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Index A A (mass number), 11-12, 210 Abbreviations, 203-204 Accelerator, 3, 28, 204-205 Bevalac, 89, 171 colliding-beam, see Colliding-beam ac- celerator existing facilities, 171-172 facilities, 189-195 fixed-target, 30, 148 linear, 210 major new multiuser, 6 in nuclear physics, 170-173 research and development, 7, 181-183 superconducting linear, 182 Accelerator mass spectrometry, 126 Acronyms, 203-204 Advisors, 19~199 Age of universe, 114 Allowed process, 205 Alpha particle, 30, 205 Angular momentum, 24, 42 Anomalon, 87 Antibaryon, 5, 19, 25 Antielectron, 81 Antikaon, 164 Antilepton, 18 Antimatter, 205 215 Antineutrino, 18, 83-84 Antineutron, 17 Antiparticle, 17, 205 Antiproton, 17 Antiproton-proton collisions, 153 Antiquark, 18 Astrophysical conditions, nuclei under, 108-114 Astrophysical reprocess, 99 Astrophysics, 107 nuclear, 107-119 Asymptotic freedom, 71, 205 Atom, 124, 205 Atomic nuclei, see Nucleus/nuclei physics, 124-125 spectra, 124 Autoradiographs, nuclear, 134 B b (bottom) quark, 19 Backbends, 102, 103 Bag model, quark, 19, 20, 23, 205 Baryon, 19, 25, 153, 205 conservation, 24-25 density, 109, 110, 139-140, 141 resonance, 19, 65, 154-156. 205

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2 16 INDEX Baryon-meson aspects of nuclear matter, 4 Baryonium states, 153 Beam cooler, 7, 182 Beam intensity, 170 Beta decay, 18, 77-79, 83 double, 83-85 half-life for, 114 inverse, 114 right-handed bosons in, 79-80 Beta particle, 18, 205 Beta-delayed fission, 99 Beta-delayed particle emission, 99 Bevalac accelerator, 89, 171 Bibliography, 201-202 Big bang, 108, 109, 137 Binary system, 113 Binding energy, 205 per nucleon, 61 of nucleus, 97 Black hole, 113 Books, 201 Boson, 20-21, 51, 205 interacting, model, 38, 50-52 right-handed, in beta decay, 79-80 vector, see Vector boson Bottom (b) quark, 19 Breathing mode, 42 Bubble chamber, 33 C c (charm) quark, 19 Californium, 94 Calorimetry, 145 Calutron facility, 8, 184 Cancer, 129 Cardiology tests, nuclear, 128-129 Cascade particle, 154 CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Ac- celerator Facility) 4, 70, 151, 152, 172-173, 176-177, 203 Central collision, 206 Centre Europeenne de la Recherche Nu- cleaire (CERN), 102, 203 Centrifugal force, 102 CERN, (Centre Europeenne de la Re- cherche Nucleaire), 102, 203 Charge, electric, 11 conservation of, 24 density. 47-49 fractional, 19, 72 Charge scattering, elastic, 47 Charge-exchange reaction, 63 Charm, 161 Charm (c) quark, 19 Chemical elements, new, 2 Chiral symmetry, 174 Chromodynamics, quantum, see under Quantum Class VI computer, 7 Closed universe, 109 Cold:fusion reactions, 94 Cold neutrons, 165 Collective model, 13, 206 Collective rotations, 39 Collective vibrations, 39 Collider, relativistic nuclear (RNC), 5-6, 143, 145, 174-175, 176-177, 204 Colliding-beam accelerator, 30, 206 relativistic heavy-ion, 5-6 Collisior deep-inelastic, 54, 56-59, 206 head-on, 54 heavy-ion, 2, 52 Color, quark, 19, 206 Color force, 20, 206 Compact x-ray source, 113 Compilation, nuclear data, 8, 185 Compound nucleus, 54, 56-58, 206 Computer, Class VI, 7 Condensed-matter physics, 121-123 Conductivity, thermal, 93 Confinement, quark, 19, 70-72, 212 Conservation, energy, 132 Conservation laws, 24-25, 27, 77, 206 Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), 4, 70, 151, 152, 172-173, 176-177, 203 Coriolis force, 102 Cosmic rays, 84, 109 Cosmology, 9, 126-127 Coulomb barrier, 31, 206 excitation, 38-39 force, 206 Crab nebula, 112 Crystal balls, 180 Crystal Box spectrometer, 167 Crystals, channeling of charged particles in, 121-123 Cyclotron, 28, 29, 206

