Bibliography

ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine). 1997. ACSM position stand. The female athlete triad. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc. 29:i-ix.

AFEB (Armed Forces Epidemiological Board) 1996. Injuries in the military: a hidden epidemic. Report 29 HA 4844 97.Falls Church, Virg.: Armed Forces Epidemiologic Board.

Alfredson, H., P. Nordstrom, and R. Lorentzon. 1996. Total and regional bone mass in female soccer players. Calcif. Tissue Int. 59:438-442.

Almeida, S.A., K.M. Williams, R.A. Shaffer, J.T. Luz, E. Badong, and S.K. Brodine. 1997. A physical training program to reduce musculoskeletal injuries in U.S. Marine Corps recruits. Technical Document No. 97-2B. San Diego, Calif.: Naval Health Research Center.

AR (Army Regulation) 40-25. 1985. See U.S. Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, 1985.

Aurbach, G.D., S.J. Marx, and A.M. Spiegel. 1992. Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and the calciferols. Pp. 1397-1476 in Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, J.E. Wilson and D.W. Foster, eds. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.


Baren, D., A. Sorensen, J. Grimes, R. Lew, A. Karellas, B. Johnson, J. Roche. 1990. Dietary modification with dairy products for preventing vertebral bone loss in premenopausal women; a three-year prospective study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 70(1):264-270.

Bates et al. 1983. An assessment of subject variability, subject-shoe interaction, and the evaluation of running shoes using ground reaction force data. J. Biomech. 16(3):181-91.

Beals, K.A., and M.M. Manore. 1994. The prevalence and consequence of subclinical eating disorders in female athletes. Int. J. Sports Nutr. 4:175-195.

Beck, T.J. 1997. Structural indices of stress fracture susceptibility in female military recruits. Presentation at the workshop on Reducing Stress Fracture in Physically Active Young Servicemembers, December 10, Washington, D.C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 59
Bibliography ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine). 1997. ACSM position stand. The female athlete triad. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc. 29:i-ix. AFEB (Armed Forces Epidemiological Board) 1996. Injuries in the military: a hidden epidemic. Report 29 HA 4844 97.Falls Church, Virg.: Armed Forces Epidemiologic Board. Alfredson, H., P. Nordstrom, and R. Lorentzon. 1996. Total and regional bone mass in female soccer players. Calcif. Tissue Int. 59:438-442. Almeida, S.A., K.M. Williams, R.A. Shaffer, J.T. Luz, E. Badong, and S.K. Brodine. 1997. A physical training program to reduce musculoskeletal injuries in U.S. Marine Corps recruits. Technical Document No. 97-2B. San Diego, Calif.: Naval Health Research Center. AR (Army Regulation) 40-25. 1985. See U.S. Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, 1985. Aurbach, G.D., S.J. Marx, and A.M. Spiegel. 1992. Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and the calciferols. Pp. 1397-1476 in Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, J.E. Wilson and D.W. Foster, eds. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company. Baren, D., A. Sorensen, J. Grimes, R. Lew, A. Karellas, B. Johnson, J. Roche. 1990. Dietary modification with dairy products for preventing vertebral bone loss in premenopausal women; a three-year prospective study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 70(1):264-270. Bates et al. 1983. An assessment of subject variability, subject-shoe interaction, and the evaluation of running shoes using ground reaction force data. J. Biomech. 16(3):181-91. Beals, K.A., and M.M. Manore. 1994. The prevalence and consequence of subclinical eating disorders in female athletes. Int. J. Sports Nutr. 4:175-195. Beck, T.J. 1997. Structural indices of stress fracture susceptibility in female military recruits. Presentation at the workshop on Reducing Stress Fracture in Physically Active Young Servicemembers, December 10, Washington, D.C.

