TABLE 3.1 Pediatric AIDS Cases by Exposure Category, Reported in 1997 and Cumulative Total through December 1997

Exposure Category

1997 No.

(%)

Cumulative No.

(%)

Hemophilia/coagulation disorder

1

(0)

233

(3)

Mother with/at risk for HIV infection

432

(91)

7,335

(91)

Injecting drug use

107

 

2,936

 

Sex with injecting drug user

60

 

1,340

 

Sex with bisexual male

7

 

159

 

Sex with person with hemophilia

2

 

28

 

Sex with transfusion recipient

 

24

 

Sex with HIV-infected person, risk not specified

102

 

1,033

 

Receipt of blood transfusion, blood components, or tissue

7

 

154

 

Has HIV infection, risk not specified

147

 

1,661

 

Receipt of blood transfusion, blood components, or tissue

2

(0)

374

(5)

Risk not reported or identified

38

(8)

144

(2)

Total

473

(100)

8,086

(100)

 

SOURCE: CDC, 1997c.

First, CDC calculations based on the SCBW and other data show that between 1992 and 1995, there was a 17% decline in the number of births to HIV-infected women (Byers et al., 1998). Much of the rest has been attributed to increased testing and adherence to the ACTG 076 regimen and better prenatal and intrapartum care. Declines that occurred before the publication of the ACTG 076 findings have been attributed to broader use of ZDV (zidovudine) by women, regardless of pregnancy (see Appendix D).

Because good seroprevalence data are lacking for children, we must use AIDS case reports to understand changes in perinatally transmitted HIV. Reflecting the racial and ethnic composition of women with AIDS, perinatally transmitted cases were concentrated in African-American (60%) and Hispanic (24%) children in 1997.3 These proportions have remained relatively stable for a decade. The disparity appears greater, however, when the numbers of African-American, Hispanic, and other births are taken into account. In 1996, perinatal AIDS incidence rates (perinatal AIDS cases as a proportion of births) were roughly four times higher for African Americans than for the entire population

3  

Here and elsewhere in this chapter, white, other, and unknown races are combined because of small numbers.



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