Anthony W. England, Chair—Dr. England received his Ph.D. in geophysics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1970. His research interests have included terrestrial heat flow; geomagnetic and gravimetric studies in the Rocky Mountains and in Antarctica; radar studies of temperate and polar glaciers; and microwave radiometric studies of snow, ice, freezing soils, and planetary regoliths. He served as scientist-astronaut for the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Manned Spacecraft Center from 1967 to 1972 and again as a senior scientist-astronaut from 1979 to 1988. He was mission scientist for Apollo 13 and 16, and he flew as a mission specialist on space shuttle Challenger's Spacelab 2, a solar astronomy and plasma physics mission, in 1985. He served as program scientist for the space station during 1986 and 1987. Between 1972 and 1979, he was a research geophysicist and the deputy chief of the Office of Geochemistry and Geophysics with the U.S. Geological Survey. Dr. England has been at the University of Michigan since 1988, where he is professor of electrical engineering and computer science; professor of atmospheric, oceanic, and space science; and associate dean of the H.H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. His research group is developing land-atmosphere energy and moisture flux-radiobrightness models for prairie and arctic tundra. He has received several honors from NASA: the Outstanding Science Achievement Medal (1973), the Space Flight Medal (1985), and the Exceptional Achievement Medal (1988). Dr. England has also received the U.S. Antarctic Medal (1979) and the Flight Achievement Award from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. England is a member of the American Geophysical Union and Sigma Xi, and a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. He is also a member of the Space Studies Board.
James G. Anderson—Dr. Anderson received his Ph.D. in physics and astrogeophysics from the University of Colorado. His primary research interests are gas-phase kinetics of free radicals and photo-chemistry of planetary atmospheres; he was a pioneer in in sire detection of stratospheric free radicals
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Supporting Research and Data Analysis in NASA's Science Programs: Engines for Innovation and Synthesis D Biographical Information For Task Group Members Anthony W. England, Chair—Dr. England received his Ph.D. in geophysics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1970. His research interests have included terrestrial heat flow; geomagnetic and gravimetric studies in the Rocky Mountains and in Antarctica; radar studies of temperate and polar glaciers; and microwave radiometric studies of snow, ice, freezing soils, and planetary regoliths. He served as scientist-astronaut for the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Manned Spacecraft Center from 1967 to 1972 and again as a senior scientist-astronaut from 1979 to 1988. He was mission scientist for Apollo 13 and 16, and he flew as a mission specialist on space shuttle Challenger's Spacelab 2, a solar astronomy and plasma physics mission, in 1985. He served as program scientist for the space station during 1986 and 1987. Between 1972 and 1979, he was a research geophysicist and the deputy chief of the Office of Geochemistry and Geophysics with the U.S. Geological Survey. Dr. England has been at the University of Michigan since 1988, where he is professor of electrical engineering and computer science; professor of atmospheric, oceanic, and space science; and associate dean of the H.H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. His research group is developing land-atmosphere energy and moisture flux-radiobrightness models for prairie and arctic tundra. He has received several honors from NASA: the Outstanding Science Achievement Medal (1973), the Space Flight Medal (1985), and the Exceptional Achievement Medal (1988). Dr. England has also received the U.S. Antarctic Medal (1979) and the Flight Achievement Award from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. England is a member of the American Geophysical Union and Sigma Xi, and a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. He is also a member of the Space Studies Board. James G. Anderson—Dr. Anderson received his Ph.D. in physics and astrogeophysics from the University of Colorado. His primary research interests are gas-phase kinetics of free radicals and photo-chemistry of planetary atmospheres; he was a pioneer in in sire detection of stratospheric free radicals
