Click for next page ( 400


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 399
Index A Activity-based costing, 168- 169 Antitrust law, 29-30 early computer industry, 230-231 semiconductor industry, 278-279 Apparel industry current performance, 330 economies of scale/scope, 329 fashion trend effects, 341, 343, 354-355 firm size related to economic performance, 348-349, 350-352, 353 firm size trends, 332, 342-343, 353-356, 359-360 flexible production methods, 342-344, 353 future prospects, 330, 336, 352-356, 359 360 globalization effects, 335-336, 358-359 historical economic performance, 329-336 import products, 335, 342, 346, 349 information management/technology, 335, 343, 344, 352-353 interfirm relations, 353 international specialization, 354 jobbers, 333-334, 356-357 labor unions, 358 lean retailing, 343, 344, 348-350, 352, 355, 359-360 market share distribution, 330, 332, 335, 342 399 need for intermediation, 357-358, 360 obstacles to restructuring, 356-357 product line productivity, 345, 349-350, 351 -352 productivity factors, 345, 346-349 productivity growth, 329, 345-346, 349-350 products, 330 progressive bundle system production, 337- 342 rapid replenishment, 343-345, 352-353, 354-356 retail sales, 341-343, 344-345, 354-355 short-cycle products, 343 structure, 3, 332-334, 350-351 technological innovation, 334-335 trade policy, 335-336, 349, 359 workforce characteristics, 330-332, 334, 336, 354 ATM machines, 188- 190 Automotive industry, 94 powder metallurgy, 105, 106, 107, 110 steel purchases, 82-83 B Banks/banking. See Financial services; Retail banking Bar coding, 142 electronic scanning, 159

OCR for page 399
400 Basic research biotechnology, 380, 395 chemicals industry, 69-72 hard disk drive industry, 314-317 pharmaceutical industry, 369-371 powder metallurgy industry, 118-119 semiconductor industry, 273-275 steel industry, 89-90, 92 Bayh-Dole Patent and Trademark Amendments Act of 1980, 8, 389, 391 Biotechnology basic research, 380, 395 capital supply in development of, 389-390 31 intellectual property protection, 390-391 knowledge base for development of, 388 389, 395 national systems of innovation in, 378-379, 387, 388-396 origins and development, 384-387, 388 pharmaceutical industry implementation, 382-386, 392-393 pharmaceutical industry performance and, 365 policy environment, 364 as process technology, 379-381 R&D spending, 67 regulatory environment in development of, 392 research collaborations, 384, 387 research implementation, 392-395 research strategies in drug R&D, 377-378, 379-380 unique features of research environment, 380-382 Brazil, 78 C Capital supply determinants of, 20 in development ofbiotechnology, 389-390 in development of chemicals industry, 30- 31,61 industry comparisons, 40-43 semiconductor industry investment, 265- 266, 275-277 steel industry investment, 81, 86-87 Center for Magnetic Recording Research, 316 Chemicals industry, 2 basic research, 69-72 chemical engineering activities, 54-55 INDEX computer applications, 58-59, 69 development of comparative advantage, 24- 26 development spending, 66 economies of scale/scope, 52, 53 educational system in development of, 33- 35, 55 environmental regulation, 31-32 future prospects, 58-59, 70-71 globalization, 60 industry structure, 35-39, 46-51, 55-58 institutional factors in development of, 30 international distribution of market, 47-49, 51,65 labor factors in historical development of, 32-33 legal system in historical development of, 29-30 macroeconomic factors in development of, 27-29 market functioning, 36-39, 40-41 metallocene catalyst research, 66-67 patent and licensing activities, 29-30, 49, 66-67 R&D spending, 20 R&D trends, 51, 61-69 recent restructuring, 59-61 research benefits to other industries, 22 scope of activities/products, 22-23, 46, 49, 65-66 significance of, for competitiveness studies, 20-23 sociopolitical factors in development of, 26 27 sources of competitive advantage, 17, 39 40,71 specialized engineering firms, 45-46, 55-59, 71 technology transfer, 45, 51, 55-56 unit production costs, 69-70 U.S. successes, 22 See also Petrochemical industry; Polymer science Co-invention, 4, 9 applications software, 221 computing industry trends, 226 definition, 219 as source of computer innovation, 222, 223- 224 systemic coordination for, 219

OCR for page 399
