Index

A

Absolute risk, 78, 93-94, 95

defined, 223

Absorbed dose, 1, 9, 14, 27-28, 59, 62, 63, 64, 66, 68, 73, 74-81 (passim), 103, 107, 136, 137, 223, 245, 248, 258, 259

Action levels, 3, 172, 190

see also Alternative maximum contaminant level

Maximum contaminant level

Active, subslab depressurization, 146-148, 151-152, 153, 154, 157, 158, 223

Adipose tissue, 14, 63, 64, 68, 84, 85, 238, 239

Advection, 15-26, 141-142, 143, 146, 147, 148, 152, 223

active, subslab depressurization, 146-148, 151-152, 153, 154, 157, 158, 223

Aeration, 19-20, 161-167, 176-177, 179, 249-251

Aerodynamic diameter, 27, 223

Aerosol characteristics, general, 15, 26, 84, 87, 89-90, 91, 149, 150, 199

Age factors, 61, 74, 76, 131

absorbed-dose rates, 78-79

exposure, age at first, 97

exposure-age-concentration model, 135

exposure-age-duration model, 98, 135

gender-age-specific models, 14-15, 18, 76, 79, 80

lifetime risk, 77-78, 79, 93

tapwater intake, 61

see also Children

Airborne radon, 1-3, 8, 9, 16, 17-18, 50-58, 29-30, 37-47, 127

aeration systems, 162-165

ambient radon (outdoor), 10, 12-13, 19, 37-49, 132-133, 182

breathing rate, 27, 83, 84, 103, 128, 261

concentrations, 2, 3, 10-1l, 12, 15, 16, 19, 21, 26-26, 29, 31, 32-48, 91, 101, 103, 124, 145, 148-151, 154-157, 182, 184, 186-188, 199, 261, 262

see also Alternative maximum contaminant level;

Maximum contaminant level

dosimetry, general, 27-28, 15, 82-104, 105, 107

mitigation, 15, 19, 21-22, 31, 144-160, 162-165, 182-188, 195

multimedia programs, 5, 21-22, 182-188, 196

regional concentrations, 9, 12, 21, 32-33, 44-45, 49, 132, 168, 185, 199

regulatory problems, 10-11



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--> Index A Absolute risk, 78, 93-94, 95 defined, 223 Absorbed dose, 1, 9, 14, 27-28, 59, 62, 63, 64, 66, 68, 73, 74-81 (passim), 103, 107, 136, 137, 223, 245, 248, 258, 259 Action levels, 3, 172, 190 see also Alternative maximum contaminant level Maximum contaminant level Active, subslab depressurization, 146-148, 151-152, 153, 154, 157, 158, 223 Adipose tissue, 14, 63, 64, 68, 84, 85, 238, 239 Advection, 15-26, 141-142, 143, 146, 147, 148, 152, 223 active, subslab depressurization, 146-148, 151-152, 153, 154, 157, 158, 223 Aeration, 19-20, 161-167, 176-177, 179, 249-251 Aerodynamic diameter, 27, 223 Aerosol characteristics, general, 15, 26, 84, 87, 89-90, 91, 149, 150, 199 Age factors, 61, 74, 76, 131 absorbed-dose rates, 78-79 exposure, age at first, 97 exposure-age-concentration model, 135 exposure-age-duration model, 98, 135 gender-age-specific models, 14-15, 18, 76, 79, 80 lifetime risk, 77-78, 79, 93 tapwater intake, 61 see also Children Airborne radon, 1-3, 8, 9, 16, 17-18, 50-58, 29-30, 37-47, 127 aeration systems, 162-165 ambient radon (outdoor), 10, 12-13, 19, 37-49, 132-133, 182 breathing rate, 27, 83, 84, 103, 128, 261 concentrations, 2, 3, 10-1l, 12, 15, 16, 19, 21, 26-26, 29, 31, 32-48, 91, 101, 103, 124, 145, 148-151, 154-157, 182, 184, 186-188, 199, 261, 262 see also Alternative maximum contaminant level; Maximum contaminant level dosimetry, general, 27-28, 15, 82-104, 105, 107 mitigation, 15, 19, 21-22, 31, 144-160, 162-165, 182-188, 195 multimedia programs, 5, 21-22, 182-188, 196 regional concentrations, 9, 12, 21, 32-33, 44-45, 49, 132, 168, 185, 199 regulatory problems, 10-11

