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--> Nuclear Physics The Core of Matter, The Fuel of Stars Committee on Nuclear Physics Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1999
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--> NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-96ER40957 and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-9515524. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies that provided support for this project. Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 98-89539 International Standard Book Number 0-309-06276-4 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press (http://www.nap.edu) 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Board on Physics and Astronomy National Research Council, HA 562 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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--> Committee On Nuclear Physics JOHN P. SCHIFFER, Argonne National Laboratory and University of Chicago, Chair SAM M. AUSTIN, Michigan State University GORDON A. BAYM, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign THOMAS W. DONNELLY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology BRADLEY FILIPPONE, California Institute of Technology STUART FREEDMAN, University of California at Berkeley WICK C. HAXTON, University of Washington WALTER F. HENNING, Argonne National Laboratory NATHAN ISGUR, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility BARBARA JACAK, State University of New York at Stony Brook WITOLD NAZAREWICZ, University of Tennessee at Knoxville VIJAY R. PANDHARIPANDE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign PETER PAUL,* State University of New York at Stony Brook STEVEN E. VIGDOR, Indiana University DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer * Currently at Brookhaven National Laboratory.
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--> Board On Physics And Astronomy ROBERT C. DYNES, University of California at San Diego, Chair ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University, Vice Chair STEVEN CHU, Stanford University VAL FITCH, Princeton University IVAR GIAEVER, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute RICHARD HAZELTINE, University of Texas at Austin JOHN P. HUCHRA, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics JOHN C. MATHER, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center R.G. HAMISH ROBERTSON, University of Washington JOSEPH H. TAYLOR, JR., Princeton University KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, General Motors Research and Development Center J. ANTHONY TYSON, Lucent Technologies GEORGE WHITESIDES, Harvard University DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Associate Director KEVIN D. AYLESWORTH, Program Officer NATASHA CASEY, Senior Administrative Associate GRACE WANG, Project Assistant
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--> Commission On Physical Sciences, Mathematics, And Applications PETER M. BANKS, ERIM International, Inc., Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara JERRY P. GOLLUB, Haverford College MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University JOHN L. HENNESSY, Stanford University CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN R. KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory CHANG-LIN TIEN, University of California at Berkeley NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director
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--> Preface The Committee on Nuclear Physics was established by the Board on Physics and Astronomy as part of its decadal survey series, Physics in a New Era. The committee met four times over the course of a year. It heard from program managers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) and solicited input from the nuclear physics community through the American Physical Society's Division of Nuclear Physics. A set of peer readers who were asked by the committee to read the draft report (J. Friar, G. Garvey, K. Gelbke, E. Henley, B. Holstein, and R. Holt) provided valuable perspectives, and their comments had an influence on the report. The comments of the reviewers of the report (see page ix) also provided useful input. The committee would like to thank both groups for their time and help. In addition, the list of individuals who helped with material for the report in a variety of ways is too long to enumerate, and the committee wishes to express its gratitude for this assistance. As part of the physics survey, the overall objective of the study was to help the general public, the government agencies concerned with the support of science, Congress, and the physics community to envision the future of this field within the nation's overall physics effort. The report of the committee is in the context of previous planning for the field and follows the reports of the 1972 Physics Survey's Nuclear Physics Panel, chaired by J. Weneser, and the 1986 Physics Survey's Nuclear Physics Panel, chaired by J. Cerny, as well as the planning of the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC), a joint advisory committee of the NSF and DOE. In particular, the committee drew on the 1996 report Nuclear Science: A Long Range Plan,
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--> prepared by NSAC (available from the Division of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science, DOE, or the Nuclear Science Section, Physics Division, NSF). The NSAC Long Range Plans represent a wide community involvement in shaping the field. The committee would like to acknowledge the assistance of Donald C. Shapero, director, Board on Physics and Astronomy, and Robert L. Riemer, senior program officer. The committee would especially like to acknowledge the late David Schramm, who started the present review and discussed the committee's task at its first meeting. His unique enthusiasm for physics and profound interest and many contributions to the nuclear physics of astrophysical phenomena are missed in nuclear physics as indeed in all of physics. The committee would like to acknowledge the support provided by grants from NSF's Physics Division and DOE's Office of Science. JOHN P. SCHIFFER, CHAIR COMMITTEE ON NUCLEAR PHYSICS
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--> Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Gary Adams, Rensselaer Polytechnic University, Felix Boehm, California Institute of Technology, Stanley J. Brodsky, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Richard Casten, Yale University, Ernest M. Henley, University of Washington, Jerry Garrett, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, J. Ross Macdonald, University of North Carolina, Peter Parker, Yale University, R.G. Hamish Robertson, University of Washington, and James P. Vary, Iowa State University. Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.