INDEX Collaborations biotechnology research, 384, 389-390 chemicals industry, 70 grocery retailing innovation, 160 hard disk drive industry, 299, 314 international manufacturing, 299 international R&D, 7, 9, 68, 93-94, 99, 270- 271 intranational R&D, 7, 70, 270-273 patenting and licensing issues, 11-12 powder metallurgy industry, 107 semiconductor industry, 247-248, 267-273, 282 steel industry, 93-94, 99 university-industry, 7, 8, 70 Communist movement, 32 Competition, historical developments apparel industry, 329-330 biotechnology research, 393-394 hard disk drive industry, 288-292 personal computer market, 290 pharmaceutical industry, 363, 365-372 Competitive performance apparel industry prospects, 354 banking industry consolidation, 184 biotechnology research/implementation, 395-396 challenges in retail banking, 180- 181 chemicals industry, 39-40, 45-46, 59-60, 71 in computer industry, 217, 235-236 computer industry prospects, 239-242 computer industry trends, 236 data for analysis of, 13- 14 development of chemicals industry, 53 future prospects, 14 in global economy, 14, 111- 112, 131 globalization of manufacturing, 301, 307- 309 grocery retailing, 156, 157- 159 hard disk drive industry, 287-288, 293, 297, 299-301, 307-309, 325-326 innovation and, 14, 39-30 national embeddedness, 288 networked computing, 237-238 organizational computing, 227-231 personal computing, 233-235 pharmaceutical industry, 363, 364, 365 policy factors, 5-6, 12, 15 powder metallurgy industry, 106 1980s to present, 1, 3-7, 13, 59-60, 245-248, 282 401 semiconductor industry, historical development, 245-248 semiconductor industry, Japanese, 250-253 semiconductor industry, manufacturing process-related, 256-263 semiconductor industry, sources of advantage, 247-248, 266-267, 275-281, 282, 283-284 steel industry, 96-97 steel industry advantages, 96-97 steel industry innovation and, 99- 101 steel industry prior to restructuring, 76 steel industry R&D allocations and, 75 steel industry trends, 78 strategic restructuring as source of, 6-7 theoretical models of economic performance, 19-20 trucking industry, 135- 136 U.S. advantages, 14-15, 241-242 Computer industry applications software market, 221, 224-225, 240 areas of technical progress, 224-225, 240 241 benefits of restructuring, 6 captive disk drive manufacturers, 299-301 co-invention, 4, 9, 219, 221-222, 223-224, 226 commercialization activities, 217, 218, 221 223, 239-240, 241 competitive environment, 217-218, 233-234 computer services market, 221-222 current restructuring, 215 determinants of competitive performance, 217 economies of scale, 234 future prospects, 216-217, 218, 237-242 general purpose technologies, 224 government R&D, 230 historical/technical development, 215, 218 221, 227, 228-231 IBM history, 227-231, 242, 288-289, 293, 294, 295-296 innovation processes in, 4, 219, 222, 235 international competition, 231, 236 interorganizational, 237 intersectoral relationships, 4-5 invention of new applications, 222, 224 market structure, 216-217, 221-222 networking technology, 218, 226-227, 236 239

OCR for page 399
402 on-line banking programs, 191-194 organizational data processing, 226, 227 231, 236-237 peripherals, 220-221, 290-291. See also Hard disk drive industry personal computing, 226, 232-235, 290-292 platform compatibility, 227-228, 241 rate of technical progress, 224 sources of competitive advantage, 235-236, 241-242 sources of innovation, 9, 222-224, 226 structure of industry, 3, 221-222, 225-226, 228-229, 236, 241 technical computing, 226, 232 trucking industry innovation, 140-141, 143 types of market demand, 226-227, 231-232 university R&D, 229-230 vertical integration/disintegration, 225, 226, 234, 235, 238, 241 See also Hard disk drive industry; Semiconductor industry Consultants, grocery retailing, 160- 161 Consumer behavior grocery retailing, 156, 160, 161, 165, 169, 170-172, 175, 176 retail banking, 187- 190 store loyalty, 169 Customer-prompted innovation co-invention in computer industry, 219 efficient customer response system, 156 157, 165-169 grocery retailing, 156, 160 steel industry, 97 trucking industry, 125-126 Customer relations powder metallurgy industry, 106-107 retail banking, 197, 198, 201-202 trucking industry, 125-126 D Data collection and management on innovation, 4, 10 for policy-making, 10- 11, 13- 14 Demand conditions, 111-112, 160 apparel industry, 343 computing industry, 226-227 pharmaceuticals industry, 364 