SUBTASK 1.3. Tracer elements identified as candidates for use as detection agents will substantially impair the quality and performance of the powders (which shall include a broad and comprehensive sampling of all available powders) for their intended lawful use, including but not limited to the sporting, defense, and hand loading uses of powders, as well as their use in display and lawful consumer pyrotechnics. At least three organizations that are capable of conducting testing to validate the study findings shall be identified.

SUBTASK 1.4. Tracer elements identified as candidates for inclusion as detection agents will have a substantial adverse effect on the environment.

SUBTASK 1.5. The addition of materials as tracer elements will incur costs which outweigh the benefits of their inclusion, including an evaluation of the probable production and regulatory cost of compliance to the industry and the costs and effects on consumers, including the effect on the demand for ammunition.

SUBTASK 1.6. Tracer elements identified as candidates for inclusion can be evaded, and with what degree of difficulty, by terrorists or terrorist organizations, including evading tracer elements by the use of precursor chemicals to make black powder or smokeless powder.

TASK 2. Adding Tracer elements to black powder or smokeless powder for identification. The purpose of this task is to explore and define methods, materials and technologies that are available today, as well as those currently in research and development, that might be used to identify the point of origination of black powder or smokeless powder. In conducting this work step, determine whether:

SUBTASK 2.1. Tracer elements identified as candidates for inclusion as identification agents will pose a risk to human life or safety.

SUBTASK 2.2. Tracer elements identified as candidates for inclusion as identification agents will substantially assist law enforcement officers in their investigative efforts.

SUBTASK 2.3. Tracer elements identified as candidates for inclusion as identification agents will substantially impair the quality and performance of the powders (which shall include a broad and comprehensive sampling of all available powders) for their intended lawful use, includ-



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