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Index A Accelerating gradients, 130 Accelerators. 4-6, 98-131; see also Col- lider(s) advanced, research in, 190 192 applications of. 166 170 circular, 99- 100. 21 S construction of, 177 current U.S. facilities, 113 defined, 24, 213 electron, 115 experimentation at, 87-91 facilities and detectors for experiments not using, 152-156 fixed-target, see Fixed-target accelera- tors historical background, 172- 176 introduction to, 98-104 laboratories, 183, 197 linear, 99, 100 maximum energy achievable by, 105 in medicine, 169 need for advanced research on, 131 need for higher-energy, 91-95 operation of, 98-101 pace and planning in construction and use of, 17~179 plasma physics and. 170 223 progress in, 104, 195 proton, 111-113 recommendations for new facilities in the United States, 7-8, 197-198 recommendations for research and de- velopment, 8-9, 198 research on advanced concepts for, 129-131 shutting down, 178- 179 superconducting magnets in, 103-104 two-beam, 130 use of, for physics, 178 variety of, 104 world's high-energy, 11~120, 203-206 ACO ring, 168 ADONE ring, 168 AEC (Atomic Energy Commission), 174, 183-184 AGS, see Alternating Gradient Synchro- tron Aladdin ring, 168 Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), 7,42, 110, 111 defined. 213 American Physical Society (APS), 184 Division of Particles and Fields (DPF), 184, 193 Antielectrons. 22

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224 INDEX . Antimatter, 161 defined, 213 Antimuons. 34 Antiparticles. 30-31 defined. 213 symbolized, 51 Antiproton-proton colliders, 111 Antiprotons, 30, 31 defined. 213 APS (American Physical Society), 184 Associated Universities. Incorporated (AU1), 173 Associated Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), 175 C Astronomy neutrino. 161 Astrophysics, 12, 158- 160 defined. 213 Asymptotic freedom. 73 defined. 213 Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). 174. 183-184 Atomic model. 21 Atomic nucleus. see Nucleus Atomic physics. 164- 165 Atoms, 1-2. 12. 20 defined. 213 size of. 23 AU1 (Associated Universities, Incorpo- rated). 173 AURA (Associated Universities for Re- search in Astronomy). 175 B B meson, 55. 104- 106 Baryon number of universe, net, 79 Baryons, 70 defined, 213-214 Basic forces, four, 25-26 Beam, defined, 214 Beauty, see Bottom entries Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC), 112, 116, 168, 176, 208 defined, 214 BESSY ring, 168 Beta decay, defined, 214 Bevatron, defined, 214 Big-bang cosmology, 3, 158 Bosons Higgs, see Higgs bosons intermediate, 27, 67, 217 weak, 66 Bottom, defined, 214 Bottom quarks, 22, 29 discovery of, 55-56 Broken symmetry, defined, 214 Brookhavenfacilities, 113 Bubble chambers. 4345, 147, 149 defined, 214 Calorimeters, 139- 140, 143- 1 44 defined. 214 electromagnetic, 139 hadron. 139 Calorimetric detection. 143-144; see also Calorimeters Center-of-mass energy, 101 Central processor unit (CPU) time. 150- 151 Cerenkov counter, defined. 214 Cerenkov radiation. 137 particle identification using, 143 CERN, see European Center for Nuclear Research CESR, see Cornell Electron Storage Ring Charge. electric. 71 fractional, 164-165, 166 Charged-particle tracking chambers. 141- 142 Charm, defined, 214 Charmed quarks, 5, 22. 29. 50-51 Charmonium, 51-53, 214 Chemical elements, 21 Circular accelerators, 99-100 defined, 215 Circular colliders, ultrahigh-energy, 131 Close-in detectors, 14~ 141 Collider(s), 5, 1 1-12, IS- 16; see als`' Ac- celerators circular, ultra-high-energy, 131 defined, 215 detectors, 132-133; see also Detectors electron-positron, 5 linear, see Linear collider(s) luminosity, 102