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INDEX 217 D d (down) quark, 19 Data compilation, nuclear, 8, 185 Data reduction techniques, 180 Dating, radiocarbon, 125-126 DDHF (density-dependent Hartree-Fock) method, 61-63, 203 Decay, 206 Deconfinement, quark, 5, 138, 141-143 Deep-inelastic collision, 54, 56-S9, 206 Delta, 2, 45-46, 65, 147, 155, 206 Density, high, nuclei at, 88-93 Density isomers, 93 Density-dependent Hartree-Fock (DDHF) method, 61-63, 203 Department of Energy (DOE), 169, 185, 203 Detector, 28, 206 lepton-only, 145 particle, 32-33 solar-neutrino, 82, 115 Deuterium, 11 Deuteron, 11, 108, 207 Dibaryon resonances, 153 Dimensions for structure of matter, 10 Dipole, electric, see Electric dipole Diproton, 99 Direct proton radioactivity, 99 Disintegration, nuclear, 32 DOE (Department of Energy), 169, 185, 203 Double hypernuclei, 156 Down (d) quark, 19 Duty factor, 170 E Einstein mass-energy equivalence formu- la, 17, 210 Elastic charge scattering, 47 Elastic magnetic scattering, 49-50 Electric charge, see Charge entries dipole giant, 40-42 moment of neutron, 164-165 oscillating, 40 quadrupole, giant, 41-42 resonance, giant, 40-44 Electrodynamics, quantum (QED), 21, 125, 154, 204, 212 Electromagnetism, 14-15, 160, 207 Electron, 17, 207 capture, 114 neutrino, 18, 81-82, 117 orbital, 124 scattering, 2, 46-50, 62 volt (eV), 30-31, 207 Electron-beam ion source, 183 Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source, 183 Electroweak force, 9, 14-16, 79, 160-168, 207 Electroweak theory, 23 Element 105, 95 Element 106, 94 Element 107, 95 Element 108, 95 Element 109, 95 Elementary modes of excitation, 39-52 Elementary particles, 16-24, 207 Elementary vector boson, 21-24, 207 Elements heaviest, 94-97 light, nucleosynthesis of, 108-110 magic island of, 96-97 new, 2 superheavy, search for, 96-97 transfermium, 94-95 Emission tomography, 127-129 Energy, 24 conservation, 24, 132 density, critical, 141 kinetic, 30-31 profile, excitation, 47 ranges, 195 resolution, 170 technology, 131-134 Enriched stable isotopes, 8, 184-185 Equation of state, 207 of nuclear matter, 92-93 European Center for Nuclear Research, 102, 203 European Laboratory for Particle Phys- ics, 102, 203 European Organization for Nuclear Research, 102, 203 eV (electron volt), 30-31, 207 Even-even nuclei, 51 Exchange current, 47, 207 Exchange particle, 21, 207

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218 INDEX Excitation, elementary modes of, 39-52 Excitation energy profile, 47 Excited hadronic matter, 140, 147, 175 Excited state, 30, 55, 207 Exclusion principle, Pauli, 21, 54-55, 211 Executive summary, 1-8 Exotic radioactivities, 97-101 Experimental facilities, 6 F Fermi (fm), 14, 208 Fermion, 20-21, 51, 208 Finite nuclei, 61-63 Fireball, nuclear, 89, 90-91 Fission, 208 beta-delayed, 99 spontaneous, 32 Fixed-target accelerator, 30, 148 Flavor, quark, 19, 208 fm (fermi), 14, 208 Forbidden process, 25, 208 Forces, fundamental, 13-16, 67-86 Four-dimensional space-time, 142 Free neutron, 73 Fundamental forces, 13-16, 67-86 Fundamental interactions, 16 Fusion, 208 hydrogen, 118 nuclear, 