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--> showering, 57, 85-92, 255 transfer coefficients, 13, 15, 25, 30-31, 50-58, 126, 133-134, 143, 182, 229, 261 uncertainties, 18, 132-133 see also Aerosol characteristics AIRDOSE model, 162 Alternative maximum contaminant level, 2-5 (passim), 10, 20-21, 31, 180-188 (passim), 196, 223 Angiogenesis, 119, 223 Ambient radon, 10, 12-13, 19, 37-49, 182 uncertainties, 132-133 see also Airborne radon American Water Works Association, 56, 166 Apoptosis, 105, 106, 113, 115, 116-118, 121, 223 Apurinic site, 114 Atom bomb survivors, 28, 77-78, 80-81, 95, 131, 137 Attributable risk, 16, 100, 135, 223, 263 B Background exposure, 1, 8, 23, 37-49, 105 Backwashing, 165, 167, 169, 172, 175-176, 178, 223, 252 Basements, houses with, 1, 33, 141, 142, 145, 146, 147, 148-149, 152, 155, 156, 157 Bayesian models, 33 BEIR IV report, 17, 93, 95-96, 99, 103 BEIR VI report, 13, 15, 16, 17, 83, 93, 94, 95, 99-100, 103, 122, 131, 134-135 Best-available technology, 20 aeration, 161, 179 alternative maximum contaminant level, 181 blending, 177 granular activated carbon, 168, 174, 179, 263 national ambient average concentration, 13, 132-133 reverse osmosis, 177 Biologic processes, general, 13-14, 63-76, 131 see also Embryos; Carcinogenesis and carcinogens; Cells and cellular processes; Molecular processes Blending (water treatment), 177, 179 Blood and blood vessels, 27, 63, 75, 81, 84, 107, 119-120, 136, 241 hematopoietic processes, 120, 225 PBPK models, 14, 31, 66-72, 76, 227, 233-240 Bone and skeletal system, 63, 78, 79, 80, 85, 239, 251 Breasts, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 100, 113, 118, 119 Breathing rate, 27, 83, 84, 103, 128, 261 Bronchi, dosimetry, 15, 82, 83, 91-92, 107-108 Building materials, see Construction materials and practices C CARBDOSE, 171, 259 Carcinogens and carcinogenesis, 105-123 defined, 224 disinfection byproducts, 165-166, 254-256 see also Cells and cellular processes; Genetics; Lungs and lung cancer; Molecular processes; Stomach; other specific cancers Caspases, 116-117, 224 Cells and cellular processes, 13-14, 28, 73, 84, 97, 105-123, 131, 224 apoptosis, 105, 106, 113, 115, 116-118, 121, 223 basal cells, 119 crypts, 107, 224, 241, 245, 248 cytokines, 108, 117, 224 doses and dosimetry, 105, 107-108, 109-110, 115-116, 120-123 endogenous, 109, 116, 120 hematopoietic, 120, 225 in vitro studies, 64, 110, 121 in vivo studies, 121 mitochondria, 109, 226 preneoplastic, 120, 228 proliferation, 107, 118, 119-120, 121, 122, 131,228, 241 regulatory, 105, 113, 114, 115-116, 118, 119, 120, 121, 131 repair, 28, 93, 106, 107, 110-114, 115-116, 118, 199 secretory, 71-72, 105, 107, 119, 135, 241 signal transduction, 108, 111, 112, 113, 116, 117-118, 119, 229

