A Review of Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Development Programs at the Department of Energy

Committee on Decontamination and Decommissioning

Board on Radioactive Waste Management

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1998



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--> A Review of Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Development Programs at the Department of Energy Committee on Decontamination and Decommissioning Board on Radioactive Waste Management Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998

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--> NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FC01-94EW54069. All opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Energy. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06281-0 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Cover: Demonstration of light-aided technologies for Hanford decontamination and decommissioning projects. Photo courtesy of the Department of Energy's Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area. Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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--> COMMITTEE ON DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING PETER B. MYERS, Chair, Consultant, Washington, D.C. PATRICIA ANN BAISDEN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oakland, California SOL BURSTEIN, Wisconsin Electric Power Company (retired), Milwaukee JOSEPH S. BYRD, University of South Carolina (retired), Lexington BRUCE CLEMENS, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia FRANK CRIMI, Lockheed Environmental Systems (retired), Saratoga, California MILTON LEVENSON, Bechtel International (retired), Menlo Park, California RAY O. SANDBERG, Bechtel (retired), Moraga, California ALFRED SCHNEIDER, Georgia Institute of Technology (retired), Dunwoody LINDA WENNERBERG, Environmental Business Systems, Cambridge, Massachusetts NRC Staff JOHN R. WILEY, Senior Staff Officer (January 1998 to present) KARYANIL THOMAS, Senior Staff Officer (beginning of project to December 1997) ROBIN L. ALLEN, Senior Project Assistant TONI GREENLEAF, Senior Project Assistant (1997)

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--> BOARD ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT MICHAEL C. KAVANAUGH, Chair, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., Oakland, California JOHN F. AHEARNE, Co-Chair, Sigma Xi and Duke University, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina ROBERT J. BUDNITZ, Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, California ANDREW P. CAPUTO, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, D.C. MARY R. ENGLISH, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee DARLEANE C. HOFFMAN, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Oakland, California JAMES H. JOHNSON, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. ROGER E. KASPERSON, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts JAMES O. LECKIE, Stanford University, Stanford, California JANE C. S. LONG, Mackay School of Mines, University of Nevada, Reno CHARLES MCCOMBIE, Consultant, Gipf-Oberfrick, Switzerland H. ROBERT MEYER, Keystone Scientific, Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado WILLIAM A. MILLS, Oak Ridge Associated Universities (retired), Olney, Maryland D. WARNER NORTH, NorthWorks, Inc., Mountain View, California MARTIN J. STEINDLER, Argonne National Laboratories, Argonne, Illinois JOHN J. TAYLOR, Electric Power Research Institute (retired), Palo Alto, California MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California NRC Staff KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Director ROBERT S. ANDREWS, Senior Staff Officer JOHN R. WILEY, Senior Staff Officer THOMAS E. KIESS, Senior Staff Officer SUSAN B. MOCKLER, Research Associate TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative Associate ROBIN L. ALLEN, Senior Project Assistant LATRICIA C. BAILEY, Project Assistant LAURA LLANOS, Project Assistant ANGELA R. TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant ERIKA L. WILLIAMS, Research Assistant (Through August 1998)

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--> COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JERRY F. FRANKLIN, University of Washington, Seattle B. JOHN GARRICK, PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, California THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts JUDITH E. MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RICHARD A. MESERVE, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. HUGH C. MORRIS, Canadian Global Change Program, Delta, British Columbia RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California NRC Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst

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--> The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are the chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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--> Preface This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Harold Agnew, Los Alamos National Laboratory & General Atomics (retired) Edward Albenesius, Savannah River Site (retired) Robert Budnitz, Future Resources Associates, Inc. Gerald Dinneen, Honeywell, Inc. (retired) James Johnson, Jr., Howard University Richard Meserve, Covington & Burling George Parshall, DuPont (retired) William Prindle, Corning (retired) Dennis Reisenweaver, International Atomic Energy Agency Richard Smith, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (retired) George Whitesides, Harvard University Raymond Wymer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired) While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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--> Contents     Executive Summary   1     Significant Findings and Recommendations   2 1   Introduction and Background   5     Program Developments in the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management and in the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area,   6     The Large-Scale Technology Demonstration Program   10     Technology Deployment Initiative   17 2   Committee Findings   19     General Findings   19     Strategic Planning   20     Evaluation and Prioritization   23     End-State Specification   23     Dissemination of Results   24     Technology Assessment   25     Technology Implementation   27 3   Recommendations   29     References   33

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-->     Appendixes         A Statement of Task   37     B Summary of the Committee's Meetings   38     C Summary of the meeting held on April 18, 1996, at the Argonne National Laboratory on the subject of the DOE Large-Scale Technology Demonstration Program associated with the D&D of the Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) Reactor   41     D Summary of the meeting held on November 7–8, 1996, at the Hanford Site on the subject of the DOE Large-Scale Technology Demonstration Program associated with the D&D of the 105 C-Reactor   58     E Summary of the meetings held on March 13–14, 1997, at the Fernald Environmental Management Project on the subject of the DOE Large-Scale Technology Demonstration Program associated with the D&D of Plant 1   71     F Summary of the meeting and tour held on July 30, 1997, at the Argonne National Laboratory on the subject of the DOE Large-Scale Technology Demonstration Program associated with the D&D of the CP-5 Reactor   77     G Biographical Sketches of the Committee   82     H Acronyms and Abbreviations   86