32, 107 G Gamma radiation, 154 Gamma ray, 15, 208 Gamow-Teller resonance, 39, 44-45, 64, 114 GANIL, 157, 203 Gardner report, 183-184 Geology, 125-127 Geometrical symmetry, 50 Gluan, 20, 23, 151-152, 208 Grand Unified Theory, 27, 28, 79, 80, 82, 163-168, 208 Gravitation, 9, 14, 208 Ground state, 30, 55, 208 H H particle, 154 Hadrodynamics, quantum (QHD), 65, 151, 204, 212 Hadron, 19-20, 208 Hadronic matter, 140, 208 excited, 140, 149, 175 Half-life, 208-209 for beta decay, 114 nuclear, 32 Hartree-Fock method, density-dependent (DDHF), 61-63, 203 Head-on collision, 54 Heavy ion, 30, 195, 209 colliding-beam accelerator, relativistic, 5-6 collision, 2, 54 physics, relativistic, 88-89, 146-149 systems, resonances in, 54-56 Heisenberg uncertainty principle, 21, 209 Helium, 108 Helium burning, 118 High energy, 209 High-energy regime, 31 High-temperature, high-density nuclear physics, 2 Hipjoint replacements, 129-130 Hot CNO cycle, 119 Hot spot in nucleus, 140 Hydrodynamic models, 92, 93 Hydrogen, 108 Hydrogen fusion, 118 Hyperfine interactions, 121 Hypernucleus, 69, 209 double, 156 lambda, 156 physics of, 73-75 Hyperon, 19, 209 lambda, 74, 165-166 sigma, 75 Hyperon-nucleon interaction, 69 I Impact parameter, 52-53, 209 Independent-particle model, 13, 209 Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF), 182, 204 Infinite nuclear matter, 61 Instrumentation, nuclear-physics, 6-7, 180 Intensity interferometry, 92 Interacting boson model, 38, 50-52 Interactions, fundamental, 16 Intermediate vector boson, 23, 209 Intranuclear cascade model, 92

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INDEX 219 Ion, 28, 209 heavy, 30, 195, 209 implantation, 121, 130-131, 132 light, 28, 30, 195, 210 medium, 30, 195, 210 Isospin, 39, 209 Isotope, 11, 209 enriched stable, 8, 184-185 Isotopic sequences, long, 101-102 J Japanese-American Cooperative Emul- sion Experiment (JACEE), 142, 204 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), 94, 204 K K meson (kaon), 20, 78 Kaon, 20, 74, 78, 90-91, 154, 164, 166, 209 "Kaon Factory," 179-180 Kinetic energy, 30-31 L Lamb shift, 125 Lambda hypernuclei, 156 Lambda hyperon, 74, 165-166 Lambda-nucleus interaction, 74 Lattice gauge theory, 142 Lawrencium, 94 LEAR (Low-Energy Antiproton Ring), 76, 204 Lepton, 17-18, 209-210 family number, 166 number, 27-28 probing quark structure with, 70-73 Lepton-only detector, 145 Light ion, 28, 30, 195, 210 Linear accelerator, 210 Linear momentum, 24 Liquid-drop model, 13, 38, 210 Liquid-gas phase transition, 140 Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), 166, 171, 204 Low energy, 210 Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), 76, 204 Low-energy regime, 31 M Macroscopic nuclear dynamics, 52-59 Magic island of superheavy elements, 96- 97 Magic numbers, 101 Magnetic moment, 47 Magnetic scattering, elastic, 49-50 Magnetic spectrometer systems, 180 Magnetization density, 49 Manganese nodules, 126 Many-body problem, 210 nuclear, 12-13, 59-66 traditional, expanding, 6~66 Mass, 24 conservation of sum of energy and, 24 excess, 97, 98 "missing," 81, 109 number (A), 11-12, 210 of neutrino, 18, 80-81 of nucleon, 14 rest, 31, 213 Mass-energy equivalence formula, Ein- stein, 17, 210 Materials modification and analysis, 130- 131 Matter, dimensions for structure of, 10 Medicine, nuclear, 127 Medium energy, 210 Medium ion, 30, 195, 210 Medium-energy regime, 31 Meson, 2, 20, 23, 153, 210 factory, 46 in nuclei, 154-156 virtual, 23 Meson-baryon field theory, 66 Meson-exchange currents, 4 effects, 23 model, 70-71, 210 Microtron, 182 "Missing mass," 81, 109 Molecule, nuclear, 55-56 Monopole, giant, 1-2, 42~4 Mossbauer spectroscopy, 123 Multiplicity of event, 33 Multiquark states, 72 Muon, 17, 123, 210 beams, 123

