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Index A Acceleration cosmic-ray, 128 termination of, 130- 131 fractionation, 129, 130 galactic, 129 gravitation and, 15 shock, 128- 129 solar, 128 Actinide elements, 126, 127 Active masses, 23 Adiabatic perturbations, 95 Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), 101, 103- 104 Air showers, 120 Air-shower detectors, 150 experiment, 140-141 observations, 130 Anisotropic cosmological models, 94 Anisotropy of space, 23 Antimatter, 148 Antinuclei, 138 Antiprotons, 116, 122, 136 Area Theorem, 64, 73 Astronomy gamma-ray, 149-150, 151, 162 neutrino, 151 - 152, 163 165 Astronomy Survey Committee, 5, 157 Astrophysical properties of neutron stars and black holes, 75, 76 . .. ... AStl Op ~yslcs ~ Vll-VllI Atomic time versus solar-system time, 21 -22 AXAF (Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility), 101, 103-104 Axion forces, 78 Axions, 22, 97-98 B Backaction-evasion technique, 44 Bar detectors, 43-44 observations with, 54 sensitivity and bandwidth, 52, 54 Bar-type gravity-wave detector, 44, 45 Baryon density, 90-92, 97 Baryons, 90 Beryllium, 122, 124 Big bang, initial singularity of, 65 Big-bang models, 60, 87-89 nucleosynthesis, 90-92 Binary pulsar, 14, 34-35, 39, 42-43 discovery of, 47 x-ray sources, 150

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1 66 INDEX Black holes, 34-35, 36, 60 astrophysical properties of, 75, 76 colliding, 67, 68 as invisible mass, 97 quantum particle creation by, 64 rotating, 63 supermassive, 63 Black-hole binary, 77 dynamics, four laws of, 64 jets, 26-27 Blackbody curve, 93 radiation, primordial, 89 Cerenkov light, 131 Clocks atomic versus gravitational, 22 gravitation effect on rate of, 18 hydrogen-maser, 18 Closure density of universe, 39, 100 COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer), 101, 103 Compact stars, systems of, 34-35 Computation, 58, 77 Computer technology, 110 Corkscrew jets, 27 Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), 101, 103 Cosmic Censorship Hypothesis, 62, 64- 65, 72 Cosmic Ray Explorer, 6 Cosmic Ray Nuclei Experiment, 160 Cosmic rays, vii, 111 - 164 anomalous component, 132 connection with gamma and radio as- tronomy7 137 correlation between anisotropy and en- ergy, 135 energy dependence of escape from gal- axy, 133-134 energy spectra of, 118, 119 galactic, 132- 133 extragalactic versus, 117 ground-based experiments with, 7, 149- 155, 161-164 high-energy composition and spectra, 146-147 high-energy nuclear and particle phys- ics and, 137- 142 highlights, 121-142 hydrogen in, 129 interest in, 113-114 isotope ratios and, 125 large underground detectors for, 163- 164 major discoveries in, 121-123 opportunities, 143-156 origin of, 131 overview, 115- 120 primary, 133 principal recommendations in, 6-7 recommendations, 157- 164 secondaries from light nuclei, 135- 136 secondary, 133 solar, 131 solar modulation of, 149 solar-system material versus, 115-116 space program in, 6-7, 143-149, 157-161 theory of, 155- 156, 164 Cosmic strings, decaying, 48 Cosmic-ray acceleration, 128 cascades, 120 detectors, nucleon decay experiments as, 138-139 electrons, 135-136 isotopes, galactic, 144-145 lifetime, 136- 137 luminosity, 128 Cosmic-Ray Composition Explorer, 158, 159 Cosmological constant, 74, 92 models alternative, 107 anisotropic, 94 Cosmology, vii, 83-110 features of, 85-86 Grand Unification Theories and, 98-99 ground-based studies in, 6, 104-106, 109 highlights, 90-100 opportunities, 101-107 particle physics and, 106 principal recommendations in, 5-6 recommendations for, 108- 110 research, 6 space program in, 5, 101 - 104