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--> Contents SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1 1 INTRODUCTION 8 Origins and Fundamentals 8 Scope of the Field 9 Recent Accomplishments 11 Intellectual Horizons 14 International Aspects 17 Educational Aspects 17 Societal Applications 18 2 THE STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEAR BUILDING BLOCKS 19 Introduction 19 The Internal Structure of Protons and Neutrons 21 First Steps 22 Technological Advances 22 Experimental Opportunities 28 Accounting for Confinement: From QCD to Nuclear Theory 35 Working with Quarks and Gluons 36 Working with Nucleons and Mesons 37 Hadrons in Nuclear Matter 42 Outlook 45
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--> 3 THE STRUCTURE OF NUCLEI 47 Introduction 47 Nuclear Forces and Simple Nuclei 49 Advances and Challenges in Understanding Light Nuclei 51 Nuclear Forces and Complex Nuclei 58 The Shell Model of Nuclei 58 Mean Field Methods 60 Limits of Nuclear Stability 61 The Quest for Superheavy Elements 61 Toward the Limits in Neutron-to-Proton Ratio 64 Limits of Angular Momentum 67 Nuclear Matter 77 Outlook 78 4 MATTER AT EXTREME DENSITIES 80 Introduction 80 Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 83 Stopping 86 Evolution of Collisions 87 Hot Dense Initial State 91 Hadronic Rescattering and Freezeout 92 Thermal Description of the Final State 93 Signatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma Formation 94 Chiral Symmetry 99 Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider 99 Experiments at RHIC 100 Outlook 102 5 THE NUCLEAR PHYSICS OF THE UNIVERSE 104 Introduction: Challenges for the Field 104 The Solar Neutrino Problem 105 The Big Bang, the Quark-Gluon Plasma, and the Origin of the Elements 112 The Supernova Mechanism 115 Measuring Stellar Nuclear Reactions in the Laboratory 118 Neutron Stars 122 Particle Properties from Nuclear Astrophysics 126 Outlook 127 6 SYMMETRY TESTS IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS 128 Introduction: Priorities and Challenges 128 The Standard Model 129 Testing Symmetries 132
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--> Spatial Reflection Symmetry 134 Time-Reversal Symmetry 136 Precision Measurements of Standard Model Parameters 138 The Search for Neutrino Mass 141 The Weak Interaction Within the Nuclear Environment 146 Exotic Particle Searches, Rare Decays, and Nuclear Physics 147 Outlook 148 7 THE TOOLS OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS 150 Introduction 150 Accelerators 151 Historical Perspective 151 Accelerator Research and Development 155 Instrumentation 158 Examples of New Detector Systems 158 Ion and Atom Traps 158 Exploring the Structure of Exotic Nuclei 159 Detectors for the Quark Structure of Matter 163 Detectors for the Frontier of High-Energy Density 164 Detection Schemes for Fundamental Symmetries and Underground Laboratories 166 Computers in Nuclear Physics 169 Relativistic Heavy-Ion Data Storage and Retrieval 169 Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations of Nuclei 170 Computer Simulations of Supernovae 170 Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics 170 Outlook 171 8 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND SOCIETY 172 Introduction 172 Human Health 174 Radiation Therapy for Cancer 174 Cancer Therapy with Protons 174 Cancer Therapy with Neutrons and Heavy Ions 175 Diagnostic Imaging 175 SPECT and PET Imaging 176 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging 176 Trace-Isotope Analysis 179 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry 179 Environmental Applications 180 Impact on Industry 183 Nuclear Analysis and Testing 183 Testing with Particle Beams 183
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--> Testing with Neutron Beams 184 Materials Modification 185 U.S. Nuclear Data Program 185 Energy 186 Burning of Long-Lived Waste and Accelerator-Driven Reactors 187 Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactors 188 National Security 188 Stockpile Stewardship 188 Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons 189 Education of the Nation's Technical Workforce 191 Graduate Education in Nuclear Physics 191 Graduate Student and Faculty Demographics 193 Undergraduate Education 193 Earlier Education, Outreach, and Scientific Literacy 194 K-8 Education in Elementary and Middle Schools 194 Contact with Teachers and Students in High Schools 195 Activities Addressing Underrepresentation of Women and Minorities 195 Outlook 195 APPENDIX: ACCELERATOR FACILITIES FOR NUCLEAR PHYSICS IN THE UNITED STATES 197
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