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220 INDEX decay, 166 neutrino, 18, 81-82 spin rotation, 123 N N (neutron number), 11-12, 211 N* state, 147, 155 National and dedicated university accel- erator facilities, 189-195 National Science Foundation (NSF), 169, 204 Neutrino, 15, 18, 83-84, 109-110, 111, 210 beams, physics with, 162 mass of, 18, 80-81 oscillation, 81-82, 117, 210-211 Neutron, 10-11, 211 autoradiographs, 133, 134 cold, 165 electric dipole moment of, 164-165 free, 73 number (N), 11- 12, 211 scattering, 123 star, 9, 107-108, 111, 113 valence, 51 Neutron-rich nuclei, 157 Neutron-to-proton ratio, 109 NN (nucleon-nucleon) forces, 59 NSAC (Nuclear Science Advisory Com- mittee of the Department of Ener- gy and the National Science Foun- dation), 3, 169-170, 175-176, 178- 181, 204 NSF (National Science Foundation), 169, 204 Nuclear astrophysics, 107-119 beams, 121 cardiology tests, 128-129 collider, relativistic (RNC), 5-6, 143, 145, 174-175, 176-177, 204 complexes, giant, 124 cross section, 206 data compilation, 8, 185 densities, high, 91-92 dynamics, macroscopic, 52-59 fireball, 89, 90-91 fission reactors, 131 forces, short-range, 52 fusion, 107, 131 interactions, 32 magnetic-resonance spectroscopy, 123 many-body problem, 12-13, 59-66 matter, 1, 211 baryon-meson aspects of, 4 changing descriptions of, 150-159 compressibility of, 2, 61, 113 equation of state of, 92-93 infinite, 61 quark-gluon aspects of, 4 states of, 138-140 medicine, 127 molecules, 55, 57, 155 physics, 1-3 accelerators in, 170-173 additional facility opportunities for, 179 applications of, 120-121 current frontiers of, 135-185 further recommendations in, 178-185 graduate courses in, 8 high-temperature, high-density, 2 impacts of, 105-134 instrumentation of, 6-7, 180 introduction to, 9-33 major advances in, 35-104 recommendations for future of, 3-8 recommended priorities for, 169-185 research in, 2-3 scientific and societal benefits, 120- 134 properties under extreme conditions, 156-159 reaction, 12, 211 in stars, 114-119 science, 1 shock waves, 157 spectroscopy, 12, 211 structure and dynamics, 37-66 temperatures, high, 88-91 theory, 7, 181 thermodynamics, 89 transparency, 143, 144 vibration, 1-2 wave functions, 156 well-logging, 131-132 Nuclear Data Sheets, 185 Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the Department of En- ergy and the National Science Foundation, 3, 169-170, 175-176, 178-181, 204

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INDEX 22 1 Nuclei, see Nucleus/nuclei Nucleon, 211 binding energy per, 61 density, 61 gas, 155 mass of, 14 resonance, 147, 211 Nucleon-nucleon (NN) forces, 59 Nucleon-nucleon interactions, 4 Nucleosynthesis, 107, 137 of light elements, 108-110 Nucleus/nuclei, 1, 9, 10-12, 16, 211 binding energy of, 97 compound, 54, 206 compound-nucleus reactions, 56-58 disintegration of, 157 even-even, 51 under extreme astrophysical condi- tions, 108-114 under extreme conditions, 87- 104 with extremely high spin, 102-104 finite, 61-63 fundamental forces in, 