OCR for page 59
Beck, T., C. Ruff, F. Mourtada, R. Shaffer, K. Maxwell-Williams, G. Kao, D. Sartoris, and S. Brodine. 1996. DXA derived structural geometry for stress fracture prediction in male U.S. Marine Corps recruits. J. Bone Miner. Res. 11:645-653. Bell, N.S., T.W. Mangione, D. Hemenway, P.J. Amoroso, and B.H. Jones. Submitted. High injury rates among female Army trainees: A function of gender? Bell, 1994. Injury etiology and prevention: selected topics. Doctoral thesis, Harvard School of Public Health. Bennell, K.L., S.A. Malcolm, S.A. Thomas, S.J. Reid, P.D. Brukner, P.R. Ebeling, and J.D. Wark. 1996. Risk factors for stress fracture in track and field athletes. Am. J. Sports Med. 24:810-818. Bentley, W. 1978. Policy guidance for organized physical training. Memorandum for the US Army, Europe, and 7th Army, October 30, 1978. Bilanin, J., M. Blanchard, and E. Russek-Cohen. 1989. Lower vertebral bone density in male long distance runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 21:66-70. Boivin, G., C. Anthoine-Terrier, and K.J. Obrant. 1990. Transmission electron microscopy of bone tissue. A review. J. Bone Miner. Res. 5 S1:S185-9. Bouxsein, M.L., and R. Marcus. 1994. Overview of exercise and bone mass. Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 20:787-802. Brudvig, T.J., T.D. Grudger, and L. Obermeyer. 1983. Stress fractures in 295 trainees: A 1-year study of incidence related to age, sex, and race. Mil. Med. 148:666-667. Brukner, P. 1997. Stress fracture among physically active women in the general population. Presentation at the workshop on Reducing Stress Fracture in Physically Active Young Servicemembers, December 10, Washington, D.C. Brukner, P., and K. Bennell. 1997. Stress fractures in females athletes. Diagnosis, management and rehabilitation. Sports Med. 24(6):419-429. Buckwalter, J.A., M.J. Glimcher, R.R. Cooper, and R Recker. 1996. Bone biology. I: Structure, blood supply, cells, matrix, and mineralization. Instr. Course Lect. 45:371-86. Bullen, B.A., G.S. Skrinar, I.Z. Beitins, G. Von Mering, B.A. Trunbull, and J.W. MacArthur. 1985. Induction of menstrual disorders by strenuous exercise in untrained women. N. Engl. J. Med. 312:1349-1353. Burr, D.B. 1997. Muscle strength, bone mass, and age-related bone loss. J. Bone Miner. Res. 12:1547-1551. Burrows, H.J. 1956. Fatigue infraction of the middle of the tibia in ballet dancers. J. Bone Joint Surg. 38B:83-94. Canham, M.L., M.A. McFerren, and B.H. Jones. 1996. The association of injury with physical fitness among men and women in gender integrated basic combat training units. MSMR 2(4):8-10. Cavanagh, P.R. 1980. The Running Shoe Book. Mountain View, Calif.: Anderson World. Cavanagh, P.R., and M.A. Lafortune. 1980. Ground reaction forces in distance running. J. Biomech. 13(5):397-406. Charles, P., F.T. Jensen, L. Mosekilde, and H.H. Hansen. 1983. Calcium metabolism evaluated at 47Cs kinetics: estimation of dermal calcium loss. Clin. Sci. 65(4):415-422. Charles, P., E.F. Eriksen, C. Hashing, K. Sondergard, and L. Mosekilde. 1991. Dermal, intestinal, and renal obligatory losses of calcium: Relation to skeletal calcium loss. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54(suppl):266S-272S. Chen, Z., T.G. Lohman, W.A. Stini,C. Rittenbaugh, and M. Aickin. 1997. Fat or lean tissue mass: Which one is the major determinant of bone mineral mass in healthy post-menopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Res. 12:144-151. Clapp III, J.F., and K.D. Little. 1995. The interaction between regular exercise and selected aspects of women's health. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 173:2-9. Clement, D.B., J.E. Taunton, G.W. Smart, et al. 1981. A survey of overuse running injuries. Phys. Sports med. 9:47-58. Compston, J., M. Laskey, P. Croucher, A. Coxon, and S. Kreitzman. 1992. Effect of diet-induced weight loss on total body bone mass. Clin. Sci. 82:429-432. Conover, C.A. 1996. The role of insulin-like growth factors and binding proteins in bone cell biology. Pp. 607-618 in Principles of Bone Biology, J.P. Bilezikian, L.G. Raisz, and G.A. Rodan, eds. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press.