Desktop computing, 4-5 Diamond of national advantage, 111-112 Disintermediation, 134 INDEX EEconomic performance apparel industry, 329-330, 348-349, 350- 352 determinants of, 18, 19-20, 329 endogenous growth theory, 19 grocery retailing, 157, 161-165, 172-174 neoclassical model, 19 powder metallurgy industry, 106 profit margin as measure of, 162-163 R&D spending and, 100-101 in retail banking, 203-207 social capability model, 19 steel industry, 76, 84-87 technology flows in, 19-20 trends, 1-2 trucking industry, 146, 149- 150 See also Competitive performance; Productivity Economies of scale/scope apparel industry, 329 biotechnology research, 385-386 chemicals industry, 52, 53 computing industry, 234 retail banking, 183 Efficient customer response, 156-157, 165-169, 172-174, 176 Electronic data interchange in apparel industry, 344 grocery retailing applications, 159 trucking industry applications, 139-140, 148-149 Electronic point of sale data, 343, 344 England apparel industry, 353 biotechnology research, 383, 386, 388-389, 393 drug price regulation, 376-377 educational system in chemicals industry development, 33, 34 historical development of chemicals industry, 24-26 institutional factors in chemicals industry development, 30 labor factors in chemicals industry development, 32 macroeconomic factors in chemicals industry development, 27-28, 29 patent system, 30 pharmaceutical industry, 366, 372, 373, 375-376

OCR for page 399
INDEX share of chemicals industry market, 47, 48, 49 sociopolitical factors in chemicals industry development, 26-27 structure of chemicals industry, 35-36 Entry of new competitors, 3 biotechnology industry, 378-379, 384, 388 development of chemicals industry, 56-58 effects on industry performance, 6 networked computing industry, 236-237 patent regulation and, 281 pharmaceuticals industry, 364, 375 powder metallurgy industry, 106- 107, 109 semiconductor industry, 268, 276 Environmental regulation historical development of chemicals industry, 31-32 as source of innovation, 98 steel industry, 98 trucking industry, 137 Europe Financial services biotechnology research, 386-387, 388-389, 390, 391, 392 chemicals industry, 22, 64 computing industry, 231, 236, 239 disk drive industry, 289, 291, 294, 295, 320 hard disk drive research, 311, 314 pharmaceutical industry, 366, 372, 373-374, 375 semiconductor industry, 270-271, 282 steel industry R&D, 99 U.S. collaborations, 7 See also specific country F effects of strategic restructuring, 6 historical development of chemicals industry, 30-31 See also Retail banking Food and Drug Administration, 375 Foreign investment in U.S. benefits for U.S. industry, 12 grocery retailing, 175-176 in patenting and licensing, 9 powder metallurgy industry, 110 R&D, 9, 67 semiconductor R&D, 270 steel industry, 98 See also International collaboration 403 France biotechnology research, 386, 387, 389 pharmaceutical industry, 373-374 Funding basic research in semiconductor industry, 273-275 chemicals industry R&D, 20 foreign R&D spending in U.S., 9, 67 government support of semiconductor industry, 247-248, 271-273, 274 pharmaceutical R&D, 368-371, 372-374 R&D public policy issues, 11- 12 R&D trends, 8 steel industry R&D, 99 university patenting and licensing revenues, 8 U.S. offshore R&D spending, 9, 67, 270 G General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 29 Germany biotechnology research, 383, 386, 387, 389, 393 chemicals industry R&D, 68 educational system in chemicals industry development, 33, 34 environmental regulation, 32 historical development of chemicals industry, 24-26, 51-52 institutional factors in chemicals industry development, 30-31 labor factors in chemicals industry development, 32 macroeconomic factors in chemicals industry development, 27-29 patent system, 30 pharmaceutical industry, 366, 372, 373-374 share of chemicals industry market, 47, 48, 49 sociopolitical factors in chemicals industry development, 26-27 structure of chemicals industry, 35-36, 38 Global positioning system, 141-142 Globalization, 131 apparel industry, 335-336 apparel industry prospects, 358-359 chemicals industry R&D, 67-68 chemicals industry structure, 60 driving forces, 68

OCR for page 399