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INDEX 225 need for advanced research on, 131 particle, see Particle colliders proton-antiproton, 108, 113-114 proton-proton, see Proton-proton col- liders Relativistic Nuclear (RNC), 163 research on advanced concepts for, 129-131 storage ring, see Storage rings Superconducting Super, see Supercon- ducting Super Collider Collision diagrams, 31-33 Collisions of particles, 31 Color, 70 defined, 215 Computers and data reduction, 149-1S2 Condensed-matter theoretical physics, 165-166 Conservation laws, 35-36 defined, 215 Constants, numerical, unexplained, 196 Continuous symmetry, 39 Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR), 7, S5,112, 116, 168, 206 defined, 214 Cornell facilities, 1 13 Cosmic rays, 9 defined, 215 experiments using, 153-155 Cosmic-ray physics, 16~161 Cosmology, IS8-160 big bang, 3, 158 defined, 215 inflationary, 160 CP violation in K-meson decay, 80 defined, 215 CPU (central processor unit) time, 150- ISI Cross section, 102 total, 106 Cryogenics, defined, 215 Crystal-lattice formulation, 75 D Dark matter, 159 Data reduction and computers, 149-153 DCI ring, 168 Delta family of hadrons, 49 Department of Energy (DOE), 174, 184 High Energy Physics Advisory Panel of (HEPAP), 123,183, 184, 185, 193 DESY, see Deutsches Elektronen Syn- chrotron Laboratory Detectors, 132-156 advanced, research in, 190, 192 close-in, 140-141 . for collider experiments, 139-144 defined, 218 fixed-target, 133,144-149 neutrino, 133, 138, 145-147 requirements for, 135, 137, 139 vertex, 14~141 Deuterium, 42 defined, 215 Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron Labo- ratory (DESY), 1 16, 175-176 defined, 215 Discontinuous symmetry, 39 Disintegration, spontaneous, of particles, 35 Doctorates in physics, 181-182, 209,211 DOE, see Department of Energy DORIS,55, 112, 176, 206 defined, 215 Down, defined, 215 Down quark, 29 Drift chambers, 43 defined, 215 multiwire, 141-142 E ECFA (European Committee on Future Accelerators), 185 Education, graduate, 181-182 Electric charge, 71 fractional, 164 165, 166 Electrical force, 18 Electrical resistance, zero, 103 Electricity, 65 Electromagnetic calorimeter, 139 Electromagnetic force, 3, 25-26, 27 defined, 215-216 Electromagnetic wave, 27 Electromagnetism, 13, 18, 6S Electron accelerators, l 15 fixed-target, 205

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226 INDEX . Electron identification, 143 Electron neutrino, 28 Electron volts (eV), 24, 99 defined, 216 GeV, see GeV MeV. see MeV TeV, see TeV Electron-neutrino mass, 163 Electron-positron colliders, 5, 88, 94, 112, 206 circular, 115- 116 linear, 118-120 Electron-proton colliders, 111, 120 Electrons, 2, 12, 19, 20 defined, 216 magnetic properties of, 164 size of, 23 Electroweak force, 11, 76 defined, 216 Electroweak symmetry scheme, 69 Elementary particles charged, particle detectors for, 42-43 collisions of, 31 decays of, 47 defined, 19, 216 force-carrying family of, 27 hadron family of, 29-30 high energy and, 23-25 kinds of, 19-22 known families of, 2~31 lepton family of, 27-28 mass of, 82 primary beams of, 43, 45 problem of mass of, 83-86 quark family of, 28-29 range of mass of, 84 secondary beams of, 43, 45 size of, 23 spontaneous disintegration of, 35 Elementary-particle physics accelerators for, see Accelerators age distribution of senior experimental- ists and theorists in, 191 astrophysics and, 158-160 community of physicists in, 7 conclusions and recommendations in, 194 200 cosmology and, 158-160 defined, 1, 12, 216 experimental methods in, 40 experiments in, 7, 47 federal government and, 182- 185 fundamental ideas of, 18-19 funding for research in, 209, 212 future of, 6, 1~17, 189-193 guidelines for United States, 187 historical background, 172-176 instruments and detectors for, 132-156 interactions with other areas of physics and technology, 157-171 international cooperation and competi- tion in, 185-189 laboratory management in, 192-193 nature of experimentation in, 179-181 overview of, 196 physicists and graduate students in. 209, 210, 211 purpose of research in, 157 recommendations for international cooperation in, 10, 199-200 recommendations for nonaccelerator physics experiments in, 9-10 recommendations for theoretical re- search in, 9, 198-199 revolution in, 2-3 scientific manpower in, 189-190 standard model of, 34, 81-83, 220 statistical information on research in United States, 209-212 support and stimulation of new tech- nology in, 171 tools of. 4-6. 15- 16 Elements basic. 20-21 chemical, 21 Energy center-of-mass. 101 Department of, see Department of En- ergy equivalent, 105 high. elementary particles and. 23-25 kinetic. 23-24 maximum achievable by accelerators. 105 measurement of. calorimetric detection and. 143-144 usable, 102 Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA). 174 Equivalent energy, 105 ERDA (Energy Research and Develop- ment Agency). 174