OCR for page 59
Cowin, S.C., L. Moss-Salentijn, and M.L. Moss. 1991. Candidates for the mechnosensory system in bone. J. Biomech. Eng. 113(2):191-7. Cumming, D.C. 1996. Exercise-associated amenorrhea, low bone density, and estrogen replacement therapy. Arch. Intern. Med. 156:2193-2195. Cundy, T., M. Evans, and H. Roberts. 1991. Bone density in women receiving depot medroxy progesterone acetate for contraception . Br. Med. J. 303:13-16. Dawson-Hughes, B., G.E. Dallal, E.A. Krall, L. Sadowski, N. Sahyoun, and S. Tannenbaum. 1990. A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. N. Engl. J. Med. 323(13):878-883. DeCherney, A. 1996. Bone-sparing properties of oral contraceptives. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174:15-20. De Souza, M.J., B.E. Miller, L.C. Sequenzia, A.A. Luciano, S. Ulreuch, S. Stier, K. Prestwood, and B.L. Lasley. 1997. Bone health is not affected by luteal phase abnormalities and decreased ovarian progesterone production in female runners. 82(9):2867-2876. Deporte, E., and B. Van Gheluwe. 1989. Ground reaction forces in elite high jumping. ISB XII. Los Angeles: International Congress of Biomechanics. Dickinson, J.A., Cook S.D., Leinhardt, T.M. 1985. The measurement of shock waves following heel strike while running. J. Biomech. 18:415-422. Doyle, F., J. Brown, and C. Lachance. 1970. Relation between bone mass and muscle weight. Lancet 1(7643):391-393. Drake III, A.J. 1996. Characteristics of female midshipmen: 1992 to 1996. Presentation at the workshop on Assessing Readiness in Military Women: The Relationship to Nutrition. September 9-10, Irvine, Calif. [see IOM, 1998]. Drinkwater, B.L., K. Nilson, C.H. Chesnut, W.J. Bremner, S. Shainholtz, and M.B. Southworth. 1984. Bone mineral content of amenorrheic and eumenorrheic athletes. N. Engl. J. Med. 311:277-281. Dueck, C.A., K.S. Matt, M.M. Manore, and J.S. Skinner. 1996. Treatment of athletic amenorrhea with a diet and training intervention program. Int. J. Sports Nutr. 6:24-40. Dufek, J.S., and B.T. Bates. 1991. Biomechanical factors associated with injury during landing in jump sports. Sports Med. 12(5):326-337. Ellis, K.J., and S.H. Cohn. 1975. Correlation between skeletal calcium mass and muscle mass in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 38(3):455-60. Engh, C.A., R.A. Robinson, and J. Milgram. 1970. Stress fractures in children. J. Trauma 10(7):532-541. Enzelsberger, H., M. Metka, and G. Heytmanek. 1988. Influence of oral contraceptive use on bone density in climacteric women. Maturitas 9:375-378. Etherington, J., P.A. Harris, D. Nandra, D.J. Hart, R.L. Wolman, D.V. Doyle, and T.D. Spector. 1996. The effect of weight-bearing exercise on bone mineral density: A study of female ex-elite athletes and the general population. J. Bone Miner. Res. 11:1333-1338. FM (Field Manual) 21-20. See U.S. Department of the Army, 1992. Frederick, E.C. and J.L. Hagy. 1986. Factors affecting peak vertical ground reaction forces in running. Int. J. Sport Biomechanics. 2:41-49. Frederick, E.C., T.E. Clarke. 1981. Consequences of scaling on impact loading in running. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise 3(13):96. Fredericson, M. 1996. Common injuries in runners. Diagnosis, rehabilitation and prevention. Sports Med. 21(1):49-72. Garner, D.M., and M.P. Olmstead. 1991. The Eating Disorders Inventory 2. Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. Garnero, P., E. Sornay-Rendu, and P.D. Delmas. 1995. Decreased bone turnover in oral contraceptive users. Bone 16:499-503. Ghiron, L.J., J.L. Thompson, L. Holloway, R.L. Hintz, G.E. Butterfield, A.R. Hoffman and R. Marcus. 1995. Effects of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone on bone turnover in elderly women. J. Bone Miner. Res. 10:1844-1852.