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--> stem cells, 27, 65, 71, 72, 107-108, 120, 121, 135, 136, 140, 241, 245, 246, 248 target cells, 14-15, 73-74, 83, 84, 103, 118 see also Epithelial cells; Genetics Children, 100, 239-240 tapwater intake, 61 water contaminants, other than radon, 59-60 Chlorination, 165, 166, 175, 255-256 trihalomethanes, 165, 166, 179, 229, 254 Chromatin, 114, 224 Chromosomes, 105, 114-115, 121 DNA repair, 110-111 risk assessment, 13 Cigarettes, see Smoking A Citizen's Guide to Radon, 28-29, 41 Clean Air Act, 163 Colon cancer, 17, 118-119 Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, 172-173, 190 Constant-relative risk model, 94, 95 Construction materials and practices, 33, 143, 151-160, 198-199 building codes, 33, 152-153, 157, 159-160 cracks, 146, 152, 154, 160, 192 radon-resistant buildings, 152-152, 187-188, 198 Cost and cost-benefit factors, 22, 129 mitigation, 9-10, 20-21, 22, 160, 167, 174-175, 183, 184, 187, 188, 192-193, 194, 197 multimedia mitigation, 20-21, 22, 183, 184, 187, 188, 192-193, 194, 197 incentives, 21, 192-193 Council of American Building Officials, 153 Countercurrent flow, 65, 224, 249, 250 Cracks, buildings, 146, 152, 154, 160, 192 Crypts, 107, 224, 241, 245, 248 Cytokines, 108, 117, 224 D Databases, 32-33, 36-37, 53, 54 Decay, radioactive, general, 1, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16, 23-27, 29, 46, 235 ingestion dosimetry, 14, 59, 60, 62-63, 65, 73-76, 78 inhalation dosimetry, 15, 82-84, 85-86, 89-90, 103 Demographic factors special populations, 81 see also Age factors; Gender factors; Poverty Department of Agriculture, 60 Department of Energy, 54-55 Diet, see Nutrition Diffusional factors entry into buildings, general, 142-143, 144 lung-blood, 84 soil gas, general, 25, 141, 142-143, 145 stomach wall, 14, 27, 59, 64, 65-66, 71-73, 75, 76, 135-136, 137, 139, 140, 198, 237, 241-248 Diffusion bubble aeration, 161, 249-250 Disinfection and disinfection by-products, 11, 20, 165-166, 171-178, 179, 182, 195, 224, 254-256 trihalomethanes (THMs), 165, 166, 179, 229, 254 ultraviolet disinfection, 182 DNA, 13, 28, 106, 108, 109, 114-115, 116, 118, 120, 121, 122, 131 chromosomes, 13, 105, 110-111, 114-115, 121 episomes, 115, 224 microsatellite repeats, 113, 226 nonhomologous recombination, 110, 112, 113, 116, 227 repair, 28, 93, 106, 107, 110-114, 115-116, 118, 199 telomerase, 113, 229 transcription, 113, 114, 115, 116, 120, 229 transduction, 108, 111, 112, 113, 116, 117-118, 119 translation, 114, 229 Dose and dosimetry, 10, 13, 27-28, 59-104, 151 absorbed dose, 1, 9, 14, 27-28, 59, 62, 63, 64, 66, 68, 73, 74-81 (passim), 103, 107, 136, 137, 223, 245, 248, 258, 259 age factors, 78-79 airborne radiation, general, 27-28, 15, 82-104, 105, 107 bone, 63, 78, 79, 80, 85, 239, 251 breasts, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 100, 113, 118, 119 bronchi, 15, 82, 83, 91-92, 107-108 cellular processes, 105, 107-108, 109-110, 115-116, 120-123

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--> disinfectants, 254-255 equations, 68, 73-75, 98 gastrointestinal tract, general, 62-63, 64, 233-237 granular activated carbon controls, 168, 169-171, 178, 179, 257-259 ingested radon, general, 14, 31, 59-81, 263-267 (passim) inhaled radon, general, 15, 82-104, 105, 107, 261 lungs, 27-28, 63, 66, 67, 75, 76, 79, 83, 84, 89-91, 100-102, 136, 150, 199, 235, 236, 239 miner studies, 9, 15, 82-83, 93, 95-99, 100, 108, 128 molecular changes, 105, 111-112 particle size, 15, 27, 84-91 (passim), 149-151, 199 PBPK models, 14, 31, 66-72, 76, 227, 233-240 potential alpha energy concentration, 26-27, 82, 83, 84, 88, 150 showering, 57, 84-92, 255 smoking, 84 stochastic processes, 73, 127, 229 stomach, 14, 27, 59, 60, 64, 65-66, 71-73, 75, 76, 80, 107, 128-129, 135-137, 140, 198, 233, 237, 238, 241-248 uncertainty, 127-129, 134, 260-267 (passim) see also Diffusional factors: Exposure Dose-effect (dose-response) models, 109, 110, 122, 199 uncertainty, 18, 19, 124, 131 E Economic factors, see Cost and cost-benefit factors; Incentives; Poverty Education, see Public education Embryos, 81, 116 Environmental Protection Agency, 6, 22, 30 action levels, 3, 172, 190 alternative maximum contaminant level, 2-5 (passim), 10, 20-21, 31, 180-188 (passim), 196, 223 concentration measurement, 12-13, 33, 37, 41-44, 48, 144, 162 maximum contaminant level, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 20-21, 29, 161, 162, 169, 176, 179, 180, 182-189 (passim), 196, 226 mitigation, 4, 10, 11, 20-21, 150, 153, 154-155, 156, 158-163, 165, 167, 168, 169, 172, 177 multimedia pollution/programs, 4, 10, 11, 20-21, 162-164, 179, 180, 184, 185, 186, 191, 195, 196, 197 public education, 191 radon-resistant buildings, 153, 188 risk assessments, 11, 14-15, 17, 28-30, 76, 126, 127-129, 132, 133-134, 137, 139, 140, 162, 165-166, 168 uncertainty, 127-129, 139, 140, 163, 260-267 state programs, 4, 10, 29, 153-157, 159, 163-164, 180 transfer coefficient, 13, 58, 133-134 water contaminants, other than radon, 59-60 see also Safe Drinking Water Act Episomes, 115, 224 Epithelial cells, 107, 225 bronchial, 15, 82, 83, 91-92, 107-108 lung, 27, 107 stomach, 14, 27, 59, 64, 65-66, 71-73, 75, 76, 135-136, 137, 140, 198, 237, 241-248 Equations alternative maximum contaminant level, 181-182 ambient radon concentration, 48-49, 144, 145 disinfection, risk assessment, 254 dose, 68, 73-75, 98 exposure, 98, 126 granular activated carbon, 251-252, 258-259 ingestion risk, 14-15, 68 linear no-threshold models, 13-14, 15, 28, 122, 226 PBPK model, 234-238 radon gas partitioning, 25 risk, 126, 260-263, 265 stomach wall, radon diffusion, 242-248 target region energy absorbed, 73-74 see also Transfer coefficients Errors of measurement, 52, 130, 132 transfer coefficients, 13, 52 see also Uncertainty Exposure, general action levels, 3, 172, 190 background exposure, 1, 8, 23, 37-49, 105