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Supporting Research and Data Analysis in NASA's Science Programs: Engines for Innovation and Synthesis from balloon and high-altitude aircraft platforms. Dr. Anderson was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pittsburgh from 1971 to 1972, and then a research assistant professor of physics from 1972 to 1975. From 1975 to 1978, he was a research scientist at the University of Michigan's Space Physics Research Laboratory; this was followed by a brief associate professorship with the Department of Chemistry and the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science (April-July 1978). Dr. Anderson was the Robert P. Burden Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry at Harvard University from 1978 to 1982, and he is currently the Philip S. Weld Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry. Dr. Anderson is an elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1985), a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1986), a fellow of the American Geophysical Union (1989), and an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences (1992). He has also received the American Chemical Society National Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science and Technology (1989), Harvard University's Ledley Prize for Most Valuable Contribution to Science by a Member of the Faculty (1989), the United Nations' Earth Day International Award (1992), the University of Washington Arts and Sciences' Distinguished Alumnus Achievement Award (1993), the Gustavus John Esselen Award for Chemistry in the Public Interest awarded by the Northeastern Section of the American Chemical Society (1993), and the E.O. Lawrence Award in Environmental Science and Technology (1993). Dr. Anderson was also a mission scientist for the NASA Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment 11 (AASE 11) from 1991 to 1992. Magnus Hööik—Dr. Höök received his Ph.D. from the University of Uppsala, in Sweden, where he also worked, first as a teaching assistant (1971-1974) and then as assistant professor (1974-1979). In 1979, he was associate professor at the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. Dr. Höök taught at the University of Alabama at Birmingham from 1980 to 1992 in several capacities: associate professor and professor of biochemistry (1980-1992); professor of microbiology (1989-1992); associate professor of ophthalmology (1989-1992); and professor of cell biology (1989-1992). He holds several concurrent positions, which include director of the Helen Keller Eye Research Foundation (1988-present); director of the Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology at Texas A&M University's Institute of Biosciences and Technology (1992-present); professor of biochemistry and biophysics at Texas A&M (1992-present); adjunct professor of cell biology at Baylor College of Medicine (1993-present); adjunct professor of veterinary anatomy and public health at Texas A&M's College of Veterinary Medicine (1993-present); and adjunct professor of both ophthalmology and medicine at Baylor (1994-present); and he is the Neva and Wesley West Chair at Texas A&M's Institute of Biosciences and Technology. His primary research interests include extracellular matrix biology; molecular and cellular regulation of cell adhesion; bacterial interactions with extracellular matrix; and septic arthritis and pathobiology of cell adhesion. Dr. Höök received an American Heart Association Established Investigatorship Award in 1981-1986. Juri Matisoo—Dr. Matisoo received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota and is widely experienced in research management. Dr. Matisoo began his career in 1964 as a member of the research staff at the Research Division of the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, specializing in low-temperature physics. In 1969, he moved to research management, holding a variety of positions, including director of silicon technology at the T.J. Watson Research Center, where he directed teams researching high-performance devices, process technologies, microprocessor designs, and a state-of-the-art pilot line for process testing, and culminating with a 7-year term as vice president and director of the IBM Almaden Research Center, IBM's facility for storage-related research. From 1981 to 1982, Dr. Matisoo served on IBM's Corporate Technology Committee, part of the Office of the IBM Chair responsible for providing technical advice and guidance. Dr. Matisoo retired from IBM in
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Supporting Research and Data Analysis in NASA's Science Programs: Engines for Innovation and Synthesis 1995 to serve briefly as the vice president of research for the National Semiconductor Corporation, where he was charged with developing a broad-based research function and directing its new National Semiconductor Research Laboratory (1995-1996). Dr. Matisoo currently works as a consultant. He is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and was recipient of the IEEE Jack A. Morton Award for outstanding contributions in solid-state devices. Roberta Balstad Miller—Dr. Miller has worked and published extensively in the areas of science and technology policy and human interactions in global environmental change. Dr. Miller received her Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. Formerly the president and chief executive officer of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), she is now senior research scientist and director of CIESIN at its new home within Columbia University's Earth Science Institute. She was previously a staff associate with the Social Science Research Council (1975-1981), the founding executive director of the Consortium of Social Science Associations (1981-1984), and director of the Division of Social and Economic Science at the National Science Foundation (NSF; 1984-1993). She received NSF's Meritorious Service Award in 1993. Dr. Miller has served as chair of a number of scientific advisory