404 hard disk drive industry, 287-288, 301-309, 325 management of geographically dispersed companies, 320-324, 325 trucking indushry, 124, 131- 133 Government initiatives apparel industry intermediation, 358 banking regulation, 181 - 183 biotechnology regulation/support, 378-379, 391-392 chemicals industry R&D funding, 20 early computer industry, 230 hard disk drive industry support, 314-315, 326 intellectual property issues, 11-12 pharmaceutical R&D, 368-371, 372-374 powder metallurgy research, 119 R&D spending, 8, 11 semiconductor ant/trust law, 278-279 semiconductor indushry support, 247-248, 271-273, 274, 283 semiconductor trade policy, 277-278 steel industry R&D, 99 See also Policy making Grocery retailing category management, 169, 173-174 compeUtion-driven innovation, 157- 159 competitive environment, 156, 157-159, 174 Inflation, 1 consumer behavior, 156, 160, 161, 165, 170-172, 175, 176 consumer food expenditures, 161 discount mass merchandisers/supercenters, 158-159, 165 efficient customer response, 156-157, 165 169, 172-174, 176 factors influencing innovation, 156-160 future prospects, 175-176 labor issues, 159-160, 163, 176 obstacles to research, 155 performance outcomes of innovahon,172- 174 process innovation, 165-166, 174-175 productivity measures, 162-165, 176 service innovation, 169-172, 175 sources of innovation, 160-161, 175 store design, 163, 170-172, 175 technology areas, 156, 159-160 H Hard disk drive industry areal density, 296-297 INDEX assembly of drives, 298-299 captive manufacturers, 299-301 form factors, 293 future prospects, 310, 324-325 globalization, 287-288, 299, 301-309, 325 government support, 314-315, 326 home market performance, 288 industry shructure, 297-301 interfirm collaborations, 316-317 magneto-resistive heads, 295 management of geographically dispersed companies, 320-324 market share distribution, 287, 289-290, 291-292 origins and development, 288-290 patenting and licensing in, 311 personal computing market and, 290-292 R&D Trends, 310-314 significance of, 287, 288, 301, 325 sources of competitive advantage, 287-288, 293, 297, 301, 325-326 High-technology industries, 4 Household income distribution, 1-2 I impact on grocery retailing, 156, 157 inventory management and, 156 Information management/technology apparel industry, 335, 343, 344, 345 banking technology, 185, 186-187 computer services market, 222 computerized data processing in organizations, 226, 227-231 data fusion, 142-143 efficient customer response system in grocery retailing, 168 In geographically dispersed companies, 320-324 imaging systems, 142 for managing innovation, 10 on-line banking, 194 rapid replenishment apparel markets, 352- 353 retail banking, 181, 197, 204-207 semiconductor manufacturing, 258-260 r. r A S1gn1T1CanCe OT, ~ skill requirements, 5 trucking indushry, 124, 137, 139- 141, 142- 143, 145-146, 148-149

OCR for page 399
INDEX Innovation banking delivery system, 195-202 banking industry implementation, 202-203 banking products, 190-195 banking technology, 185-187 co-invention, 4, 9, 219 competition and, 30-39, 99-101 in computing, areas of, 224-225, 231-232 in computing, historical development, 218 221 in computing, processes of, 4, 219, 222 in computing, prospects for, 238-242 customer as source of. See Customer prompted innovation data collection, 4 dataon,4,10-11 definition, 4, 18, 124-125 deployment of, vs. creation of, 3-4, 9-10 duration of competitive advantage, 14 employee sources, 97 in geographically dispersed companies, 320-324 in grocery retailing, forces for, 157-160 in grocery retailing, measures of, 161-165 in grocery retailing, performance outcomes, 172-174 in grocery retailing, sources of, 160-161, 175 in grocery retailing processes, 165-169 in grocery retailing services, 169-172 in hard disk drive industry, 288-289, 293 295 intersectoral flows, 4-5 investments, 4 market structure and functioning in, 14 national styles of, 292-293 in networked computing, 237, 238 in personal computing, 235 in pharmaceutical industry, 367-368 polymer science, 51-54 in retail banking, 179, 180, 203-210 in semiconductor industry, 247, 282-283 steel industry competition and, 99-101 steel industry sources, 93-95, 97-99, 99 steel production, 83-84, 92 steel products, 82-83 structural trends, 9-10 systems integration activities in, 207-210 in trucking industry, 131, 138-139, 147-149, 150-151 See also Research and development 405 Interfirm relations apparel industry, 353, 356-358 biotechnology research, 384 chemicals industry, 70 hard disk drive basic research, 316-317, 318 R&D