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INDEX 227 European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), 175, 185, 186-187 defined, 214 proton-proton and proton-antiproton colliders at, 113-114 European Committee on Future Acceler- ators (ECFA). 185 eV. see Electron volts Evolution of universe, 3 Executive summary. 1-10 Extended families, 76-77 F Federal government and elementary-par- ticle physics, 182- 185 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) (Fermilab). 174 facilities, 113 Tagged Photon Spectrometer. 147. 14X Feynman diagrams. 33. 35 Fixed-target accelerators. 41 - 2 electron. 205 experiments at. 4~41 proton. 88. 204 world's high-energy. 110 Fixed-target detectors, 133, 144-149 Fixed-target experiments. 5 detectors in, 133, 144-149 large or complex, 147 small or simple, 144-147 Flavor, defined, 216 Fly's Eye detector, IS3 FNAL. see Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Force unification, 26 Force-carrying particles. 27 Forces four basic. 25-26 fundamental, unification of. 86 Funding for elementary-particle physics research, 209, 212 Gamma rays. defined, 216 Gauge invariance. 85 Gauge symmetry. 85 Gauge theories. 3. 39. 72. 77 defined. 216 Generation. defined. 216 GeV (billion electron volts). 24 defined, 216 Global symmetry, 38 Glueball states. 88, 89 Gluon-gluon collisions, 91 Gluons, 3, 27, 30, 72 defined, 216 quarks interacting with, 72 Government, federal, and elementary- particle physics, 182- 185 Graduate education, 181 - 182 Graduate students, 189 Grand unified theories (GUT). 82. 159- 160 defined. 216 Gravitation, 13, 92 Gravitational force, 3, 25-26. 97 defined, 216 Gravitons, 14, 27 defined, 217 Gravity, quantum, 97 GUT, see Grand unified theories H Hadron-hadron storable ring colliders, 20S Hadrons, 2, 22, 64, 194 calorimeter, 139 defined, 217 family of elementary particles, 29-30 interactions of, 59, 87 jets of, 62-64 quark model of, see Quark model secondary, 139 Heisenberg uncertainty principle, 24 HEPAP (High Energy Physics Advisory Panel of the Department of Ener- gy), 1~', 183, 184, 185. 193 HERA. 111. 188, 208 defined, 217 HESYRL ring, 168 Hips bosons, 91-92 light, 89, 91 Higgs field, 166 Higgs mass problem, 93 Higgs mechanism, defined, 217 Higgs particles, 67, 85-86, 121 defined, 217 High Energy Physics Advisory Panel of the Department of Energy (HE- PAP), 123, 183, 184, 185, 193

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228 INDEX High-energy physics, 2, 23. 217; see cl.< Elementary-particle physics Hydrogen atom, 40, 164 1 . ICFA (International Committee on Fu- ture Accelerators). 188 IHEP, 110 defined, 217 Inflationary cosmology. 160 Injectors, 102 Interaction strengths. 77-78 Intermediate bosons. 27. 67 defined. 217 international Committee on Future Ac- celerators (1CFA). 188 intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). 114. 205 invariance concept of. 37-38 defined, 217 gauge. 85 ionization. 43 ionization trails. 137 ISR ( Intersecting Storage Rings ). 114. 205 J panicle, 22, 30, 50-51 defined, 217, 219 Jet(s) defined. 217 of hadrons, 62-64 K K mesonts) (kaons) decay, CP violation in, 80, 215 defined. 217 family of hadrons, 49 positive, 30 Kaons, see K meson(s) KKK laboratory, 176 KKK ring. 110, 168 defined. 217 Kinetic energy, 23-24 Kurchatov ring. 168 L LAMPF accelerator, 162 defined, 217 Large-group experiments, 179- 181 Laser spectroscopy. 164 LEP project, 45, 89, 112. 11~117. 187- 188, 208 defined, 217 Lepton-proton scattering experiments. 59-62 Leptons. 2-4, 12. 22 composite, 86 connection between quarks and, 76 conservation, principles of. 107 defined. 217 family of elementary particles, 27-28 history of discovery of, 14 multiple generations of, 162 number conservation. law of. 36 taut see Tau leptons Lifetime. defined. 217 Linac, defined, 217 Linear accelerators. 99. 100 defined, 217-218 Linear collider(s), 16 present technology and concepts. 128- 129 research and development for, 128-129 Stanford (SLC), 45 Local symmetry. 38-39 Luminosity, 102 defined, 218 high, 108 M Magnetic force, 18 Magnetic monopoles, 4, 83, 1S2, 154-155. 159-160, 166 defined, 218 Magnetism, 65 Magnets defined, 218 superconducting, 103-104, 122- 124 Mark 1 detector, 134- 136 Mass defined. 218 missing. 159 Matter, dark, 159 Max ring. 168