groups, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Advisory Panel on Advanced Science Institutes-Advanced Research Workshops; the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; the Human Dominated Systems Directorate of the U.S. Man in the Biosphere Program; and others. From 1992 to 1994, she served as vice president of the International Social Science Council. Dr. Miller is also a member of the Space Studies Board. Douglas D. Osheroff—Dr. Osheroff, whose main research interests center around studies of quantum fluids and solids and glasses at ultralow temperatures, received his Ph.D. from Cornell University. He was a member of the technical staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories from 1972 to 1981, and served as head of the Solid State and Low-temperature Physics Research Department from 1981 to 1987. Dr. Osheroff began his tenure as professor of physics and applied physics at Stanford in 1987, and he is currently the J.G. Jackson and C.J. Wood Professor of Physics. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, and an elected member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the National Academy of Sciences; he has served as vice-chair of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics' Commission on Low-temperature Physics. Dr. Osheroff's honors include the Sir Francis Simon Memorial Prize (1976); the Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Physics Prize (1981); the MacArthur Prize Fellow Award (1981); the Walter J. Gores Award for Excellence in Teaching, Stanford University (1991); and the Nobel Prize for Physics (1996) for his discovery, with David Lee and Robert Richardson, that the helium-3 isotope can be made superfluid at a temperature only about two-thousandths of a degree above absolute zero. Christopher T. Russell—Dr. Russell received his Ph.D. in space physics from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). The principal focus of his research is the energy flow from the Sun through the solar wind and into the terrestrial and planetary magnetosphere, both intrinsic and induced, and how this energy is dissipated within these magnetospheres. Other interests include the generation of the intrinsic magnetic fields of the Earth and planets, and nature and strength of planetary lightning. He has spent his entire professional career at UCLA, first as a research geophysicist (1968-1981), and then as a professor at the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics (1982 to the present). His Space Physics Group at the institute is composed of an engineering team that builds spaceflight instrumentation; a data processing team that processes returned data; and a scientific analysis team of students,
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Supporting Research and Data Analysis in NASA's Science Programs: Engines for Innovation and Synthesis researchers, and fellow faculty. Dr. Russell has been involved with the spaceflight program for many years: He was a co-investigator on the OGO-5 fluxgate magnetometer, and a co-investigator on the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellite magnetometer. He was the principal investigator for the International Sun-Earth Explorer 1 and 2 magnetometer and for the Pioneer Venus Orbiter magnetometer. Currently, he is a co-investigator on Galileo-IDS, a team member of the FAST polar Earth orbiter, principal investigator for the POLAR polar Earth orbiter, and a team member of the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR). Dr. Russell is also co-investigator for the Cassini Saturn orbiter launched in October 1997. He has received the Macelwane Award presented by the American Geophysical Union, and he is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Royal Astronomical Society. Dr. Russell has authored and coauthored more than 850 articles in scientific journals and books on topics in planetary and space physics. Steven W. Squyres—Dr. Squyres received his Ph.D. from Cornell University. His major research interests are in the geophysics and geochemistry of Mars, the geophysics and tectonics of icy satellites, the photometric properties of planetary surfaces, the tectonics of Venus, and planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy. Prior to receiving his Ph.D., Dr. Squyres was a teaching assistant for the Department of Geological Sciences at Cornell (1977-1978) and a geologist for the U.S. Geological Survey in its Flagstaff, Arizona, Astrogeology Branch (1980). He was a National Research Council postdoctoral research associate at NASA Ames Research Center from 1981 to 1983, and a research scientist from 1983 to 1986. Dr. Squyres was an assistant professor at Cornell's Department of Astronomy in 1986; he also was a visiting assistant professor for the California Institute of Technology's Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences (1986) and a visiting associate professor for the Department of Earth and Space Sciences at UCLA (1986). He was associate professor at Cornell from 1989 to 1995, and has been professor from 1989 to the present. In addition, Dr. Squyres was an associate of the Voyager imaging science team from 1978 to 1981. He was also a radar investigator on the Magellan mission, a member of the Mars Observer gamma-ray spectrometer flight investigation