collaboration, 7, 70, 270-273 size of firms and, 107, 120-121 as source of competitive advantage, 297 technology flows, 4-5 International collaborations, 7, 9, 68, 93-94, 99, 270-271, 299 Internet package tracking, 143 trucking industry innovation, 134, 140 Intersectoral relationships, 5 Inventory management apparel market demands, 343 in grocery retailing, 156, 157, 158, 165-166, 169 progressive bundle system in apparel manufacture, 337-338 rapid replenishment apparel markets, 343- 344, 352-353, 354-356, 359-360 trucking industry trends, 133- 134 See also Just in time inventory See also Logistics ISO 9000, 134- 135 Italy, pharmaceutical industry, 374 J Japan auto industry, 83 biotechnology research, 383, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 392, 393-394 chemicals industry development, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32-33 chemicals industry market share, 47, 48-49, 65 chemicals industry R&D spending, 64 chemicals industry structure, 37, 38-39, 46 47 competitive environment, 393-394 computing industry, 231, 236 disk drive industry, 289, 291, 297-301, 302 306, 307-309, 325 disk drive industry innovations, 294, 295 297 disk drive research, 311, 312-314, 317-318, 324-325

OCR for page 399
406 environment for innovation, 292-293 future prospects, 14 industrial organization, 297 industry structure as source of competitive advantage, 297, 301 pharmaceutical industry, 372, 374, 376 powder metallurgy industry, 115 semiconductor industry, 246, 247, 250-256, 264, 266, 267, 271, 276, 282 semiconductor manufacturing collaborations, 270-271 steel industry, 79, 80, 81, 82, 94, 98 Just in time inventory apparel industry, 343-350 grocery retailing, 157, 165- 166 powder metallurgy industry, 106 principles of, 344 trucking industry, 125-126, 133-134 L Labor market apparel industry employment, 330-332, 336, 354 chemicals industry, 32-33 grocery retailing, 159, 163, 176 innovation in retail banking, 199-200, 201 Market share powder metallurgy industry, 116-117 steel industry R&D personnel, 88-89 Labor productivity apparel industry, 334, 349 semiconductor industry, 260-262 steel industry, 79-80 trends, 1 trucking industry, 136- 137 Land grant college system, 33-34 Lean retailing, 157, 165-166, 343, 344, 348 350, 352, 355, 359-360 Logistics applications, 128-129 definition, 128 global economy, 132 providers, 129-130 technology for, 129 Long-term growth basic research in semiconductor industry, 273-275 chemicals industry, 39, 40, 70 economic modeling, 19-20 policy factors, 5-6, 11 steel industry research, 89-90, 92 INDEX M Macroeconomic policy in development of chemicals industry, 27-29 significance of, 5-6 Magnetics research, 314- 316 Management computing industry structures, 225, 229 of geographically dispersed companies, 320-324 in grocery retailing innovation, 168 historical development of chemicals industry, 31 human resources, 97 logistics industry, 128- 130 requirements of information technology, 5 semiconductor manufacturing, 256-263, 266-267 steel industry, 84 trucking industry, 133- 135 Manufacturing processes, 13 geographically distant from R&D center, 320-324 globalization, 299, 301 hard disk drive assembly, 299-309 See also Apparel industry; Semiconductor industry apparel industry, 330, 332, 335, 342 apparel industry prospects, 356-357 hard disk drive industry, 287, 289-290, 291- 292 home market advantage, 288 personal computers, 290 pharmaceutical industry, 372 Market structure and functioning apparel industry, 339-343 applications software, 221, 224-225 chemicals industry, 36-39, 61 computer services, 221-222 computing industry, 216-217, 228-229, 242 computing industry demand, 226-227, 231- 232 computing industry prospects, 238-239, 241 determinants of competitive performance, 111-112 for economic growth, 18 grocery retailing, 161, 162- 163 industry comparisons, 40-43 powder metallurgy, 105, 107, 109-110, 112 semiconductor industry, 245, 248-255, 263- 265, 266, 278

OCR for page 399
