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14 Recommenciations SPACE PROGRAM Cosmology is currently a data-starved science. We need to know much more about the universe now and at early times. To this end it is vital to maintain a vigorous program of space observations, such as that now planned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- tion (NASA). The Hubble Space Telescope, the Cosmic Background Explorer, and the Gamma Ray Observatory are current missions of great interest to cosmology. Looking ahead, both the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility will probe much deeper into the universe in their respective wavelength bands; important cosmological discoveries are quite likely from these instruments. Further off, the Large Deployable Rehector may be able to map the all-important small-scale anisotropy in the 3-K radiation, and a space arm for the Very-Long-Baseline Array will provide a fascinating look at details in the cores of radio galaxies. Scientific planning and instrumentation development for major space missions are often based on experiments carried out in balloons and aircraft, largely supported by NASA's suborbital program. The relatively low cost and quick turnaround time of these experiments permits diverse, exploratory research programs and realistic tests of developing instrumentation, especially new detectors. We urge NASA 108

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RECOMMENDATIONS 109 to consider some enhancement of this productive, cost-effective pro- gram and to continue its support of ground-based studies in support of . . space missions. GROUND-BASED PROGRAM The revolution in cosmology over the past two decades has its roots in ground-based astronomy. Because of their intrinsic angular resolution and sensitivity to weak sources, large astronomical instru- ments such as the Very-Long-Baseline Array and the National New Technology Telescope (recommended by the Astronomy Survey Com- mittee) are of central importance to cosmology; we strongly support these initiatives. The very productive U.S. program in astronomy is producing much of the basic data and many of the ideas underlying our current cosmological picture. It is essential that support of effective instru- ments and research programs be, at least, maintained as new initiatives are implemented. A strong scientific case can be made for increasing the level of support for U.S. astronomy and astrophysics. Several important problems in cosmology require systematic surveys of the properties and distributions of galaxies. These are expensive, long-term projects, perhaps best planned and managed by teams of scientists. We encourage the National Science Foundation (NSF) to consider how such projects might be organized and sup- ported. We wish to note that the principal recommendation of the Ele- mentary-Particle Physics Panel, a large new accelerator (the Supercon- ducting Super Collider), has possible cosmological implications. The understanding of particle physics at the highest possible energies is necessary in charting the behavior of the early universe. HUMAN AND COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES Cosmology is currently done by a diverse group of scientists including astrophysicists, astronomers, relativists, particle physicists, nuclear physicists, and plasma physicists. This diversity is good for cosmology, which must draw from many fields of physics. However, as interest in the field intensifies, and more cosmology-oriented research groups form, the need for coordinated funding is becoming apparent. We encourage the NSF to consider how it might help to solve this growing problem.

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1 10 COSMOLOGY Many problems of great interest to cosmology require sophisti- cated computer technology; we think of N-body calculations, where N is large, of nonlinear hydrodynamic calculations, and of efforts to combine the two. We heartily endorse the NSF's recent initiative to help university-based groups to gain access to large computational facilities.