risk of being HIV-infected themselves or of having had sex with someone infected with HIV.
HIV test use is shown in three ways: (1) "all HIV tests" includes self-reported HIV tests and any mentions of blood donation since 1985; (2) "any self-reported HIV test" excludes mentions of blood donation when the respondent does not specifically report having had an HIV test; and (3) "HIV test in last 12 months" is limited to self-reported HIV testing.
All rates and population counts are weighted to provide national estimates. Variance estimates for these HIV test use rates and logistic regression model parameters were calculated using the Taylor series method taking into account the complex design of the survey (STATA statistical software).
Self-Reported HIV Test Use Among Reproductive-Age Women
- From 1990 to 1995, self-reported HIV test use increased from 26% to 35% among reproductive-age women (Table J.1).
- In 1995, pregnant women were almost twice as likely as non-pregnant women to have been tested for HIV (60% versus 31%) (Table J.2).
- Women at high-risk for HIV are almost twice as likely as those at low risk to have been tested for HIV (64% versus 33%). Similarly, there are high rates of HIV testing among women reporting at least one STD in their lifetime (53%) and women reporting six or more lifetime sex partners (49%) (Table J.3).
- Nearly nine of ten pregnant women (87%) at high risk for HIV report having been tested for HIV. HIV testing occurred within the year for two-thirds of high-risk pregnant women (67%) (Table J.4).
Location of Self-Reported HIV Tests
- The most common sites of HIV testing among reproductive-age women are private doctor's offices or heath maintenance organizations (HMOs) (46%), public health department or other clinics (27%), and hospitals (16%). Teenagers, those with lower educational attainment, and the poor are more likely to use public health department and other clinics than private doctor's offices or HMOs (Table J.5).
- Pregnant women are more likely than non-pregnant women to have been tested in the last 12 months at a doctor's office or HMO (62% versus 48%) (Table J.8).