INDEX trucking industry, 124 U.S. advantages, 14 Mature industries, 4 Medical research, 374 Mergers and acquisitions, banking industry, 182-185 Metallocene catalysts, 66-67 M.I.T. Commission, 1, 2, 13 Multi-Fiber Agreement, 335-336 N National Cooperative Research Act, 279 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 315 National Science Foundation, 10- 11 National Storage Industry Consortium, 316-317 Natural resources, 39 Navigation systems, 141-142 Nonmanufacturing industries competitive environment, 3 R&D investments, 10- 11 technology flows, 4 North American Free Trade Agreement, 132, 335, 349, 359 o Oil shocks, 59 p Patenting and licensing benefits of regulation, 281 biotechnology industry, 390-391 chemicals industry, 29-30, 49, 65, 66-67 hard disk drive industry, 311 pharmaceuticals industry, 364, 374-377 policy issues, 11-12 powder metallurgy industry, 118 semiconductor industry, 279-281 university activities, 8 U.S. patents to foreign inventors, 9 Path dependency, 356 Petrochemical industry, 26, 29, 34, 46-47, 55, 56,60 Pharmaceutical industry competitive environment, 363, 393-394 drug pricing, 376-377 entry of new competitors, 364, 375 407 evolution of research methods, 368-372 historical development, 363, 365-368, 372 intellectual property protection, 364, 374 market share distribution, 49, 372 policy environment, 363-364, 375-376 public sector support, 368-371, 372-374, 378-379 R&D spending/trends, 65-66, 67 source of competitive advantage, 363, 364, 365 structure, 3, 392-393 See also Biotechnology Pilot manufacturing, 322-323 Policy making benefits of competition and, 12 biotechnology industry development, 378- 379, 388-396 chemicals industry development, 26-27, 39 computer industry development, 230-231 data collection for, 10- 11, 13- 14 issues in innovation process, 10 labor market issues, 12- 13 long-term competitive performance, 5-6, 11 patenting and licensing issues, 11-12 pharmaceuticals industry regulation, 363- 364, 365, 375-377 public R&D spending, 11- 12 significance of, in economic performance, 19,20 in support of semiconductor industry, 277- 281 technology issues, 12 U.S. successes, 12, 14-15 See also Government initiatives; Macroeconomic policy; Tax policy; Trade policy Polyethylene chemistry, 66-67 Polymer science, 46 historical development, 51-54 international distribution of market, 49 metallocene catalyst research, 66-67 Powder metallurgy industry auto industry market, 107, 110 capacity/production, 114-115 customer relations, 106-107 demand conditions, 111-112 economic performance, 106 environmental impacts, 104 factor conditions, 111 financial health, 115-116 future prospects, 119 historical development, 103, 104-106

OCR for page 399
408 Prices interfirm relations, 107, 120-121 international comparison, 110 labor costs, 116 market share distribution, 109- 110, 112- 113 patenting activity, 118 productivity, 117 products and processes, 103, 104, 105, 106, 110-111 raw materials market, 116 R&D efforts, 118-119 R&D goals, 110 R&D structure, 9, 103-104 structure, 3, 105, 108-110 structure of, 103 supplier relations, 107, 112, 119 types of firms, 108 U.S. performance, 110, 111-112 apparel, 341-342 drug, 376-377 grocery retailing, 158 semiconductor industry, 248-249 trucking industry, 135- 136 Private sector R&D spending chemicals industry, 20 trends, 2, 8 Product transfer teams, 322-323 Productivity apparel industry, 329, 334, 345-350 grocery retailing, 162- 165, 176 powder metallurgy industry, 117 semiconductor industry, 260-262 steel industry, 78, 79-80, 81-82 trucking industry, 136- 137 Q QS 9000, 134-135 Quality semiconductor industry performance, 255- 256, 258 steel industry performance, 82-83 trucking industry standards, 134- 135 R Research and development biotechnology, historical development, 384- 387 INDEX biotechnology, national influences in, 392 395 biotechnology methods, 377-378, 379-381 chemicals industry, historical development, 33-35 chemicals industry spending, 20 chemicals industry trends, 51, 61-70 data for analysis of, 10- 11 economic performance and, 100-101 environmental protection, 98 foreign spending in U.S., 9, 67, 270 future of steel industry, 95 geographically distant from manufacturing facilities, 320-324 globalization trends, 67-68 hard disk drive industry, historical development, 326 hard disk drive industry trends, 310-320, 324-325 implications of restructuring, 9-10 international collaborations, 7, 9, 99, 270-271 intranational collaborations, 7, 70, 270-273 long-term investment, 11 offshore spending, 9, 67, 270 pharmaceutical industry, public support for, 368-371, 372-374, 378-379 pharmaceutical industry historical development, 365-368 pharmaceutical industry methods, 368-372 pharmaceutical industry trends, 364-365 powder metallurgyindustry, 103-104, 110, 118-119 private sector, 2 public policy issues, 10-12 semiconductor collaborations, 270-273 semiconductor industry, government support for, 283 spending trends, 8 steel industry, government-supported, 99 steel industry, international collaborations, 99 steel industry allocations, 75-76, 87-88, 89 90 steel industry nonintegrated producers, 91 92 steel industry personnel, 88-89 steel industry structure, 90-91 structural trends, 9 See also Basic research Retail banking ATM machines, 188- 190