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--> duration of exposure, 93, 97-98, 124-125, 135, 170-171, 254, 255, 261, 263 granular activated carbon controls, 168, 169-171, 178, 179, 257-259 national, 12-13, 32-36, 40-44, 182 occupational, 63-64, 82, 93, 100, 108; see also Miner studies pathways, 25-26 regional, 9, 12, 21, 32-37, 44-45, 49, 132, 168, 185, 199 site studies, 38, 39, 46-48, 51-53 time since exposure, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99 water use, general, 56, 84 uncertainty, 18-19, 51, 124-125, 129-130 see also Alternative maximum contaminant level; Dose and dosimetry; Maximum contaminant level; Weather Exposure-age-concentration, 135 Exposure-age-duration, 98, 135 Extended source models, 20, 169, 170, 171, 179, 257, 259 F Fans, 25, 91, 142, 146, 147, 152, 158, 160, 184 Federal government, see Funding; Legislation; specific departments and agencies Filter systems, mitigation, 150, 158, 167, 177 sampling, 46, 47, 82, 196 Formulas, see Equations Funding, 2, 4, 9-10 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors Fusion genes, 120, 225 G Gallbladder cancer, 102 Gamma radiation, 28, 257-259 atomic bomb survivors, 28, 77-78, 80-81, 95, 131, 137 defined, 225 granular activated carbon controls, 168, 169-171, 178, 179, 183, 257-259 Gastrointestinal tract, 14, 66, 68-69, 81 dosimetry, 62-63, 64, 233-237 intestines, 27-28, 65, 67-68, 107, 136, 233-237 see also Stomach Genetics, 12, 14-15, 105-123 oncogenes, 106, 118, 120, 225 proteins, 111-117 (passim), 224 regulatory genes, 105, 113, 114, 115-116, 118, 119, 120, 121, 131 see also Chromosomes; DNA; Reproductive effects; RNA; Teratogenic effects Gender factors, 61, 77 age-and gender-specific models, 14-15, 18, 76, 79, 80 lifetime risk, 77, 78, 79, 80 smokers, 103 stomach cancer, 102 tapwater intake, 61 uncertainties, 131 Genomic instability, 106, 109, 115, 120, 121 Geological Survey, 32-33 Granular activated carbon, 20, 149, 164, 168-176, 178, 179, 183, 225, 251-253, 257-259 Groundwater, 2, 11, 36-37, 84, 132, 165, 169, 179, 195 see also Wells Groundwater Disinfection Rule, 165 H Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters, 95 Heat-recovery ventilation, 149, 151, 158 Helicobacter pylori, 81, 107 Hematopoietic processes, 120, 225 Heterotrophic plate counts, 165, 175, 226 Hollow-fiber membrane systems, 178, 253 Home exposure, see Indoor radiation exposure Home testing, 4, 5, 51, 53, 155-156, 158-159, 184, 194, 198 Hormesis, 109, 226 I Improving Risk Communication, 138, 189 Incentives, 21, 192-193 Individual lifetime risk, 17 Indoor Radon Abatement Act, 28, 41 Information dissemination, see Public education Inhaled radon, see Airborne radon; Bronchi; Lungs and lung cancer