OCR for page 59
Girasole, G., R.L. Jilka, G. Passeri, S. Boswell, G. Boder, D.C. Williams, and S.C. Manolagas. 1992. 17 beta-estradiol inhibits interleukin-6 production by bone marrow-derived stromal cells and osteoblasts in vitro: a potential mechanism for the antiosteoporotic effect of estrogens. J. Clin. Invest. 89(3):883-91. Gluer, C.C., S.R. Cummings, D.C. Bauer, K. Stone, A. Pressman, A. Mathur, and H.K. Genant. 1996. Osteoporosis: Association of recent fractures with quantitative U.S. findings. Radiology 199:725-732. Goldsmith, N.F., and J.O. Johnston. 1975. Bone mineral effects of oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and lactation. J. Bone Joint Surg. 57:657-668. Graham, J.D., and C.L. Clarke. 1997. Physiological action of progesterone in target tissues. Endocr. Rev. 18:502-519. Hall, M.L., J. Heavens, I.D. Cullum, and P.J. Ell. 1990. The range of bone density in normal British women. Br. J. Radiol. 63:266-269. Hamill, J., B.T. Bates, K.M. Knutzen, and J.A. Sawhill. 1983. Variations in ground reaction force parameters at different running speeds. Human Movement Science. 2:47-56. Hamill, C.L., T.E. Clarke, E.C. Frederick, L.J. Goodyear, and E.T. Howley . 1984. Effects of grade running on kinematics and impact force. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 16:185. Heaney, R.P. 1996. Bone mass, nutrition, and other lifestyle factors. Nutr. Rev. 54:S3-S10 Henderson, R.C., G.J. Kemp, and E.R. Campion. 1992. Residual bone mineral density and muscle strength after fractures of the tibia or femur in children. J. Bone Joint Surg. 74:211-218. Hergenroeder, A.C. 1995. Bone mineralization, hypothalamic amenorrhea, and sex steroid therapy in female adolescents and young adults. J. Pediatr. 126:683-689. Hergenroeder, A.C., E.O. Smith, R. Shypailo, L.A. Jones, W.J. Klish, and K. Ellis. 1997. Bone mineral changes in young women with hypothalamic amenorrhea treated with oral contraceptives, medroxyprogesterone, or placebo over 12 months. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 176:1017-1025. Honkanen, R., E.M. Alhava, S. Saarikoski, and M. Tuppurainen. 1991. Osteoporosis risk factors in perimenopausal women. Calcif. Tissue Int. 49:S74-S75. Hourani, L.L. 1996. Health and nutrition profile of women in the Navy. Presentation at the workshop on Assessing Readiness in Military Women: The Relationship to Nutrition. September 9-10, Irvine, Calif. [see IOM, 1998]. Hreshchyshyn, M.M., A. Hopkins, S. Zylstra, and M. Anbar. 1988. Associations of parity, breast-feeding, and birth control pills with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone densities. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159:318-322. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1992. Body Composition and Physical Performance, Applications for the Military Services, B.M. Marriott and J. Grumstrup-Scott, eds. Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. IOM (Institute of Medicine) 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride [prepublication copy]. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1998. Assessing Readiness in Military Women: The Relationship to Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health. Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women, Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Jaeger, B.R. et al., 1996. USAF recruit fitness study. Brooks AFB, Tex.: Detachment 1, Human Systems Center, Office for Prevention and Health Services Assessment. James, S.L. et al., 1978. Injuries to runners. Am. J. Sports. Med. 6(2):40-50. Jensen, L.B., F. Quaade, and O.H. Sorensen. 1994. Bone loss accompanying voluntary weight loss in obese humans. J. Bone Miner. Res. 9:459-463. Johnell, O., A. Rausing, B. Wendeberg, and N. Westlin. 1982. Morphological bone changes in shin splints. Clin. Orthop. 167:180-184. Johnson, L.C., H.T. Stradford, R.W. Geis, J.R. Dineen, and E. Kerley. 1963. Histogenesis of stress fractures. J. Bone Joint Surg. 45A:1542.

OCR for page 59
Johnson, A.W., C.B. Weiss, and D.L. Wheeler. 1994. Stress fracture of the femoral shaft in athletes--more common than expected. A new clinical test. Am. J. Sports Med. 22:248-256. Jones, B.H. 1983. Overuse injuries of the lower extremities associated with marching, jogging, and running: A review. Milit. Med. 148:783-787. Jones, B.H., J.M. Harris, T.N. Vinh, and C. Rubin. 1989. Exercise-induced stress fractures and stress reactions of bone: Epidemiology, etiology, and classification . Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 17:379-422. Kannus, P., M. Jarvinen, H. Sievanen, P. Oja, and I. Vuori. 1994. Osteoporosis in men with a history of tibial fracture. J. Bone Miner. Res. 9:423-429. Kelly, P.J., and J.A. Eisman. 1992. Osteoporosis: Genetic effects on bone turnover and bone density. Ann. Med. 25:100-101. Kelsey, J.L., W.S. Browner, D.G. Seeley, M.C. Nevitt, and S.R. Cummings. 1992. Risk factors for fractures of the distal forearm and proximal humerus. Am. J. Epidemiol. 135:477-489. King, N., K.E. Fridlund and E.W. Askew. 1993. Nutrition Issues in Military Women. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 12:344-348. Kiratli, B.J. 1996. Immobilization osteopenia. Pp. 833-853 in Osteoporosis, R. Marcus, D. Feldman, and J. Kelsey, eds. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press . Kleerekoper, M., R.S. Brienza, and L.R. Schultz. 1991. Oral contraceptive use may protect against low bone mass: Henry Ford Hospital Osteoporosis Cooperative Research Group. Arch. Intern. Med. 151:1971-1976. Kleerekoper, M. 1997. Effect of Modulators of Bone Turnover on Changes in Markers of Bone Turnover. Presentation at the workshop on Reducing Stress Fracture in Physically Active Young Servicemembers, December 10, Washington, D.C. Klesges, R.C., K.D. Ward, M.L. Shelton, W.B. Applegate, E.D. Cantler, G.M. Palmieri, K. Harmon, and J. Davis. 1996. Changes in bone mineral content in male athletes: Mechanisms of action and intervention effects. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 276:226-230. Klibanski, A., B.M.K. Biller, D.A. Schoenfeld, D.B. Herzog, and V.C. Saxe. 1995. The effects of estrogen administration on trabecular bone loss in young women with anorexia nervosa. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80:898-904. Klicka, M.V., D.E. Sherman, N. King, K.E. Friedl, and E.W. Askew. 1993. Nutritional assessment of U.S. Military Academy cadets at West Point: Part 2. Assessment of nutritional intake. Technical Report No. T94-1. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Knapik, J., and N. Henderson. 1997. Injury incidence in soldiers attending Medical Specialist (MOS91B) AIT, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. MSMR 3:10-12. Kowal, D.M. 1980. Nature and causes of injuries in women resulting from an endurance training program. Am. J. Sports Med. 8(4):265-269. Krall, E.A., and B. Dawson-Hughes. 1993. Heritable and life-style determinants of bone mineral density. J. Bone Miner. Res. 8:1-9. Kritz-Silverstein, D., and E. Barrett-Connor. 1993. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal women as determined by prior oral contraceptive use. Am. J. Publ. Health 83:100-102. Kurzer, M.S., and D.H. Calloway. 1986. Effects of energy deprivation on sex hormone patterns in healthy menstruating women. Am. J. Physiol. 251(4 pt. 1):E483-488. Laitinen, K., and M. Valimaki. 1991. Alcohol and bone. Calcif. Tissue Int. 49:S70-S73. Lauder, T. 1997. The female athlete triad: Prevalence in military women. ADA330021. Tacoma, Wash.: Madigan Army Medical Center. Laughlin, G.A., C.E. Dominguez, A.J. Morales, and S.S.C. Yen. 1994. Alterations of insulin/glucose and the GH-IGF-IGFBP system during the 25h metabolic clock in cycling and amenorrheic athletes [abstract 842]. P. 411 in Proceedings of the 76th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society. Law, M.R., and A.K. Hackshaw. 1997. A meta-analysis of cigarette smoking, bone mineral density, and risk of hip fracture: Recognition of a major effect. Br. Med. J. 315:841-846.