team, and a co-investigator on the Russian Mars 1996 mission. He is currently a member of the imaging science team on the Cassini mission and a member of the gamma-ray/x-ray spectrometer team on NASA's NEAR mission. Dr. Squyres has received the Cornell University Department of Geological Sciences Buchanan Award, a National Science Foundation graduate fellowship, a Cornell University Andrew Dickson White Fellowship, the Antarctic Service Medal, the American Astronomical Society Harold C. Urey Prize, and two NASA Group Achievement Awards (1982, 1984). Paul G. Steffes—Dr. Steffes received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University; his primary research area is microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing of planetary atmospheres, microwave and millimeter-wave satellite communications systems, radio and radar astronomy systems and techniques, and noninvasive monitoring of glucose levels in the human body through stimulated raman emission. He worked as a graduate research assistant at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Research Laboratory of Electronics, Radio Astronomy, and Remote Sensing while pursuing his masters (1976-1977). From 1977 to 1982, he was a member of the technical staff at Watkins-Johnson Company's Sensor Development in San Jose. He was a graduate research assistant at Stanford University's Center for Radar Astronomy while pursuing his Ph.D. (1979-1982). Dr. Steffes has worked at the Georgia Institute of Technology since 1982, as assistant professor (1982-1888), associate professor (1988-1994), and professor (1994-present). He has been involved with several space missions, including Pioneer-Venus, Magellan, and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. He was a member of NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Microwave Observing
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Supporting Research and Data Analysis in NASA's Science Programs: Engines for Innovation and Synthesis Team and is currently involved with the Project Phoenix microwave search conducted by the SETI Institute. Dr. Steffes' honors include the Metro Atlanta Young Engineer of the Year Award, presented by the Society of Professional Engineers (1985); the Sigma Xi Young Faculty Research Award (1988); elected membership to the Electromagnetics Academy (1990); the Sigma Xi Best Faculty Paper Award (1991); NASA Group Achievement Award for the High Resolution Microwave Survey Project, for which he was principal investigator (1993); and the IEEE Judith A. Resnik Award (1996). June M. Thormodsgard—Ms. Thormodsgard received her B.S. in mathematics and computer science from the University of South Dakota and her M.S. in environmental engineering from the University of Wisconsin. Ms. Thormodsgard worked as a mathematician at the Naval Research Laboratory's Space Science Division (1973-1978), where she conducted research on satellite radar altimeters and passive microwave instruments, as well as the operation of aircraft instrumentation for field verification. In 1978, she joined the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center and is currently the branch chief for science and applications, where she coordinates a multidisciplinary team (70 staff scientists and 20 visiting scientists) whose mission is to facilitate the use of remote sensing and related geographic information by Earth scientists and resource managers. The activities of the team serve as a bridge between academic, government, and private research institutions and the practical and operational programs for improved Earth resource mapping, monitoring, modeling, and management. Ms. Thormodsgard has received the Superior Service Award and Meritorious Service Award from the Department of the Interior. Eugene H. Trinh—Dr. Trinh received his Ph.D. in applied physics from Yale University; his primary research areas are physical acoustics, fluid dynamics, materials studies, and technology development for NASA spaceflight experiments. He was a postdoctoral fellow at Yale from 1978 to 1979 and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from 1979 to 1980, after which he became a member of the technical staff (1980-1985). Dr. Trinh was the technical group leader from 1985 to 1988, and then a project scientist and payload specialist astronaut from 1988 to 1992. He was involved in the development of shuttle flight experiments and participated in Spacelab flight mission support activities and flight crew training. He was the alternate payload specialist on the Spacelab 3 mission (1985) and research task manager and project scientist for the Drop Physics Module flight experiments. Dr. Trinh participated in the development and operation of low-gravity experimental apparatuses for tests in the NASA KC-135 airplane. He was a member of the crew of space shuttle Columbia for the STS-50/U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-1 Spacelab mission. Dr. Trinh is currently a senior research scientist and technical group supervisor at JPL and an adjunct professor for the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Southern California. Dr. Trinh has received several honors from NASA: the Group Achievement Award for flight experiments; the Science Achievement Award for principal investigator team; the Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal; and the NASA Flight Medal. Dr. Trinh was recipient of a Sheffield fellowship from Yale University. Arthur B.C. Walker, Jr.