OCR for page 399
INDEX branching, 188 competitive environment, 180- 181 consumer behavior, 187-190 future prospects, 209-210 human resources management, 198, 199- 200, 201 industry structure, 181, 182- 185 inefficiencies, 183-184 innovation process, 202-203 market characteristics, 180 measuring benefits of innovation, 203-207 mergers and acquisitions, 182- 185 organizational innovation, 195-202 PC banking, 186, 187, 190-195 performance factors, 179- 180 platform innovation, 186- 187 regulation, 181 - 183 revenue enhancement, 186 sources of innovation in, 179 systems integration function, 207-209 technological innovation, 185- 187 use of payment instruments, 188 Retail sales apparel industry, 341-343, 344-345, 348- 349 disintermediation, 134 See also Grocery retailing; Retail banking S Safety, trucking industry, 137-138, 142 Salaries and wages household income distribution, 1-2 trucking industry, 136- 137 Satellite systems navigation/positioning systems, 141-142 trucking industry communications, 139 Second industrial revolution, 329 SEMATECH, 247-248, 256, 271-273, 279 Semiconductor Chip Protection Act, 280-281 Semiconductor industry antitrust law, 278-279 application-specific integrated circuits, 263 applications, 245 basic research, 273-275 benefits of strategic restructuring, 6, 282 capital investment, 265-266, 275-277 collaborations, 267, 282 development facilities, 262 digital signal processors, 263-264 409 domestic collaboration, 271-273 DRAM market, 246-247, 250-251, 253-254, 264-265, 267, 277-278 electronically programmable memory chips, 278 fabless firms, 247, 268-269, 273, 281 future prospects, 275, 282-284 government support, 247-248, 271-273, 274, 283 innovation, 247 international collaborations, 270-271 intersectoral relationships, 4-5 introduction of new processing technologies, 262-263 labor productivity, 260-262 logic products, 264, 265 manufacturing equipment industry, 252 253, 272 manufacturing process performance, 256 263, 266-267, 272 manufacturing process technologies, 264 market share distribution, 248-255, 263 265, 278 metal-oxide manufacturing, 264, 268 microcomponent market, 264-265 nontechnological sources of competitive advantage, 275-281 origins and development, 249 patenting and licensing, 279-281 producer-designer collaborations, 268-269 product categories, 263, 264 product quality, 255-256 production, 245 sources of competitive advantage, 247-248, 266-267, 282, 283-284 specialized design firms, 265, 267, 268 structure, 3, 9, 247, 249, 263-264, 282 trade policy, 277-278 U.S. competitive performance, 245-248, 250-255, 282, 283-284 Singapore, 302, 307, 319-320, 324 Size of company apparel industry firms, 332 apparel industry trends, 350-351, 353-356, 359-360, 360 interfirm relations and, 107, 120- 121 R&D efforts and, 103-104, 119, 120 Sloan Foundation, 2 South Korea, 253, 254, 266, 267, 276, 282, 291 hard disk drive research, 318-319 steel industry, 78, 81, 82

OCR for page 399
410 Standardization, 33, 150 computer design, 215, 234 computer platform compatibility, 227-228, 241 semiconductor manufacturing, 268 Statistical process control, 255, 258 Steel industry basic research, 89-90 capacity/production, 77 capital productivity, 81 conditions prior to restructuring, 76 current operating environment, 75-76, 101 current R&D activities, 93 customer-prompted innovation, 97 determinants of competitive performance, 96-97 economic performance, 76, 84-87 environmental regulation, 98 foreign investment in U.S., 98 future prospects, 78, 95, 101 government-supported R&D, 99 human resources practices, 97 innovation-competitiveness linkage, 99-101 integrated firms, 77-78, 86-87, 90, 91-92 joint ventures, 93-94 labor productivity, 79-80 minimills, 77-78, 86-87, 97, 100-101 process innovation, 83-84, 92, 94, 97 product innovation, 82-83 productivity, 78 quality performance, 82-83 R&D allocations, 75-76, 87-88 R&D personnel, 