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INDEX 1 67 standard model of, 87-89 theory of, 106- 107 CPT invariance, violation of, 78 D Dark-matter problem, 86, 92, 96-98, 105- 106 Deceleration parameter, 92, 103 Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector (DUMAND), l S 1, 163 Deuterium abundance of, 92 observations of, 147 Deuterons, 90 Dipole effect, 94 Distance scale factor, 88 DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector), 151, 163 E Earth-Moon distance, 17, 27, 30-31 Eclipse observations, 19 Einstein equations, 65-66, 77 nonlinearities in, 66 Electromagnetic field, 12 radiation, deflected, 19 signal retardation, 19-21 Electrons, cosmic-ray, 135- 136 Elementary particles, 88 Eotvos experiments, 1S, 17, 22 Equivalence principle, 15, 31 Escape length, cosmic-ray, 133 ETAP (Experimental Technical Assess- ment Panel), 161 Euclidean functional integrals, 70 Expansion rate of universe, 103 Experimental Technical Assessment Pan- el (ETAP), 161 Extragalactic radio sources, 93 F Field equation, 13 Fly's Eye detector, 7, 140- 141, 150, 152, 162- 163 Fractionation, acceleration, 129, 130 Frame-dragging precession, 24-25 G acceleration, 129 cosmic-ray isotopes, 144- 145 cosmic rays, 132- 133 formation, 89, 95 nuclei, 86 redshifts, 94-95 Galaxies, 86, 94 angular distributions of, 94 energy dependence of cosmic-ray es- cape from, 133- 134 large-scale clustering of, 105 primeval, 102 Galileo mission, SS Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), 101 Gamma-ray astronomy, 149- 150, 151, 162 bursters, 61 Gamma rays, 122 high-energy, 131 Gauge theories. 69 General relativity, 3 experimental tests of highlights, 15-23 introduction, 11-14 opportunities, 24-35 Lagrangian for, 73-74 numerical techniques in' 67 Theory of, 60, 78-79 Geodetic precession, 25 GP-B (Gravity Probe B) (Relativity Gyro- scope Experiment), 24-26, 31, 80 Grand unification mass scale, 78 Grand Unification Theories (GUTs), 78 cosmology and, 98-99 Gravitation, vii, 9-82; see curls`, Gravity acceleration and, 15 binding energy, 15. 17, 68 clock versus atomic clock, 22 collapse, 62 constant, 92 changing, 21 rate of change of, 3 effect on rate of clocks. 18 effects, '~magnetic,'' 24-27 ground-based studies in, 4 laboratory testing of, 22-23 lenses, 100 progress in study of, 11 quadrupole moment of Sun, 33-34

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1 68 INDEX recommendations in, 3-5, 80-82 redshift effect, 17- 18 solar-system tests of theories of, 16 space program for, 4 theory, 5 highlights, 61-71 introduction, 59-60 opportunities, 72-79 recommendations, 80-82 Gravitational waves, 4, 36, 60 detecting impulsive, 51 detecting periodic, 52 detecting stochastic, 53 emission of, 67 event rates and source calculations, 57 search for highlights, 42-48 introduction, 36-41 opportunities, 49-58 sources of, 38-40 recent developments, 47-48 spacecraft tracking and, 55-56 theory of, 37 Gravitational-wave background noise, 39 detectors, 40-41 Gravitino, 98 Gravitoelectric field, 12 Gravitomagnetic effects, 24-27 field, 12 Graviton, nonlinear, 66 Gravity, 60; see also Gravitation alternative theories of, 65 metric nature of, 3 quantization of, 106 quantum theory of, 59, 69-71, 73-75 Gravity Probe B (GP-B), 24-26, 31, 80 Gravity-wave detector, bar-type, 44, 45 GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory), 101 Ground-based studies in cosmic rays, 7, 149-155, 161-164 in cosmology, 6 continued, 104- 106 recommendations for, 109 in gravitation, 4, 81 GUTs, see Grand Unification Theories Gyroscopes, 24-26 H H-space, 66 Hamiltonian of supergravity, 69 Hawking radiation, 59, 60, 64, 69 Heavy Nuclei Collector, 160 Helium, observations of, 147 HEPAP (High Energy Physics Advisory Panel), 161 Higgs fields, 99 particles, 106 High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP), 161 Hubble Space Telescope (HST), 101, 103, 104 Hubble's constant, 92, 100 Hubble's law, 94 Hughes-Drever experiments, 23 Hydrogen in cosmic rays, 129 Hydrogen-maser clock, 18 I Impulsive gravitational waves, detecting, 51 Infinity, null, see Null infinity Inflationary universe, 94, 99-100 Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), 101-102 Interferometric detectors, 44, 46 Invisible mass, 86, 92, 96-98, 105-106 IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite), 101-102 Isotope abundances, 91 ratios, cosmic rays and, 125 Isotopes, 144-145 galactic cosmic-ray, 144-145 solar-flare, 145 Isotropy, cosmological, 94 J Jets, black-hole, 26-27 K Kaluza-Klein theories, 71 Kerr solution to Einstein equations, 65 L Lagrangian for general relativity, 73-74 Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), 101, 104 Large numbers hypothesis, 21 Laser interferometer detector, 40-41, 49- 52, 56-57, 81

