in some cases were not reduced commensurately. As additional measurements of indoor radon concentration were conducted, houses were found with high indoor radon concentrations that had no known anthropogenically enhanced radon source (Sachs and others 1982). At the same time, mass-balance considerations (similar to equation 8.1 above) showed that diffusion alone had only a slight potential to produce the high indoor concentrations that were being observed (Bruno 1983).

Although removal of high-radium-concentration source materials can be part of an overall radon-control method, it generally is not part of current practice,



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