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INDEX 229 Mesons. 70 .B. 55. 104-106 defined. 218 family of hadrons. 49 MeV (million electron volts). ~4 defined, 218 Microwave background radiation. 158 Missing mass, 159 Molecules. ~0 defined. 218 electrically polarized. 71 size of. 23 Momentum distributions. quark. 61-62 Monopoles, magnetic. sale Magnetic monopoles Multiwire drift chambers. 141-149 Nluonium. 164 Muons, 22. 34. 107 defined, 218 magnetic properties of. 164 neutrino. 28 N ~'-100 ring. 168 National Science Foundation (NSF). 174. 184 Neutral current event. 68 Neutrino production, 9 Neutrinos. 27 astronomy. 161 defined. 218 detectors. 133, 138. 145-147 electron. 28 instability of. 153 kinds of. 158-159 mass of. 85. 152-lS3 muon. ~8 production, 9 solar. 155 taut 28. 55 Neutron sources. high-intensity. 169 Neutrons, 2, 22. 30 defined. 218 size of. 23 NSAC (Nuclear Science Advisory Com- mittee). 184 NSF (locational Science Foundation). 174. 184 NSLS I ring. 168 NSLS 11 ring. 168 Nuclear Collider, Relativistic (RELIC), 163 Nuclear emulsion technique. 147. 149 Nuclear force. 13, 25-26 Nuclear physics. 161-163 Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC). 184 Nucleons, defined, 218 Nucleus, ~0. 163 defined. 218 size of. 23 N lunerical constants. unexplained. 195 o Office of Naval Research (ONR). 174 Omega family of hadrons. 49 Omega minus particle. 50 ON R ( Office of N aval Research ). 1 74 p Parity symmetry. 16' Particle colliders, 43, 45~6. 101-103; .sce ells`' Colliders under construction. 207-208 experiments at. 4~47 Particle detectors, 5. 41 for charged particles. 42~3 Particle physics, see Elementary-particle physics Particles, defined. 218 Pauli exclusion principle. 70 PEP.7. 112, 116,206 defined. 218 PETRA. I 12, 1 16. 206 defined, 218 Photoionization, 167 Photon Spectrometer, Fermilab Tagged. 147, 148 Photons, 65 defined. 219 Physics atomic, 164-165 condensed-matter theoretical. 165-166 cosmic-ray, 160 161 doctorates in, 181-182, 209. 210 elementary-particle. see Elementary- particle physics nuclear, 161-163 plasma. accelerators and. 170

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230 INDEX recommendations for nonaccelerator experiments in. 199 subfields of. 13 use of accelerators for. 178 P/~'sics in Persper title. I Pions defined. 219 family of hadrons, 49 positive, 30 Plasma physics, accelerators and. 17() Positive kaons, 30 Positive pions, 30 Positronium. 51 -59, 164 Positrons. 2' defined. 919 Primary particle beams. 43. 45 Proton accelerators. 111 - 113 fixed-target. 88. 204 Proton-antiprotoncolliders.108. 113-114 Proton decay. 9. 78. 79 searches for, 155- 156 Proton-proton colliders. 5. 108. 111. 113- 114 very-high-energy. 9S Proton Synchrotron (PS). 110. 11 defined. 219 Protons. 2, 20, 30 defined. 219 size of, 23 PS see Proton Synchrotron Psi particle, 22, 30, 50-51 defined, 217, 219 Q QCD, see Quantum chromodynamics QED, see Quantum electrodynamics Quantum chromodynamics (QCD), 72-76, 87, 165-166, 219 Quantum electrodynamics (QED), 65. 219 Quantum field theory. 96 97 Quantum gravity. 97 Quantum mechanics, 4 defined, 219 Quarks, 2 - , 1 1, 12, 19, 20, 22. 28-29. 48, 194 bottom, 22, 29. 55-56 charmed, 5. 22, 29, 5~51 composite. 86 connection between leptons and, 76 defined. 219 down, '9 family of elementary particles. 28-29 free.4.29.70. 152. 164-165 gluons interacting with. 7~ history of discovery of. 14 individual. S9 interactions of. 59-64 models. 48-53 momentum distributions of. 61-69 multiple generations of. 163 number conservation. law of. 36 size of. 23 strange. 29 strong interaction among. 70-76 top. ". 99. 57. 221 up. '9. 222 Quark-antiquark collisions. 96 Quark-gluon plasma. 75. 109 Quark-lepton generations. 76 R Radiation-therapy treatment. 169 Radioactive material. experiments using. 152-153 Reactors. experiments using. 159- 153 Relativistic, term. defined. 219 Relativistic Nuclear Collider (RNC). 163 Resistance. electrical. zero. 103 RNC (Relativistic N uclear Collider). 163 S Scaling relation, 61 Scattering, defined, 219 Scientific manpower in particle physics. 189-190 Scintillation counters, 43 defined, 219 Screening, 73 Secondary particle beams, 43, 45 Sigma-star family of hadrons, 49 SIN, 162 SLAC, see Stanford Linear Accelerator Center SLC, see Stanford Linear Collider Solar neutrinos, 15S Solitons, 166 SOR ring, 168