88-89 R&D structure, 9, 90-91 restructuring, 75, 101 sales, 87 sources of innovation, 93-95, 97-99, 99 supplier innovations, 94 total factor productivity, 81-82 trade issues, 98 unions, 97 university research, 95 worker training, 97-98 Strategic management, 6 Structure of industries apparel industry, 332-334, 350-352, 353- 356 apparel industry prospects, 356-358, 360 chemicals industry, 36-39, 46-51, 55-58 chemicals industry, historical development, 35-36 INDEX chemicals industry restructuring, 59-61 computer industry, 3, 221-222, 225-226, 228-229, 231, 236, 241 diversity, 4 fragmented industries, 109 hard disk drive industry, 297-301 intersectoral relationships, 5 powder metallurgyindustry, 103, 108-110 retail banking, 181, 182-185 semiconductor industry, 247, 249, 282 as source of competitive advantage, 6-7, 297, 299-301 trucking industry, 127-128, 130 U.S.R&D system, 2 Structure of innovation process, 7-10 computer industry, 225-226 Supplier-producer relations, 94, 107, 112, 119, 297 apparel industry, 333-334, 358 Supply chain management, 130, 168 Switzerland biotechnology research, 383, 392, 393 pharmaceutical industry, 366, 372 T Taiwan, 253, 254, 267 Tax policy development of chemicals industry, 28 R&D funding, 99 Technology transfer/diffusion biotechnology, 388, 392 chemicals industry, 45, 51, 55-56, 70-71 data for analysis of, 10 intersectoral, 4-5 management of geographically dispersed companies, 320-324 semiconductor manufacturing, 268, 280 steel industry joint ventures, 93-94 university activities, 8 worker preparedness, 12-13 Telecommunications technology banking services, 190-195, 197-198 benefits for other industries, 5 prospects for competition, 239 trucking industry, 139-140 Total factor productivity definition, 81 steel industry, 81-82 Total quality management, 255 Trade deficit, 1

OCR for page 399
INDEX Trade policy apparel products/services, 335-336, 349, 359 chemicals industry, 27, 28-29 computer industry, 230, 231 powder metallurgy products, 114 semiconductor market, 277-278 steel industry, 98 Trucking industry activity-based costing, 168-169 areas of innovation, 146 barriers to innovation, 150 business practices, 133- 135 cabotage rules, 132 characteristics of innovation, 123, 125 compatibility standards, 150 competitive environment, 123-124 computer technology, 140-141, 142-143 containerization, 133 customer-industry relations, 125- 126 data management, 141 - 142, 145- 146 disintermediation, 134 economic performance, 146 effects of innovation, 146- 147 environmental concerns, 137 factors influencing innovation, 131, 138- 139, 147-149, 151 fleet management, 140-142 future prospects, 149- 151 globalization, 124, 131- 133 hub-and-spoke network, 135 information management, 124, 137 intermodalism, 133 labor issues, 136- 137 less-than-truckload carriers, 127-128 logistics activities in, 129-130, 132 market share, 124 navigation technology, 141 - 142 package express carriers, 128, 132 price competition, 135-136 quality standards, 134- 135 safety management, 137-138, 142 scope of innovation, 124- 125 sleeper teams, 143-144 sources of innovation, 125, 126 structure, 127-128, 130 success factors, 151 telecommunications technology, 139-140, 148-149 trailer design, 144-145 transportation services firms, 130 truckload carriers, 127 411 unions, 136 vehicle design, 138, 143-144 worker skills, 137, 150- 151 U Unemployment, 1 Unions in apparel industry, 358 in steel industry, 97 trucking industry, 136 Universities, 2 in evolution of computing industry, 229-230 foreign investment in, 9 hard disk drive research, 312-314, 315-317, 324 historical development of chemicals industry, 33-35, 55 industry R&D collaborations, 7, 8 patenting and licensing, 8, 11-12, 391 pharmaceutical R&D, 364 public investment, 11-12 R&D spending, 7 semiconductor research, 274-275 steel industry R&D personnel, 88-89 steel industry research, 95 support for biotechnology development, 388-389, 394-395 technology transfer activities, 8 V Vertical competition, 234 Vertical integration computer industry, 225, 226, 234, 235, 238, 241 hard disk drive industry, 298-299, 301 W Worker skills apparel industry, 330 grocery retailing, 159- 160, 176 public policy issues, 12-13 requirements for information technology, 5 retail banking, 199 sources of innovation in steel industry, 97- 98 technology innovation outcomes, 206 trucking industry, 137, 150- 151