OCR for page 59
Li, G., S.D. Zhang, G. Cheng, H. Chen, and A.M. Wang. 1985. Radiographic and histologic analyses of stress fracture in rabbit tibias. Am. J. Sports Med. 13(5):285-94. Light, L.H., G.E. McLellan, and L. Klenerman. 1980. Skeletal transients on heel strike in normal walking with different footwear. J. Biomech. 13:477-480. Lindsay, R., J. Tohme, and B. Kanders. 1986. The effect of oral contraceptive use on vertebral bone mass in pre- and postmenopausal women. Contraception 34:333-340. Loucks, A.B. 1989. Athletics and menstrual dysfunction in young women. Pp. 513-538 in Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, vol. 2: Youth, Exercise, and Sport, G.V. Gisolfi and D.R. Lamb, eds. Indianapolis: Benchmark Press. Loucks, A.B. 1996. The reproductive system. Pp. 41-66 in Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, vol. 9: Exercise and the Female--A Life-Span Approach, O. Bar-Or, D. Lamb, and P. Clarkson, eds. Carmel, Ind.: Cooper Publishing Group. Loucks, A.B., and R. Callister. 1993. Induction and prevention of low T3-syndrome in exercising women. Am. J. Physiol. 264:R924-R930. Loucks, A.B., and E.M. Heath. 1994. Induction of low T3-syndrome in exercising women occurs at a threshold of energy availability. Am. J. Physiol. 266:R817-R823. Loucks, A.B., G.L. Laughlin, J.F. Mortola, L. Girton, J.C. Nelson, and S.S.C. 1992. Yen. Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal function in eumenorrheic and amenorrheic athletes. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75:514-518. Lu, P.W., J.N. Briody, G.D. Ogle, K. Morley, I.R. Humphries, J. Allen, R. Howman-Giles, D. Sillence, and C.T. Cowell. 1994. Bone mineral density of total body, spine, and femoral neck in children and young adults: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J. Bone Miner. Res. 9:1451-1458. Lukert, B.P., and B.E. Kream. 1996. Clinical and basic aspects of glucocorticoid action in bone. Pp. 533-548 in Principles of Bone Biology, J.P. Bilezikian, J.G. Raisz, and G.A. Rodan, eds. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, Inc. Marcus, R. 1991. Understanding osteoporosis. West J. Med. 155(1):53-60 Marcus, R. 1996. Mechanisms of exercise. Effects on bone. Pp. 1135-1146 in Principles of Bone Biology, J.P. Bilezikian, L.G. Raisz, and G.A. Rodan, eds. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, Inc. Marcus, R., C. Cann, P. Madvig, J. Minkoff, M. Goddard, M. Bayer, M. Martin, L. Guadiani, W. Haskell, and H. Genant. 1985. Menstrual function and bone mass in elite women distance runners. Ann. Int. Med. 102:158-163. Margolis, R.N., E. Canalis, and N.C. Partridge. 1996. Invited review of a workshop. Anabolic hormones in bone: Basic research and therapeutic potential. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:872-877. Marks Jr., S.C., and S.N. Popoff. 1988. Bone cell biology: The regulation of development, structure, and function in the skeleton. Am. J. Anat. 183(1):1-44. Marshall, D., O. Johnell, and H. Wedel. 1996. Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. Br. Med. J. 312:1254-1259. Marti, B., J.P. Vader, C.. Minder et al. 1988. On the epidemiology of running injuries: The 1984 Bern Grand-Prix study. Am. J. Sports Med. 16:285-294. Martin, R.B.. 1991. On the significance of remodeling space and activation rate changes in bone remodeling. Bone. 12(6):391-400. Martin, D.B., and R.B. Burr. 1989. Errors in bone remodeling: Toward a unified theory of metabolic bone disease . Am. J. Anat. 186(2):186-216. Matheson, G.O., D.B. Clement, D.C. McKenzie, J.E. Taunton, D.R. Lloyd-Smith, and J.G. Macintyre. 1987a. Scintigraphic uptake of 99mTc at non-painful sites in athletes with stress fractures: The concept of bone strain. Sports Med. 4:65-75. Matheson, G.O., D.B. Clement, D.C. McKenzie, J.E. Taunton, D.R. Lloyd-Smith, and J.G. Macintyre. 1987b. Stress fractures in athletes: A study of 320 cases. Am. J. Sports Med. 15(1):46-58. Mazes, R.B., and H.S. Barden. 1991. Bone density in premenopausal women: Effects of age, dietary intake, physical activity, smoking, and birth control pills. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53:132-142.

