APPENDIX D
Complete List of Technologies Assessed

AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

Propulsion Technologies
  • active, closed-loop engine control with real-time, detailed diagnostics

  • actively controlled combustor pattern factor

  • advanced combustor cases

  • advanced membrane technology

  • advanced propulsion systems

  • advanced propulsion systems for rotorcraft

  • aircraft turbine core engines with oxygen-enriched airstream

  • aircraft turbine engine with thrust modulation and/or vectoring

  • alternate fuels and propulsion systems

  • alternative propulsion for small airplanes

  • aspirated compressors

  • condition-based monitoring/maintenance

  • cooled cooling air

  • electrically powered aircraft wheels

  • fine spray grid fuel-air injection

  • fuel reforming/fuel cells

  • integral heat exchanger

  • integrated combustor front-end design

  • intelligent gas turbine engines

  • large turndown ratio combustors

  • low cost turbines for general aviation and helicopters



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Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Aeronautics: Breakthrough Technologies to Meet Future Air and Space Transportation Needs and Goals APPENDIX D Complete List of Technologies Assessed AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY Propulsion Technologies active, closed-loop engine control with real-time, detailed diagnostics actively controlled combustor pattern factor advanced combustor cases advanced membrane technology advanced propulsion systems advanced propulsion systems for rotorcraft aircraft turbine core engines with oxygen-enriched airstream aircraft turbine engine with thrust modulation and/or vectoring alternate fuels and propulsion systems alternative propulsion for small airplanes aspirated compressors condition-based monitoring/maintenance cooled cooling air electrically powered aircraft wheels fine spray grid fuel-air injection fuel reforming/fuel cells integral heat exchanger integrated combustor front-end design intelligent gas turbine engines large turndown ratio combustors low cost turbines for general aviation and helicopters

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Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Aeronautics: Breakthrough Technologies to Meet Future Air and Space Transportation Needs and Goals low or no emission engines nacelle boundary layer suction nonmetallic aircraft turbine engines revolutionary combustors trapped vortex pilot zone turbo-electric hybrid powered aircraft turbogenerators Aerodynamics elimination of airframe wave drag through wave cancellation maintaining laminar flow on airframes by means of surface cooling minimum-wake wing technology to extract the rotary energy of wingtip vortices Air Vehicle Configurations "electraircraft" x-plane "green" aircraft configurations and operations air vehicles optimized for reduced operating costs blended-wing body (BWB) high speed civil transports mid-wing twin fuselage O-plane practical, affordable flying automobile strut-braced wing unconventional aircraft unpiloted air vehicles V/STOL aircraft to enhance capacity variable diameter tilt-rotors vertical flight for commercial applications vertical flight for personal transportation

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Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Aeronautics: Breakthrough Technologies to Meet Future Air and Space Transportation Needs and Goals very large cargo aircraft Z plane Control Systems and Sensors aircraft mounted remote weather sensors control systems data fusion/estimation low-cost ice protection systems and ice avoidance capability noise reduction technology photonics-based sensors Structures, Materials, and MEMS "smart systems" applications advanced materials aluminum/aluminum diboride metal matrix composites carbon nanofibers with an ultra high capacity to absorb/adsorb hydrogen gas at ambient temperatures and modest pressures carbon/carbon/boron nitride composites laminated structures technology materials and materials processing MEMS in-situ cooling of hot section sensors micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) miniaturization, smart structures, and health-monitoring multichip module laminates nanoporous composite fiber activated carbon assemblies new alloys recyclable copolyester thermosets reinforced composites for propulsion systems shaped/smart materials

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Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Aeronautics: Breakthrough Technologies to Meet Future Air and Space Transportation Needs and Goals superconducting electronic materials very low-cost composites wing sealants Design and Manufacturing automated assembly fabrication by light integrated design lean manufacturing for gas turbine engines modeling and simulation new methodology for engine design and development virtual manufacturing virtual prototyping virtual test cells AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY Flight Deck and Human/Automation Systems affordable, reliable fly-by-light control systems automated preflight procedures automated reasoning care free handling configuration performance monitoring and situation awareness decision aids distributed systems (via datalinks) flight deck workload reduction technology highly capable automation systems human-machine systems (cognitive engineering) integrated flight systems situation awareness alerting systems

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Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Aeronautics: Breakthrough Technologies to Meet Future Air and Space Transportation Needs and Goals technology for uncrewed aircraft upwardly compatible systems virtual visual meteorological conditions (VMC) Communications, Navigation, Surveillance, and Air Traffic Management 4-D operations (four dimensional precision trajectory prediction) air traffic control air traffic management for V/STOL aircraft antijamming technology free flight and a precise knowledge of location high altitude airborne communications platforms information security low-cost inertial measurement units reliable and confirmed ATC information in the cockpit satellite-based communications, navigation, and surveillance systems Terminal Area Technologies energy absorbing runways formation landings high speed turnoffs V/STOL infrastructure wake vortex mitigation wide runways Software and Process Technologies autocode certification common conceptual model for software formal methods for software development

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Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Aeronautics: Breakthrough Technologies to Meet Future Air and Space Transportation Needs and Goals improved theory and methods of risk estimation and management in complex flight-critical systems new software verification and validation processes next generation ''goal level" autonomy algorithms predictive tools/models for analyzing the total air transportation system safety analysis software architecture software certification software designed for evolution SPACE TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY Propulsion Technologies advanced fuels advanced high energy propellants blast wave accelerator combined cycle rocket-based engines endothermic hydrocarbons high efficiency H2-O2 rocket engine capable of providing optimum expansion ratio performance over the ambient pressure range from 1 atmosphere to space vacuum hydrogen densification/storage increased thrust-to-weight engine laser propulsion liquid air, cooled air propulsion concepts pulse detonation engine reformed hydrocarbons solid/metallic hydrogen strained ring hydrocarbons unique propulsion concepts variable expansion ratio engine

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Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Aeronautics: Breakthrough Technologies to Meet Future Air and Space Transportation Needs and Goals Launch Vehicle Configurations and Components advanced composite materials advanced thermal protection systems cost optimized multistage to orbit rocket integrated thermostructural systems lightweight and high performance components for reusable launch vehicles lightweight structures miniaturization Launch Assist Technology air launch systems cannons magnetic lifter Ground Infrastructure modeling and simulations of operations prelaunch processing test and mission planning automation Mitigation of Environmental Impact noise control technology pollution reduction technology

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