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--> Ion exchange treatment, 167, 170, 175, 226 International Atomic Energy Agency, 126 International Commission on Radiological Protection and Measurements, 64, 73, 74, 78, 95, 226, 239 Intestines, 27-28, 65, 67-68, 107, 136, 233-237 J Japan, atom bomb survivors, 28, 77-78, 80-81, 95, 131, 137 L Legislation Clean Air Act, 163 Indoor Radon Abatement Act, 28, 41 Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Policy Act, 173 Safe Drinking Water Act, 2, 3, 4, 9, 20, 29, 30, 160, 180, 189, 195 Water Pollution Control Act, 195-196 Leukemia, 78, 79, 80, 100 Lifetime risk, 16, 17-18, 77-81, 103, 104, 254 age factors, 77-78, 79, 93 BEIR IV model, 96 BEIR VI model, 15, 103 chronic intake, 80-81 EPA model, 14-15, 127, 162 gender factors, 77, 78, 79, 80 maximum contaminant revel, 29 NCRP model, 93-94 Linear no-threshold model, 13-14, 15, 28, 122, 226 Liver, 17, 63, 64, 67, 68, 102, 235 Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Policy Act, 173 Lungs and cancer, 6, 8, 78, 105, 107, 119, 121, 122, 130 background radiation, 6 children, 100 dosimetry, 27-28, 63, 66, 67, 75, 76, 79, 83-84, 89-91, 100-102, 136, 150, 199, 235, 236, 239 drinking water, 9, 14 duration of exposure, 1 miner studies, see Miner studies mitigation, 166, 182, 183, 191, 192 mortality, 1, 3, 5-6, 16, 19, 100, 101 public education, 191, 193 risk assessments, 1, 3, 6, 15, 16, 17, 78, 79, 80, 82-83, 89-91, 93-104, 134, 166, 182, 183 smoking, 3, 5, 8, 15, 16, 98, 193 M Mathematical models, see Equations Maximum contaminant level, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 20-21, 29, 161, 162, 169, 176, 179, 180, 182-189 (passim), 196, 226 see also Alternative maximum contaminant level Measurement and measurement techniques EPA, 12-13, 33, 37, 41-44 heterotrophic plate counts, 165, 175, 226 home testing, 4, 5, 51, 53, 155-156, 158-159, 184, 194, 198 national, 12-13, 32-36, 40-44 regional, 9, 12, 21, 32-37, 44-45 residential water use, 56 site studies, 38, 39, 46-48 state-level, 12-13, 36-37, 41-45 see also Dose and dosimetry; Equations; Error of measurement; Transfer coefficients; Uncertainty Meiosis, 110, 226 Men, see Gender factors Meta-analyses, 93, 99, 101, 226 Microsatellite repeats, 113, 226 MICRO-SHIELD, 258 Miner studies, 9, 15, 82-83, 93, 95-99, 100, 108, 131 mete-analyses, 93, 99, 101, 226 Mitigation measures, see Risk management Mitochondria, 109, 117, 226 Mitosis, 110, 111, 116, 227 proliferative cells, 107, 119-120, 228 Models, see Equations; Risk assessments Molecular processes, 105-123 dosimetry, 105, l11-112 uncertainty, 130-132 see also Genetics; Proteins Monte Carlo calculations, 126-127, 130, 139, 227, 260, 263, 265 Mucus, see Secretory cells and processes Multicommunity mitigation, 188-189, 194, 197

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--> Multimedia programs, 4-5, 6, 20-22, 31, 125, 180-197, 199 aeration, 19-20, 162-165, 249-251 airborne radiation, 5, 21-22, 182-188, 196 community-level actions, 4-5, 188-189, 194; see also Public education cost factors, 20-21, 22, 183, 184, 187, 188, 192-193, 194, 197 EPA, 4, 10, 11, 20-21, 162-164, 179, 180, 184, 185, 186, 191, 195, 196, 197 multicommunity risk-trading, 188-189, 194, 197 regional factors, 4-5, 21, 49, 185, 199 state-level actions, 4, 22, 180, 190-192, 195, 197 N National Cancer Institute, 93, 96-99, 101, 103 National Council on Radiological Protection and Measurements, 64, 93-95, 126 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, 163 National Inorganics and Radionuclides Survey, 37, 261 National Institutes of Health, 17, 94, 100 National Residential Radon Survey, 29, 185, 186 National Uranium Resource Evaluation, 32-33 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 60 Nonhomologous recombination, 110, 112, 113, 116, 227 Nutrition, 119-120 O Occupational exposure, 63-64, 82, 93, 95, 100, 108 granular activated carbon controls, 168, 169-171, 178, 179, 257-259 see also Miner studies Office of Management and Budget, 9-10 Office of Technology Assessment, 9 Oncogenes, 106, 118, 120, 225 Outdoor radon, see Ambient radon Outreach, 5, 21-22, 137-139, 189-193 8-Oxyguanine, 114, 227 P Packed tower aeration (PTA), 161, 163, 227, 249, 250 Particle size, 15, 27, 84-92 (passim), 149-151, 199 Passive stacks, 148, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 160 PBPK models, 14, 31, 66-72, 76, 233-240 defined, 227 Plug flow reactor, 227, 250 Point-of-entry treatment, 169-171, 195, 227, 249, 257-258 Poisson methods, 95 Pooled analyses, see Meta-analyses Population attributable risk, 100, 135 Potential alpha energy concentration, 26-27, 82, 83, 84, 88, 150 Poverty, 81 Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 126 Pressure factors, 38-39, 143, 146, 152-153 active, subslab depressurization, 146-148, 151-152, 153, 154, 157, 158, 223 passive stacks, 148, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 160 see also Advection Proteins, 111-117 (passim) caspases, 116-117, 224 Public education, 5, 21-22, 29, 137-139, 189-193, 194, 196-197 Public involvement, see Incentives; Outreach Public water supplies, general, 3-4, 9, 20, 189 concentration levels, general, 8-9, 36, 37, 132 MCLs/AMCLs, 3-4, 20 mitigation, 4, 5, 20, 138, 189, 193-194 see also Water treatment R Radon and Lung Cancer Risk: A Joint Analysis of 11 Underground Miners Studies, 96 Regional factors concentration levels, 9, 12, 21, 32-37, 44-45, 49, 132, 168, 185, 199 multimedia programs, 4-5, 21, 49, 185, 199