OCR for page 59
McDermott. 1996. Assessment of dietary calcium intake, physical activity, and habits affecting skeletal health among premenopausal military women (protocol #9). ADA326553. Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center. McNitt-Gray, J.L.. 1993. Kinetics of the lower extremities during drop landings from three heights. J. Biomech. 26(9):1037-1046. Meghji, S. 1992. Bone remodelling. Br. Dent. J. 172(6):235-42. Mehta, S. 1993. Bone loss, contraception, and lactation. Acta. Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 72:148-156. Michael, R.H., and L.E. Holder. 1985. The soleus syndrome. A cause of medial tibial stress (shin splints). Am. J. Sports Med. 13(2):87-94. Montgomery, L.C., F.R. Nelson, J.P. Norton, and P.A. Deuster. 1989. Orthopedic history and examination in the etiology of overuse injuries. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 21:237-243. Mori, S., and D.B. Burr. 1993. Increased intracortical remodeling following fatigue damage. Bone 14(2):103-109. Moro, M., A.T. Hecker, M.L. Bouxsein, and E.R. Myers. 1995. Failure load of thoracic vertebrae correlates with lumbar bone mineral density measured by DXA. Calcif. Tissue Int. 56:206-209. MSMR. 1997. Spontaneous fractures of the femur, active-duty soldiers. 3:2-9. Mulligan, K., and G.E. Butterfield. 1990. Discrepancies between energy intake and expenditure in physically active women. Br. J. Nutr. 64:23-36. Murphy, S., K. Khaw, and J.E. Compston. 1993. Lack of relationship between hip and spine bone mineral density and oral contraceptive use. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 23:108-111. Myburgh, K.H., J. Hutchins, A.B. Fataar, S.F. Hough, and T.D. Noakes. 1990. Low bone density is an etiologic factor for stress fractures in athletes. Ann. Intern. Med. 113:754-759. Naessen, T., S. Olsson, and J. Gudmundson. 1995. Differential effects on bone density of progestogen-only methods for contraception in premenopausal women. Contraception 52:35-39. Nigg, B.M., and B. Segesser. 1988. The influence of playing surfaces on the load on the locomotor system and on football and tennis injuries. Sports Med. 5(6):375-385. Nigg, B.M., H.A. Bahlsen, S.M. Luethi, and S. Stokes. 1987. The influence of running velocity and midsole hardness on external impact forces in heel-toe running. 20(10):951-9. Nike, Inc. 1987. Common running injuries. Sports Res. Rev. March 1-4. Notelovitz, M., D. Martin, and R. Tesar. 1991. Estrogen therapy and variable-resistance weight training increase bone mineral in surgically menopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Res. 6:583-590. NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Committee on Diet and Health, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Orth, D.N., W.J. Kovacs, and R. DeBold. 1992. The adrenal cortex. Pp. 489-619 in Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, J.D. Wilson and D.W. Foster, eds. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. O'Toole, M.L. 1992. Prevention and treatment of injuries to runners. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 24(9 Suppl):S360-3. Pagliano, J. and D. Jackson. 1980. The ultimate study of running injuries. Runner's World. 15:42-50. Parfitt, A.M. 1988. Bone remodeling. Henry Ford Hospital Med. J. 36(3):143-4. Peacock, M. 1991. Calcium absorption efficiency and calcium requirements in children and adolescents. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:261S-5S. Peck, W.A., and W.L. Woods. 1988. The cells of bone.. In: B.L. R, ed. Osteoporosis: etiology, diagnosis, and management. New York: Raven Press. Pilbeam, C.C., J.R. Harrison, and L.G. Raisz. 1996. Prostaglandins and bone metabolism. Pp. 715-728 in Principles of Bone Biology, J.P. Bilezikian, L.G. Raisz, and G.A. Rodan, eds. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, Inc. Ramey, M.R., K.R. Williams. 1985. Ground Reaction Forces in the Triple Jump. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics. 1:233-239. Ramsdale, S.J., and E.J. Bassey. 1994. Changes in bone mineral density associated with dietary-induced loss of body mass in young women. Clin. Sci. 87:343-348. Rebuffe-Scrive, M., J. Eldh, and L.O. Bjorntorp. 1986. Metabolism of mammary, abdominal, and femoral adipocytes in women before and after menopause. Metabolism. 35:79-797.