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INDEX 1 69 Laser ranging, see Range measurements LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facili- ty), 144, 146 LDR (Large Deployable Reflector), 101, 104 Leaky-box model, 136-137 Light deflection by Sun, 19 Light-element abundances, 91 Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), 144, 146 Long-Baseline Gravitational-Wave Facili- ty, 4 Luminosity, cosmic-ray, 128 Lunar laser-ranging experiment, 17 M MACRO (Monopole and Cosmic Ray Ob- servatory), 152 "Magnetic" gravitational effects, 24-27 Magnetic monopoles, 99, 141-142, 153, 163 Mars Observer Mission, 29 Mass, missing, 86, 92, 96-98, 105-106 Mass-energy density, 87-88 Matter missing, 86, 92, 96-98, 105-106 properties of, 85 Megaparsec (Mpc), 92 Mercury perihelion advance of, 21 range measurements to, 28 Metric hypothesis, 12- 13 nature of gravity, 3 Microwave background radiation, 85, 87, 89 absolute flux in, 93 anisotropy in, 95, 96 Millisecond pulsars, 46-47 Mis s ing matter, 86, 92, 96-98, 105- 106 Monopole and Cosmic Ray Observatory (MACRO), 152 Monopoles, magnetic, 99, 141-142, 152- 153, 163 Moon, range measurements to, 17, 27, 30-31 Mossbauer effect, 18 Mpc (megaparsec), 92 Muons, 154, 164 N Naive quantum limit, 44, 54 Naked singularity, 62 National Aeronautics and Space Admin- istration (NASA), 3-4, 24, 55, 80, 101-104, 108, 157-161 National New Technology Telescope, 5, 109 National Science Foundation (NSF), 4, 49, 109-110, 161 Neutrino astronomy, 151-152, 163 mass, 97 oscillation, 154 types, 106 Neutrinos, solar, 123, 126-127, 154-155, 164 Neutron stars, 34-35, 39, 61-62 astrophysical properties of, 75 mass limit for, 92 two, see Binary pulsar Neutrons, 88 Nonlinear graviton, 66 NSF (National Science Foundation), 4 Nucleon, see Proton entries Nucleosynthesis, 123-127 big-bang, 90-92 Nucleus-nucleus interactions, 139-140, 148-149 Null experiments, 22 infinity, 66 angular momentum at, 73 complex spaces at, 79 o Orbital motion, 43 p Parameter is, PPN, 31-32 Parameterized-post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism, 12-13 Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility, 6 Particle physics, 71 cosmology and, 106 Particle-antiparticle annihilation, 88 Particles, elementary, 88 Passive masses, 23 Periastron precession, 35 Perihelion advance of Mercury, 21 Periodic gravitational waves, detecting, 52 Perturbation theory, 69-70 Perturbations, adiabatic, 95 Photino, 98