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INDEX 23 1 Space-time, description of, 97 SPEAR, 7, 53-54, 112, 116, 168, 206 defined, 219 Spontaneous disintegration of particles, 35 SppS, 111, 114, 205 defined, 220 SPS, see Super Proton Synchrotron SRS ring, 168 SSC, see Superconducting Super Collider Standard model of elementary-particle physics, 3~, 81-83 defined, 220 Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 53, 110, 113, 118 defined, 219 Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), 7, 8, 45, 89, 112, 118-120, 187, 208 defined, 219 Storage rings, 101, 105 defined, 220 electron-positron, 206 hadron-hadron, 205 intersecting (ISR), 114, 205 Strange particles, defined, 220 Strange quark, 29 Strangeness, defined, 220 Strong force, 2, 13, 25-26, 30 defined, 220 Strong-interaction theory, 73 Summary, executive, 1-10 Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), 110, 112 defined, 220 SuperACO ring, 168 Superconducting magnets, 123-124 in accelerators, 103-104 Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), 6, 8, 17, 107, 111, 120-128, 171, 184, 188-189, 192, 196, 197-198 defined, 220 design studies for, 122-123 goals for, 121 preliminary designs and considerations, 124-127 Reference Designs Study, 124-127 schedule and cost, 127-128 schematic, 125 Superconductivity, 166 defined, 220 large-scale uses of, 17~171 Supersymmetric particles, 93 Supersymmetry, 97 defined, 220 SURF ring, 168 Symmetry breaking of, 39 broken, defined, 214 considerations of, 36-39 continuous, 39 defined, 220-221 discontinuous, 39 gauge, 85 global, 38 local, 38-39 parity, 162 time-reversal, 80 Synchrotron radiation, 118, 139, 16~168 defined, 221 sources of, 167-168 T Tagged Photon Spectrometer, Fermilab, 148, 149 Tantalus ring, 168 Targets, 40, 42 defined, 221 Tau leptons, 5, 22 defined, 221 discovery of, 53 Tau neutrino, 28, 55 Technicolor theory, 23, 107 defined, 221 TERAS ring, 168 TeV (trillion electron volts), 24 defined, 221 mass range, 6 Tevatron, 7, 8, 42, 89-91, 110, 111-113, 115, 124, 170, 187.208 defined, 221 schematic, 114 Time resolution, 149 Time-projection chambers (TPC), 140, 142 defined, 221 Time-reversal symmetry, 80 Top quark, 22, 29, 57 defined, 221 TPC, see Time-projection chambers Tracking chambers, charged-particle, 141-143 Transition radiation, 139

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232 INDEX Triggers in detectors. 150 TRISTAN, 111, 116- 117. 168. 208 defined, 221 TRIUMF, 162 Two-beam accelerators, 130 U . UAI detector, 133, 136, 137 Unification force, 26 of fundamental forces. 86 Unification point. 79 Unified theories, 76-80 defined, 221 grand, see Grand unified theories Universe evolution of, 3 net baryon number of. 79 Universities Research Association (URA), 174 University-based research groups, 196- 197 UNK, 111, 208 defined, 222 Up quark, 29 defined, 222 Upsilon particles, 30. 55 defined, 222 triplet states of, 57 URA (Universities Research Associa- tion), 174 UVSOR ring, 168 V Vacuum fluctuations. ephemeral, 71-72 Vacuum polarization, 73 VEPP-2M ring, 168 VEPP-3 ring, 168 VEPP-4 ring, 112, 116, 168, 206 defined, 222 Vertex detectors, 140- 141 Volts, electron, see Electron volts W W particle, 3, 4, 5, 66, 222 Weak bosons, 66 Weak force, 3, 13, 22, 25-26, 106, 107 defined, 222 X X rays, 2 defined, 222 Xi-star family of hadrons, 49 z Z particle, 3, 4, 5. 66, 222 Z factories, 89-90 Z particle, 67, 106 Zero electrical resistance, 103