OCR for page 59
Recker, R.R., K.M. Davies, and S.M. Hinders. 1992. Bone gain in young adult women. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 268:2403-2408. Reinker, K.A., and S. Ozburne. 1979. A comparison of male and female orthopedic pathology in basic training. Mil. Med. 144:532-536. Rencken, M.L., C.H. Chesnut 3rd, and B.L. Drinkwater 1996. Bone density at multiple skeletal sites in amenorheic athletes. JAMA. 276(3)238-40. Report of the Federal Advisory Committee on Gender-Integrated Training and Related Issues, to the Secretary of Defense, December 1997. Riis, B.J., J.S. Christiansen, and J.S. Johansen. 1990. Is it possible to prevent bone loss in young women treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists? J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 70:920-924. Roberts, S.M., and E.C. Vogt. 1939. Pseudofracture of the tibia. J. Bone Joint Surg. 21:891-898. Rosen, C.J. 1997. Insulin-like growth factor-I and parathyroid hormone: Potential new therapeutic agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. Exp. Opin. Invest. Drugs 6:1193-1198. Rosen, C.J., H.P. Dimai, D. Vereault, L.R. Donahue, W.G. Beamer, J. Farley, S. Linkhart, T. Linkhart, S. Mohan, and D.J. Baylink. 1997. Circulating and skeletal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in two inbred strains of mice with different bone mineral densities. Bone 21:217-223. Sambrook, P., P. Kelly, and J. Eisman. 1993. Bone mass and aging. Bailliére's Clin. Rheumatol. 7:445-457. Sambrook, P.N., P.J. Kelly, C.P. White, N.A. Morrison, and J.A. Eisman. 1996. Genetic determinants of bone mass. Pages 477-482 in Osteoporosis, R. Marcus, D. Feldman, and J. Kelsey, eds. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press. Schmidt, A., S. Harada, and G.A. Rodan. 1996. Anabolic steroid effects on bone in women. Pp. 1125-1134 in Principles of Bone Biology, J.P. Bilezikian , L.G. Raisz, and G.A. Rodan, eds. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, Inc. Schmitz, M. 1995. Confirmed: Smoking delays bone union. Orthop. Today 15:1, 23. Schwellnus, M.P., and G. Jordaan. 1992. Does calcium supplementation prevent bone stress injuries? A clinical trial. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 2:165-174. Shaffer, R.A. 1997. Physical training interventions to reduce stress fracture incidence in Navy and Marine Corps recruit training. Presentation at the workshop on Reducing Stress Fracture in Physically Active Young Servicemembers, December 10, Washington, D.C. Shaffer, R.A., S.K. Brodine, and C. Corwin et al. 1994. Impact of musculoskeletal injury due to rigorous physical activity during U.S. Marine Corps basic training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26:S141. Shane, E., M. Rivas, T.S. Kim, R.B. Staron, and D. Mancini. 1997. Bone loss and turnover after cardiac transplantation. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:1497-1506. Shargil, A.A. 1985. Hormone replacement therapy in perimenopausal women with a triphasic contraceptive compound: A 3-year prospective study. Int. J. Fertil. 30:15-28. Slemenda, C.W., S.L. Hui, C. Longcope, and CC Johnston Jr. 1989. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and bone mass. J. Bone Miner. Res. 4:737-741. Slemenda, C.W., J.C. Christian, T. Reed, T.K. Reister, C.J. Williams, and C.C. Johnson Jr. 1992. Long-term bone loss in men: Effects of genetic and environmental factors. Ann. Intern. Med. 117:286-291. Slootweg, M.C., D. Swolin, J.C. Netelenbos, O.G.P. Isaksson, and C. Ohlsson. 1997. Estrogen enhances growth hormone receptor expression and growth hormone action in rat osteosarcoma cells and human osteoblast-like cells. J. Endocrinol. 155:159-164. Specker, B.L. 1996. Evidence for an interaction between calcium intake and physical activity on changes in bone mineral density. J. Bone Miner. Res. 11:1539-1544. Stacy, R.J. and R.L. Hungeford. 1984. A method to reduce work-related injuries during basic recruit training in the New Zealand Army. Mil. Med. 149(6):318-320. Stern, P.H. 1996. Thyroid hormone and bone. Pp. 521-531 in Principles of Bone Biology , J.P. Bilezikian, L.G. Raisz, and G.A. Rodan, eds. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, Inc. Stevenson, J.C., M.P. Cust, and K.F. Gangar. 1990. Effects of transdermal versus oral hormone replacement therapy on bone density in spine and proximal femur in postmenopausal women. Lancet 335:265-269.