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1 70 INDEX Photon barrier, 89, 93 Physics cosmic-ray, see Cosmic rays gravitation, see Gravitation particle, see Particle physics Planck era, 89, 99, 106 Planck mass scale, 78 POINTS (Precision Optical Interferome- try in Space), 32-33, 81 Positive Energy Theorem, 68-69, 73-79 Positron-to-antiproton ratio, 147 Positrons, energy spectrum of, 136 PEN (parameterized-post-Newtonian) for- malism, 12-13 Precession frame-dragging, 24-25 geodetic, 25 periastron, 35 spin-orbit, 25 Precision Optical Interferometry in Space (POINTS), 32-33, 81 Preferred-frame effects, 13 Primary cosmic rays, 133 Primeval galaxies, 102 Primordial blackbody radiation, 89 Proton decay, 99, 106 detectors, 153- 154, 163 as cosmic-ray detectors, 138-139 Rotating experiments, 138-139 Proton-proton cross section, 123 Protons, 88 Pulsar searches, 55 timing, 46-47 Pulsars, 39 binary, see Binary pulsar millisecond, 46-47 radio, 46 x-ray, 55 Q Quadrupole anisotropy, 94 moment, gravitational, of Sun, 33-34 radiation, 43 Quantum effects in early universe, 64-65 field theory in curved space-time, 69 particle creation by black holes, 64 theory of gravity, 59, 69-71, 73-75 Quantum-mechanical barrier penetration, 60 Quantum-nondemolition technique, 44 Quark-gluon phase, 140 plasma, 148 Quarks, 88 Quasars, 63 R Radar ranging, see Range measurements Radio pulsar, 46 Radio sources, extragalactic, 93 Radio-interferometric techniques, 19 Range measurements to Mercury, 4, 28 to Moon, 4, 17, 27, 30-31, 80 solar-system, 4, 27-28, 80 to Viking Landers on Mars, 28-29 Rapid reprocess, 124, 125-126 Redshift effect, gravitational, 17-18 Redshifts, galaxy, 94-95 Relativity, 59 general, see General relativity solar-system tests of, 77-78 Relativity Gyroscope Experiment (GP- B), 4, 24-26, 31, 80 black holes, 63 stars, 62 S Scalar-tensor theory, 11 Scale factor, distance, 88 Secondary cosmic rays, 133 Shock acceleration, 128-129 Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), 101, 102 Signal retardation, 19-21 Singularity initial, of big bang, 65 naked, 62 theorems, 59 SIRTF (Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facil- ity), 101, 102 Slow s-process, 124, 125-126 Solar acceleration, 128 corona, 121 cosmic rays, 131

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INDEX deflection of starlight, 32 flare isotopes, 145 modulation of cosmic rays, 149 neutrinos, 123, 126- 127, 154- 155, 164 quadrupole effect, 33-34 quadrupole moment, 29 system, 13 formation of, 124 measurements of dynamics of, 28 see also Sun entries Solar-system material, cosmic rays versus, 115- 116 range measurements, 27-28 tests, 4 of theories of gravitation, 16, 77-78 time versus atomic time, 21-22 Space anisotropy of, 23 curvature, 12 program in cosmic rays, 6-7, 143-149, 157-161 in cosmology, 5, 101-104, 108-109 in gravitation, 4, 80-81 Space Shuttle, 113 Space Station, 113, 143-144, 161 Space-curvature effects, 19 Space-time, 85 asymptotic properties of, 66-67, 72-73 curved, quantum field theory in, 69 foam, 74 origin of, 107 singularity, 62 Spacecraft tracking, gravitational waves and, 55-56 Spectral density, strain, 44 Spin-orbit precession, 25 Spin-spin coupling, 25 SQUIDs (superconducting quantum inter- ference devices), 54 Starlight, solar deflection of, 32 STARPROBE, 31, 81 Stochastic gravitational waves, detecting, 53 Strain sensitivity, 39, 43, 54 Strain spectral density, 44 Sun, see also Solar entries light deflection by, 19 Sun-orbiting laser interferometer, 41, 56-57, 81 Superconducting coils, 153 171 quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), 54 Superconducting Magnetic Spectrometer Facility, 158- 159 Superconducting Super Collider, 5 Supergravity, 71 Hamiltonian of, 69 Supermassive black holes, 63 Supernova shock waves, 124 Supernovae, 38-39, 47, 103 Supersymmetric particle theories, 98 T Termination of cosmic-ray acceleration, 130-131 Time-reversal invariance, violation of, 78 Twistor theory, 66 U Ultraheavy elements, 145- 146 Ulysses spacecraft, 55, 149 Uniqueness Theorems, 63 Universe(s) closure density of, 39, 100 early, quantum effects in, 64-65 expansion rate of, 103 history of, 87, 88 inflationary, 94, 99-100 large-scale properties of, 92-94 local, 86 simple, 60 structure in, 94-96 uniqueness of, 85 V Very Long Baseline Array, 5, 109 Viking Landers, 20 range measurements to, 28-29 W Weber bars, 40 Wormholes, 74 X X-ray pulsars, 55 sources, binary, 150

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