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Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Related Nutrients (IOM, 1997)



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C Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Related Nutrients (IOM, 1997)

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FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES-INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES, 1997   Calcium Phosphorus   Magnesium   Vitamin D Fluoride Life-Stage Group AIa (mg/day) RDAb (mg/day) AI (mg/day) RDA (mg/day) AI (mg/day) AIc,d (µg/day) AI (mg/day) Infants 0 to 6 months 210   100   30 5 0.01 6 to 12 months 270   275   75 5 0.5 Children 1 through 3 years 500 460   80   5 0.7 4 through 8 years 800 500   130   5 1 Males 9 through 13 years 1,300 1,250   240   5 2 14 through 18 years 1,300 1,250   410   5 3 19 through 30 years 1,000 700   400   5 4 31 through 50 years 1,000 700   420   5 4 51 through 70 years 1,200 700   420   10 4 > 70 years 1,200 700   420   15 4 Females 9 through 13 years 1,300 1,250   240   5 2 14 through 18 years 1,300 1,250   360   5 3 19 through 30 years 1,000 700   310   5 3 31 through 50 years 1,000 700   320   5 3 51 through 70 years 1,200 700   320   10 3 > 70 years 1,200 700   320   15 3 Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 1,300 1,250   400   5 3 19 through 30 years 1,000 700   350   5 3 31 through 50 years 1,000 700   360   5 3 Lactation ≤ 18 years 1,300 1,250   360   5 3 19 through 30 years 1,000 700   310   5 3 31 through 50 years 1,000 700   320   5 3 a AI = Adequate Intake. The observed average or experimentally set intake by a defined population or subgroup that appears to sustain a defined nutritional status, such as growth rate, normal circulating nutrient values, or other functional indicators of health. AI is utilized if sufficient scientific evidence is not available to derive an EAR. For healthy breastfed infants, AI is the mean intake. All other life-stage groups should be covered at the AI value. The AI is not equivalent to a RDA. b RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. The intake that meets the nutrient need of almost all (97–98 percent) individuals in a group. c As cholecalciferol. 1 µg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D. d In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight. © Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE–NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS Life-Stage Group Thiamin (mg/d) Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d)a Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (µg/d)b Vitamin B12 (µg/d) Pantothenic Acid (mg/d) Biotin (µg/d) Cholinec (mg/d) Infants   0–6 mo 0.2* 0.3* 2* 0.1* 65* 0.4* 1.7* 5* 125*   7–12 mo 0.3* 0.4* 4* 0.3* 80* 0.5* 1.8* 6* 150* Children   1–3 yr 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9 2* 8* 200*   4–8 yr 0.6 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 3* 12* 250* Males   9–13 yr 0.9 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 375*   14–18 yr 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 25* 550*   19–30 yr 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550*   31–50 yr 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550*   51–70 yr 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4d 5* 30* 550*   > 70 yr 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4d 5* 30* 550* Females   9–13 yr 0.9 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 375*   14–18 yr 1.0 1.0 14 1.2 400e 2.4 5* 25* 400*   19–30 yr 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400e 2.4 5* 30* 425*   31–50 yr 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400e 2.4 5* 30* 425*   51–70 yr 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4d 5* 30* 425*   > 70 yr 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4d 5* 30* 425* Pregnancy   £ 18 yr 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600f 2.6 6* 30* 450*   19–30 yr 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600f 2.6 6* 30* 450*   31–50 yr 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600f 2.6 6* 30* 450* Lactation   £18 yr 1.5 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550*   19–30 yr 1.5 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550*   31–50 yr 1.5 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. a As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0-6 months = preformed niacin (not NE). b As dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 µg of food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid (from fortified food or supplement) consumed with food = 0.5 µg of synthetic (supplemental) folic acid taken on an empty stomach. c Although AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages. d Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12. e In view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of synthetic folic acid from fortified foods and/or supplements in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet. f It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 µg of folic acid until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube. ©Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES–NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCES,a Revised 1989 (Abridged) Designed for the maintenance of good nutrition of practically all healthy people in the United States Category Age (years) or Condition Weightb (kg) (lb) Heightb (cm) (in) Protein (g) Vitamin A (µg RE)c Vitamin E (mga-TE)d Vitamin K (µg) Vitamin C (mg) Iron (mg) Zinc (mg) Iodine (µg) Selenium (µg) Infants 0.0–0.5 6 13 60 24 13 375 3 5 30 6 5 40 10   0.5–1.0 9 20 71 28 14 375 4 10 35 10 5 50 15 Children 1–3 13 29 90 35 16 400 6 15 40 10 10 70 20   4–6 20 44 112 44 24 500 7 20 45 10 10 90 20   7–10 28 62 132 52 28 700 7 30 45 10 10 120 30 Males 11–14 45 99 157 62 45 1,000 10 45 50 12 15 150 40   15–18 66 145 176 69 59 1,000 10 65 60 12 15 150 50   19–24 72 160 177 70 58 1,000 10 70 60 10 15 150 70   25–50 79 174 176 70 63 1,000 10 80 60 10 15 150 70   51+ 77 170 173 68 63 1,000 10 80 60 10 15 150 70 Females 11–14 46 101 157 62 46 800 8 45 50 15 12 150 45   15–18 55 120 163 64 44 800 8 55 60 15 12 150 50   19–24 58 128 164 65 46 800 8 60 60 15 12 150 55   25–50 63 138 163 64 50 800 8 65 60 15 12 150 55   51+ 65 143 160 63 50 800 8 65 60 10 12 150 55 Pregnant           60 800 10 65 70 30 15 175 65 Lactating 1st 6 months         65 1,300 12 65 95 15 19 200 75   2nd 6 months         62 1,200 11 65 90 15 16 200 75 NOTE: This table does not include nutrients for which Dietary Reference Intakes have recently been established (see Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride [1997] and Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline [1998]). a The allowances, expressed as average daily intakes over time, are intended to provide for individual variations among most normal persons as they live in the United States under usual environmental stresses. Diets should be based on a variety of common foods in order to provide other nutrients for which human requirements have been less well defined. b Weights and heights of Reference Adults are actual medians for the U.S. population of the designated age, as reported by NHANES II. The median weights and heights of those under 19 years of age were taken from Hamill et al. (1979). The use of these figures does not imply that the height-to-weight ratios are ideal. c Retinol equivalents. 1 retinol equivalent = 1 µg retinol or 6 µg b-carotene. d a-Tocopherol equivalents. 1 mg d-a tocopherol = 1 a-TE. © Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.