OCR for page 59
Stoneman, P. 1997. Rehabilitation of stress fractures in Army basic trainees. Presentation at the workshop on Reducing Stress Fracture in Physically Active Young Servicemembers, December 10, Washington, D.C. Straus, F.H. 1932. Marching fractures of metatarsal bones with a report of the pathology. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 54:581-584. Sundgot-Borgen, T. 1993. Prevalence of eating disorders in elite female athletes. Int. J. Sports Nutr. 3:29-40. Suominen, H. 1993. Bone mineral density and long-term exercise: An overview of cross-sectional athlete studies. Sports Med. 16:316-330. Surrey, E.S., J.C. Gambone, and J.K.H. Lu. 1990. The effects of combining norethindrone with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in the treatment of symptomatic endometriosis. Fertil. Steril. 53:620-626. Svendsen, O., C. Hassager, and C. Christiansen. 1993. Effects of an energy-restrictive diet, with or without exercise, on lean tissue mass, resting metabolic rate, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone in overweight postmenopausal women. Am. J. Med. 95:131-140. Sweet, D.E., and R.M. Allman. 1971. RPC of the month from the AFIP. Radiology 99(3):687-693. Taafe, D.R., T.L. Robinson, C.M. Snow, and R. Marcus. 1997. High-impact exercise promotes bone gain in well-trained female athletes. J. Bone Miner. Res. 12:255-260. Teegarden, D., W.R. Prouls, B.R. Martin, J. Zhao, G.P. McCabe, R.M. Lyle, M. Peacock, C. Slemenda, C.C. Johnston, and C.M. Weaver. 1995. Peak bone mass in young women. J. Bone Miner. Res. 10:711-715. U.S. Army Recruiting Command. 1998. Army Regulation 601-95. ''Delayed Entry and Delayed Training Program." January 1. Fort Knox, Kentucky. U.S. Department of Defense. 1995a. Department of Defense Directive 1308.1 "Physical Fitness and Body Fat Programs." July 20. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Defense. 1995b. Department of Defense Instruction 1308.3. "Physical Fitness and Body Fat Programs Procedures." August 30. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Army. 1986. Army Regulation 600-9. "The Army Weight Control Program." September 1. Washington, D.C. U.S. Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force. 1985. Army Regulation 40-25/Navy Command Medical Instruction 10110.1/Air Force Regulation 160-95. "Nutritional Allowances, Standards, and Education." May 15. Washington, D.C. Volpe, A., M. Silferi, A.D. Genazzani, and A.R. Genazzani. 1993. Contraception in older woman. Contraception 47:229-239. Wade, G.N., and J.E. Schneider. 1992. Metabolic fuels and reproduction in female mammals. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 16:235-272. Weaver, C. 1997. Calcium and Iron: Food vs. Supplements. Presentation at the workshop on Reducing Stress Fracture in Physically Active Young Servicemembers, December 10, Washington, D.C. Westphal, K.A., K.E. Friedl, M.A. Sharp, N. King, T.R. Kramer, K.L. Reynolds, and L.J. Marchitelli. 1995. Health, performance, and nutritional status of U.S. Army women during basic combat training . Technical Report No. T96-2. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Williams, N.I., J.C. Young, J.W. McArthur, B. Bullen, G.S. Skrinar, and B. Turnbull. Strenuous exercise with caloric restriction: effect on luteinizing hormone secretion. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 27:1390-1398, 1995. Wosk, J., and A. Voloshin. 1981. Wave attenuation in skeletons of young healthy persons. J. Biomech. 14(4):261-267. Young, N., C. Formica, G. Szmukler, and E. Seeman. 1994. Bone density at weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing sites in ballet dancers: The effects of exercise, hypogonadism, and body weight. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 78:449-454. Zernicke, R., J. McNitt-Gray, C. Otic et al. 1993. Stress fracture risk assessment among elite collegiate women runners. Pages 1506-1507 in Proceedings of the International Society of Biomechanics XIVth Congress, Paris.

OCR for page 59
This page in the original is blank.