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--> Regulatory measures, see Legislation; Standards Relative risk models, 78, 81, 94-104 (passim), 137, 138, 140 excess relative risk, 96-97, 101 Reproductive effects, 12, 17, 30, 81 embryos, 81, 116 Residential Energy Consumption Study, 54-55 Residential exposure, see Indoor radiation exposure Retinal cancer, 118, 119 Reverse osmosis, 177 Risk assessments, 7, 11, 12, 13-19, 30, 93-104, 124-140, 198-199 absolute risk, 78, 93-94, 95, 223 atom bomb survivors, 28, 77-78, 80-81, 95, 131, 137 attributable risk, 16, 100, 135, 223, 263 BEIR IV, 17, 93, 95-96, 99, 103 BEIR VI, 13, 15, 16, 17, 83, 93, 94, 95, 99-100, 103, 122, 131, 134-135 biological basis, general, 13-14, 72-73, 76-81, 122-123 cell-based, 122-123 disinfection and disinfection by-products, 11, 20, 165-166, 171-178, 179, 182, 195, 224, 254-256 trihalomethanes (THMs), 165, 166, 179, 229, 254 EPA, 11, 14-15, 17, 28-30, 76, 126, 127, 129, 132, 133-134, 137, 139, 140, 162, 165-166, 168 uncertainty, 127-129, 139, 140, 163, 260-267 exposure-age-concentration model, 135 exposure-age-duration model, 98, 135 groundwater, 11 heat-recovery ventilation, 149, 151, 158 ingestion risk, general, 14-15, 76-81, 182-183, 198, 260-261 inhalation risk, general, 15, 93-104, 182-183, 198, 261-267 IRCP, 94, 95 lung cancer, 1, 3, 6, 15, 16, 17, 78, 79, 80, 82-83, 89-91, 93-104, 134, 166, 182, 183 miners, 9, 15, 82-83, 93, 95-105 (passim) [ALL] mortality, 1, 5-6, 8, 16, 18, 76-77, 78, 100, 102 multimedia, 125 [???] NCI, 93, 96-99, 101, 103 NCRP, 93-94 NIH, 17, 94, 100 occupational exposure, 63-64, 82, 93, 95, 100, 108 granular activated carbon controls, 168, 169-171, 178, 179, 257-259 population attributable risk, 100, 135 process, steps in, 124-125 public education and, 31 relative risk models, 78, 81, 94-104 (passim), 137, 138, 140 excess relative risk, 96-97, 101 sensitivity analysis, 126-127, 130, 136 smoking, 2-3, 5-6, 8, 15, 16, 94, 95-96, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 193 soil and rock process, general, 3, 11, 29-30, 199 special populations, 81 stomach cancer, 6, 7, 15, 16, 72-73 water use and, general, 56, 84 see also Absolute risk; Attributable risk; Lifetime risk; Public education; Uncertainty Risk management (mitigation), 4, 6, 11-12, 19-22, 30, 31, 144-197 action levels, 3, 172, 190 active subslab depressurization, 146-148, 151-152, 153, 154, 157, 158, 223 aeration, 19-20, 161-167, 176-177, 249-251 airborne radiation, 15, 0, 19, 21-22, 31, 144-100, 162-165, 182-188, 195 basements, 141, 142, 145, 146, 147, 148-149, 152, 155, 156, 157 concentration reduction, general, 144-145, 148-151 construction materials and practices, 151-157 costs, 9-10, 20-21, 22, 160, 167, 174-175, 183, 184, 187, 188, 192-193, 194, 197 disinfection and disinfection by-products, 11, 20, 165-166, 171-178, 179, 182, 195, 224, 254-256 trihalomethanes (THMs), 165, 166, 179, 229, 254 EPA, 4, 10, 11, 20-21, 150, 153, 154-155, 156, 158-163, 165, 167, 168, 169, 172, 177