67-86 at high temperature and density, 88-93 highly unstable, 97-104 hot spot in, 140 hypernucleus, see Hypernucleus meson and baryon resonances in, 154- 156 nonnucleonic constituents of, 68-76 parity violation in, 85-86 quarks in, 151-154 substitutional state of, 74 symmetry and, 77-86 three-nucleon, 60 Nucleus-nucleus collisions, relativistic, 147-149 Nucleusquake, 103-104 Nuclides, 12, 211 big-bang, 108, 109 cosmic-ray, 109 radioactive, see Radioactive nuclides o Octopole vibration, 43 Open universe, 110 Orbital electrons, 124 Oscillating electric dipole, 40 p Parity, 25, 27, 211 in proton-proton scattering, 152-153 violation, 161 in nuclei, 85-86 Particle detector, 32-33 Particles, elementary, 16-24 Pauli exclusion principle, 21, 54-55, 211 Perturbed angular correlations, 121 Phase transition, 138, 211 Photon, 15, 115, 211 Physics atomic, 124-125 condensed-matter, 121-123 with neutrino beams, 162 nuclear, see Nuclear, physics relativistic heavy-ion, 88-89, 146-149 Pi meson (pion), 20 Pion, 20, 44, 65, 68, 91, 211 beam, 38, 44 condensate, 93, 140, 175 laser, 147 virtual, 68 Plastic BalVPlastic Wall, 89, 90 Positron, 17, 81, 123, 212 Postaccelerators, 182 Projectile particles, 28 Proton, 10-11, 212 decay, spontaneous, 27 direct proton radioactivity, 99 number (Z), 11-12, 212 valence, 51 Proton-antiproton"atom," 153 "atom," 153 interaction, 76 system, 69 Proton-kaon interaction, 76 Proton-proton reaction, 114-115 scattering, parity in, 152-153 Proton-rich nuclei, 157 Pulsar, 104, 113 Q QCD (quantum chromodynamics), 2, 5, 23, 66, 75-76, 138, 150, 162, 174, 212 QED (quantum electrodynamics), 21, 125, 154, 204, 212

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222 INDEX QHD (quantum hydrodynamics), 65, 151, 204, 212 Quadrupole resonance, giant electric, 41- 42 Quantized values, 20 Quantum, 15, 212 chromodynamics (QCD), 2, 5, 23, 66, 75-76, 138, 150, 162, 174, 212 at low energies, 75-76 electrodynamics (QED), 21, 125, 154, 204, 212 field theory, 16, 212 hadrodynamics (QHD), 65, 151, 204, 212 mechanics, 15, 212 Quark, 2, 18-21, 68, 212 bag, 19, 20, 23, 71-72 chemistry, 145 confinement, 19, 70-72, 212 Reconfinement, 5, 138, 141-143 in nuclei, 151-154 interaction, strong, 85 matter, 140 model, 72, 165-166 structure, probing, 70-73 Quark-gluon aspects of nuclear matter, 4 nature, 4 plasma, 5, 87, 93, 137-149, 173, 212 detecting, 143-145 R reprocess, astrophysical, 99 Radiation damage, 134 Radioactive nuclides, 12, 148 short-lived, 182 Radioactivity, 212 exotic, 97-101 Radiocarbon dating, 125-126 Radio-frequency (rf) quadrupole, 182 superconductivity, 181-182 Radiology, therapeutic, 129 Red giant, 111 Relativistic energy, 213 Relativistic heavy-ion, colliding-beam ac- celerator, 5-6 Relativistic heavy-ion physics, 88-89, 146-149 Relativistic nuclear collider (RNC), 5-6, 143, 145, 174-175, 176-177, 204 Relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions, 147-149 Relativistic particles, 31 Relativistic regime, 31-32 Relativity, 16, 160, 213 Renormalizable theory, 162 Resonances, 40-44, 54-56, 213 Rest mass, 31, 213 Reviewers, 196-199 rf (radio-frequency) superconductivity, 181-182 Right-handed bosons, 79-80 RNC (relativistic nuclear collider), 5-6, 143, 145, 174-175, 176-177, 204 Rotations, collective, 39 S s (strange) quark, 19 Scattering, 32 elastic charge, 47 elastic magnetic, 49-50 Scientists, new, 8 training, 183-184 Scintillation