case finding:

identifying a previously unknown or unrecognized condition in apparently healthy or asymptomatic persons and offering presymptomatic treatment to those so identified.

completely mandatory:

situation in which a government agency requires citizens to undergo a screening test, and sanctions those who do not comply.

conditionally mandatory:

situation in which either government or a private institution makes access to a designated service or opportunity contingent on participation in a screening program.

counseling:

communication process by which individuals and their family members are given information about the nature, risks, burden and benefits of testing, and the meaning of test results.


HIV:

the retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, that is responsible for most cases of AIDS worldwide.


Neural tube defect (NTD):

major birth defect affecting the brain and spinal column.

 

Non-directive patient choice:

situation in which individuals are provided information about a test and the choice is explicitly left to them.


phenylketonuria (PKU):

hereditary metabolic disorder, in which a deficiency of an enzyme leads to the accumulation of the amino acid phenylalanine, resulting in severe mental retardation if not appropriately treated.


routine with notification:

situation in which individuals are informed that a certain test is a standard part of prenatal care, and of their right to refuse before the testing is done.

routine without notification:

situation in which individuals are routinely and automatically tested unless they expressly ask that a test not be done.


screening:

application of a test to all individuals in a defined population.

sickle cell disease (SCD):

an autosomal recessive hemolytic anemia occurring most frequently in African Americans, but also in persons of Mediterranean origin and others.

surveillance:

monitoring the incidence or prevalence of a disease in a defined population over time, or comparing the incidence or prevalence among different populations.


testing:

application of a test or measurement to selected individuals for the purpose of identifying a disease or medical condition.


zidovudine (ZDV) (also knows as AZT):

antiretroviral drug found to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV.



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