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--> existing buildings, 144-152 fans, 25, 91, 142, 146, 147, 152, 158, 160, 184 filter systems, 150, 158, 167, 177 granular activated carbon, 20, 149, 164, 168-176, 178, 179, 225, 251-253, 257-259 heat-recovery ventilation, 149, 151, 158 lungs, 166, 182, 183, 191, 192 mechanical systems, general, 19, 21, 146, 147, 152, 155, 158 multicommunity, 188-189, 194, 197 new buildings, 151-160, 198-199 passive stacks, 148, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 160 public education, 5, 21-22, 29, 137-139, 189-193, 194, 196-197 public water supplies, general, 4, 5, 20, 138, 189, 193-194 radon-resistant buildings, 152-152, 187-188, 198 smoking, 150, 151, 183, 184 soil and rock processes, general, 25, 146-148, 151-160, 223 source control, 145-148 state-level actions, 4, 10, 22, 153-157, 159, 163-164, 172-173, 180, 190-192, 195-197 transfer coefficients, 51-52, 143, 182, 183 ventilation, 142-149 (passim), 151, 153, 154 windows, 94, 99, 145, 148-149, 160, 192 uncertainties, 126, 137 see also Age factors; Best-available technology; Gender factors; Legislation; Multimedia programs; Public education; Standards; Ventilation; Water treatment RNA, 114 transcription, 113, 114, 115, 116, 120, 229 translation, 114, 229 Rural areas, 167, 195-196 S Safe Drinking Water Act, 2, 3, 4, 9, 20, 29, 30, 160, 180, 189, 195 Seasonal factors, 12, 38-40, 41-44, 46, 47, 49, 52, 55, 101, 160 Secretory cells and processes, 71-72, 105, 107, 119, 135, 241 Sensitivity analysis, 126-127, 130, 136 Sex differences, see Gender factors Showering, 57, 84-92, 255 Site studies, 38, 39, 46-48, 51-53, 91 Small intestines, see Intestines Smoking, 3, 5-6 dosimetry, 84 gender factors, 103 lung cancer, 3, 5, 8, 15, 16, 98, 193 mitigation, 150, 151, 183, 184 risk assessment, 2-3, 5-6, 8, 15, 16, 94, 95-96, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 193 stomach cancer, 103 Society of Nuclear Medicine, 73 Soil and rock, 1, 10-11, 33, 36, 39, 51, 132, 141-143 active, subslab depressurization, 146-148, 151-152, 153, 154, 157, 158, 223 diffusional factors, general, 25, 141, 142-143, 145 groundwater, 2, 11, 36-37, 84, 132, 165, 169, 179, 195; see also Wells mitigation, general, 25, 146-148, 151-160, 223 permeability, 33, 142-143, 160 regulation of radon concentrations, 11 risk assessment, 3, 11, 29-30, 199 see also Advection Spray-tower aeration, 161, 250 Stack effect, 142, 144, 159 passive stacks, 148, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 160 Standards, 9, 10, 163 action levels, 3 alternative maximum contaminant level, 2-5 (passim), 10, 20-21, 31, 180-188 (passim), 196, 223 building codes, 33, 152-153, 157, 159-160 ICRP/NCRP, 64 maximum contaminant level, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 20-21, 29, 161, 162, 169, 176, 179, 180, 182-189 (passim), 196, 226 water contaminants, other than radon, 59-60 State-level action, 29 concentration measurement, 12-13, 36-37, 41-45, 190, 191, 192, 199