detectors, 180 Secondary beams, 38 Semiconductors, 130 Shape, electron spectrum, 81 Shell model, 13, 37-38, 55, 213 time-dependent generalization of, 58-59 Shock wave nuclear, 157 supernova, 112-113 Short-lived radioactive nuclides, 182 Short-range nuclear forces, 52 Sigma, 75 Signature of event, 32 Solar model, standard, 117 Solar-neutrino detector, 82, 115 problem, 115-118 Solar wind, 131 Solid-state electronics, 130 Solid-state phenomena, 121 Space-time, four-dimensional, 142 Spallation nuclear, 32 reactions, 109 Spectroscopy, nuclear, 12 Spin, 20, 213

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INDEX 223 nuclei with extremely high, 102-104 Spin axis, 39 Spin vibrations, giant, 44-45 Spin-flip collective mode, 39 Spontaneous fission, 32 Spontaneous proton decay, 27 Stability, valley of, 97, 98 Stable isotopes, enriched, 8, 184-185 Standard Model, 79, 85, 161, 213 Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 172, 204 Starquakes, 103-104 Stars, nuclear reactions in, 114-119 State variable, 92, 213 Stellar evolution, 118-119 "Strange" particles, 5 Strange (s) quark, 19 Strangeness, 19, 164, 213 Streamer chamber, 33, 158 String, quark, 71 Stripped uranium, 125 Strong force, 2, 9, 13-14, 20, 23, 213 Strong quark interaction, 85 Substitutional state of nucleus, 74 Sum rule, 40, 213 Summary, executive, 1-8 Sun, 107, 111, 115 Superconducting linear accelerator, 182 Superconducting materials, 7, 181 Supernova, 107, 108, 111-114, 157 shockwave, 112-113 weak-interaction processes in, 113-114 Supersymmetry, 51-52 Symmetry, 25-27 chiral, 174 geometrical, 50 nucleus and, 77-86 violations of, 67 Symmetry principle, 2, 214 Synchrotron, 214 T t (top) quark, 19, 166 Target, 28, 30 Tanon, 17-18, 214 Tauon neutrino, 18, 81-82 Technetium radionuclide, 129 Technical terms, 204-214 Tektites, 127 Temperature high, nuclei at, 88-93 relative baryon density and, 139-140 Thallium radionuclide, 128-129 Therapeutic radiology, 129 Thermal conductivity, 93 Thermodynamics, nuclear, 89 Three-nucleon nucleus, 60 Time-dependent generalization of shell model, 58-59 Time intervals, ultrashort, 123 Time-reversal invariance, 27, 78, 214 Time-reversal-invanance violation, 161, 164 Tokamak fusion reactors, 124 Tomography, emission, 127-129 Top (t) quark, 19, 166 Transfer, nuclear, 32 Transfermium elements, 94-95 Tritium, 11 Triton, 11 U u (up) quark, 19 Ultrashort time intervals, 123 Uncertainty principle, Heisenberg, 21, 209 Unification particle, 163 Universe age of, 114 baryon density of early, 109 baryon density of present, 109, 110 closed, 109 open, 110 Up (a) quark, 19 Uranium, stripped, 125 V V (volt), 30 Valence electrons, 37 neutrons, 51 protons, 51 Valley of stability, 97, 98 Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator, 214 Vector boson, 214 elementary, 21-24, 207 intermediate, 23, 209 Vibration

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224 INDEX collective, 39 nuclear, 1-2 Virtual meson, 23 Virtual particle, 21, 163, 214 Virtual pions, 68 Viscosity, 93 Volt (V), 30 W W boson, 80 W+ boson, 23 W~ boson, 23 Waste-containment materials, 132 Weak force, 15, 77-78, 85, 160, 214 Weak-interaction processes in supernova, 113-114 Well-logging techniques, 131-132 Whirlpools (Escher), 26 White dwarfs, 118 X X-ray laser action, 149 X-ray source, compact, 113 y Y* state, 155 Z (proton number), 11-12, 212 Z boson, 23, 80, 86, 161