—Dr. Walker received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Illinois at Urbana. His research interests are focused on the development of innovative space-borne instruments for the study of high-temperature astrophysical plasmas and on the use of x-ray far-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet techniques to study other astrophysical phenomena, such as elemental abundances in the interstellar medium. He began his professional career as a member of the technical staff at Aerospace Corporation's Space Physics Laboratory (1965-1968). He spent several years as a member of the Space Astronomy Project, first as staff scientist (1968-1970), then as a senior staff scientist (1970-1972), and finally as director (1972-1973). Dr. Walker has been professor of applied physics at Stanford
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Supporting Research and Data Analysis in NASA's Science Programs: Engines for Innovation and Synthesis since 1974 and he was associate dean of graduate studies from 1976 to 1980. Dr. Walker's group is currently focused on the study of the physical processes underlying the structure and dynamical behavior of the solar corona and chromosphere, using observations from a variety of spacecraft, including the joint NASA-European Space Agency Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and his group's Multispectral Solar Telescope Array. Dr. Walker's group is also establishing a Stanford Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Science Center, in preparation for the launch of NASA's AXAF X-ray Observatory in 1998, which will provide access to AXAF observations for astronomers in the western United States. He is a member of Sigma Xi, the American Physical Society, American Geophysical Union, American Astronomical Society, and International Astronomical Union. Dr. Walker is also a member of the Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory and the Center for Space Science and Astrophysics. Patrick John Webber—Dr. Webber received his Ph.D. in plant ecology from Queens University in Canada. His research interests are broad, ranging from classical phytosociology and plant taxonomy to arctic ecology and the ecology of managed landscapes, which are prevalent in the U.S. Midwest; his current research focus is on landscape ecology and the evolution of managed and natural ecosystems. Prior to receiving his Ph.D., he was an assistant professor at York University's (Canada) Department of Biology (1966-1969). Between 1969 and 1989, he progressed from assistant to full professor at the University of Colorado's Department of Environmental, Population, and Organismic Biology. Dr. Webber was also director of the University of Colorado's Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (1979-1986). From 1987 to 1993, he was program director for ecology at the National Science Foundation (NSF). Dr. Webber's first position at Michigan State University was as the director of the W.K. Kellogg Biological Station (1990-1993). He then returned to NSF as the program director for arctic system science. He has been professor of forestry at Michigan State University since 1990, and professor of botany and plant pathology since 1993. Dr. Webber has directed several large research projects, including the San Juan Ecology Project (1970-1976), the U.S. Alpine Program of the International Tundra Biome Program (1971-1974); he was the founding principal investigator of NSF's Alpine Long-term Ecological Research Program (1980-1987). He is currently principal investigator of an NSF 5-year award to study the effect of climate warming on tundra vegetation under the International Tundra Experiment project. Ronald M. Konkel, Consultant—Mr. Konkel, who served as consultant to the Task Group on Research and Analysis Programs, received his M.A. in economics from Tulane University. He entered government service as a management intern at the NASA Johnson Space Center (1964-1966). He was a program analyst in the Office of Manned Space Flight at NASA Headquarters and later served as a program analyst and staff economist in the Office of the Comptroller (1966-1972). He served as a budget examiner and later as deputy division chief for the Energy and Science Division and as chief of the Science and Space Programs Branch at the Office of Management and Budget (Executive Office of the President, 1972-1980). He was staff director for the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space (1980-1981) and a senior economist in the Planning Office at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (1981-1982). From 1982 to 1989, Mr. Konkel served at NASA Headquarters as director of the Administration and Resources Management Division in the Office of Space Science and Applications. He spent a sabbatical as a visiting fellow at the Center for Space and Geosciences Policy at the University of Colorado (1988-1989). Mr. Konkel retired in late 1990 to work as a consultant and has completed assignments for NASA, the Universities Space Research Association, the congressional Office of Technology Assessment, and three organizations within the National Research Council.