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--> EPA and, 4, 10, 29, 153-157, 159, 163-164, 180 mitigation, 4, 10, 22, 153-157, 159, 163-164, 172-173, 180, 190-192 multimedia measures, 4, 10, 22, 180, 190-192, 195, 197 public education, 190-192 wells, 36-37 Stem cells, 27, 65, 71, 72, 107-108, 120, 121, 135, 136, 140, 241, 245, 246, 248 Stochastic processes, 73, 127, 229 Stomach, 14, 18, 68, 107 cancer, 6, 7, 15, 16, 72-73, 80-81, 102, 128-129, 135-136, 137, 140 dose to, 14, 27, 59, 60, 64, 65-66, 71-73, 75, 76, 80, 107, 128-129, 135-137, 140, 198, 233, 237, 238, 241-248 infections, chronic, 81, 107 uncertainty analysis, 128-129, 135-136, 137, 140 Suggested Guidelines for Disposal of Drinking Water Treatment Wastes Containing Radioactivity, 167 T Target cells, 14-15, 27, 83, 84, 103, 118 Target regions, 73-74, 107, 129 Temperature factors, 38-39, 60, 148 passive stacks, 148, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 160 showering conditions, 92 stack effect, general, 142, 144, 159 see also Advection Teratogenic effects, 12, 17, 30, 81 Time factors duration of exposure, 93, 97-98, 124-125, 135, 170-171, 254, 255, 261, 263 exposure-age-duration, 98, 135 ingested radon, 69 potential alpha energy concentration, 87, 88 showering conditions, 91 time since exposure, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99 ventilation, 87, 88 see also Age factors Tobacco, see Smoking Transcription (DNA), 113, 114, 115, 116, 120, 229 Transduction (DNA), 108, 111, 112, 113, 116, 117-118, 119 Transfer coefficients, 13, 15, 25, 30-31, 50-58 defined, 13, 57, 229 EPA, 13, 58, 133-134 error of measurement, 13, 52 mitigation, 51-52, 143, 182, 183 PBPK models, 31, 237 uncertainty, 51, 52, 126, 133-134, 182, 261 ventilation, 50, 51, 52, 54-55, 57, 58, 134 Translation (DNA), 114, 229 Trihalomethanes (THMs), 165, 166, 179, 229, 254 U Ultraviolet disinfection, 182 Uncertainty, 16, 18-19, 21, 31, 124-140, 198, 260-267 alternative maximum contaminant level, 181-182 BEIR VI, 131, 134-135 confidents limits/intervals, 15, 49, 102, 129, 135, 137, 139 dosimetry, 127-129, 134, 260-267 (passim) EPA assessments, 127-129, 139, 140, 163, 260-267 exposure by geographic area, 33 factors affecting, general, 124-125, 126 mitigation measures, 126, 137 molecular biology, 130-132 multimedia exposure, 129 Monte Carlo calculations, 126-127, 130, 139, 227, 260, 263, 265 sensitivity analysis and, 126-127, 130, 136 stomach cancer, 128-129, 135-136, 137, 140 transfer coefficients, 51, 52, 126, 133-134, 182, 261 variability vs, 127, 128, 140 see also Errors of measurement Urban areas, 41, 48, 55-56, 165, 196 V Vacuum deaeration, 178, 253 Ventilation, 4, 41, 133, 134, 199, 251 fans, 25, 91, 142, 146, 147, 152, 158, 160, 184

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--> heat-recovery ventilation, 149, 151, 158 mitigation measures and, 142-149 (passim), 151, 153, 154 passive stacks, 148, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 160 showering conditions, 87, 91 stack effect, general, 142, 144, 159 time factors, 87, 88 transfer coefficients, 50, 51, 52, 54-55, 57, 58, 134 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 164, 165, 174, 229, 251 W Water Pollution Control Act, 195-196 Water treatment, 19-20, 23, 165, 182, 183 aeration, 19-20, 161-167, 176-177, 249-251 backwashing, 165, 167, 169, 172, 175-176, 178, 223, 252 blending, 177, 179 countercurrent flow, 65, 224, 249, 250 disinfection and disinfection by-products, 11, 20, 165-166, 171-178, 179, 182, 195, 224, 254 trihalomethanes, 165, 166, 179, 229, 254 granular activated carbon, 20, 149, 164, 168-176, 178, 179, 225, 251-253, 257-259 ion exchange, 167, 170, 175, 226 reverse osmosis, 177 storage, 176, 179 transfer coefficients, 51-52 vacuum deaeration/hollow-fiber membrane systems, 178, 253 water distribution system losses, 177-178, 179 Weather, 12, 38-39, 47, 55, 60, 132, 143, 155-156 seasonal factors, 12, 38-40, 41-44, 46, 47, 49, 52, 55, 101, 160 wind, 25, 46, 142, 144, 148, 152, 163 see also Temperature factors Wells, 2, 3, 86, 189, 195 concentration levels, 2, 36-37, 162 Wind factors, 25, 46, 142, 144, 148, 152, 163 Windows, 94, 99, 145, 148-149, 160, 192 X X radiation, 111