Review of the Mass Spectrometry and Bioremediation Programs of the Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center

Assessment of the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command

Standing Committee on Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command

Board on Army Science and Technology

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1998



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--> Review of the Mass Spectrometry and Bioremediation Programs of the Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center Assessment of the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command Standing Committee on Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command Board on Army Science and Technology Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998

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--> NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAM01-96-K-0002 between the U.S. Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06298-5 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 (202 334-3118 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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--> STANDING COMMITTEE ON PROGRAM AND TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE U.S. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE COMMAND FRANCIS G. DWYER (chair), Mobil Research and Development Corporation (retired), West Chester, Pennsylvania JEROME S. SCHULTZ (vice chair), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania KLAUS BIEMANN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HAROLD S. BLACKMAN, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls BARBARA G. CALLAHAN, Fluor Daniel GTI, Norwood, Massachusetts SANFORD S. LEFFINGWELL, HLM Consultants, Dacula, Georgia DEREK L. RANSLEY, Ransley & Associates, Lafayette, California LUDWIG REBENFELD, TRI Princeton, Princeton, New Jersey WILLIAM REIFENRATH, Stratacor, Inc., Richmond, California J. THROCK WATSON, Michigan State University, East Lansing Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison JOHN H. MOXLEY, IOM, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director, Board on Army Science and Technology EDWARD J. DOWNING, Study Director PAMELA A. LEWIS, Project Assistant U.S. Army Liaisons GEORGE E. FRIEL, U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland JAMES BAKER, U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

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--> BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WILLIAM H. FORSTER, chair, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland THOMAS L. MCNAUGHER, vice chair, RAND Corporation, Washington, D.C. GARY L. BORMAN, University of Wisconsin, Madison RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation, Charleston, West Virginia GILBERT S. DECKER, Consultant, Los Gatos, California LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, Delaney Group, Potomac, Maryland ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center (retired), Naperville, Illinois ELVIN R. HEIBERG, Heiberg Associates, Inc., Mason Neck, Virginia GERALD J. IAFRATE, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta JOHN H. MOXLEY, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Bell Communications Research, Inc., Morristown, New Jersey MILLARD F. ROSE, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama GEORGE T. SINGLEY III, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D. VENABLES, Venables and Associates, Towson, Maryland JOSEPH J. VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida ALLEN C. WARD, Ward Synthesis, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director MARGO L. FRANCESCO, Administrative Associate ALVERA V. WILSON, Financial Associate DEANNA SPARGER, Project Assistant

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--> Preface This report is the second of a two-phase response to a request from the technical director of the U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center (ERDEC) that the National Research Council (NRC) conduct technical assessments and reviews of programs in the command. The NRC was asked to conduct a technical assessment of the man-in-simulant test (MIST) program and a program review of the mass spectrometry and bioremediation programs. These programs represent a continuum of technologies designed to protect, detect, and dispose of the chemical and biological weapons soldiers may face in future combat. The first report, Technical Assessment of the Man-in-Simulant Test (MIST) Program was published in 1997. This second report focuses on the program review of the mass spectrometry and bioremediation programs. Members of the NRC Committee have a wide range of expertise in protective systems, toxicology, risk assessment, environmental and occupational health, simulation and modeling, textile science, human factors, organic chemistry, biochemistry, mass spectrometry, and chemical engineering. Of these, the members with special expertise relevant to reviewing the mass spectrometry and bioremediation programs were chosen to serve on the reviewing committee. Some of them have been with the committee since its formation and have benefited from the knowledge gained from the earlier study. The committee met twice, in October 1997 and February 1998, and interviewed members of both of the ERDEC groups, as well as senior managers of the ERDEC Research and Technology Directorate (RTD). In this report, the committee assesses the technical character of the programs and the processes used to achieve their goals. The assessment was complicated by some changes in personnel and a significant change in the ERDEC organizational structure between the first and second visits. Also, a new director of the RTD has since assumed his position and is in the

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--> process of establishing his style and making changes to the corporate culture. The chair and the committee wish to thank the NRC staff for its assistance and support. We are indebted to Bruce Braun, director, Board on Army Science and Technology; George Davatelis, study director until December 1997; Edward Downing, study director since December 1997; Jacqueline Campbell-Johnson and Pamela Lewis, senior project assistants for the respective study directors; Margo Francesco, staff associate; Alvera Wilson, financial associate; and Norman Haller, consultant. The work of the committee would not have been possible without these dedicated individuals. The committee also appreciates the comments of the various groups that agreed to be interviewed and the group of outside experts who graciously donated their time to review this report. The committee would like to express its special appreciation to committee member Dr. Clement Furlong of the University of Washington for his valuable contributions to the report up until his departure in early 1998. FRANCIS G. DWYER, CHAIR STANDING COMMITTEE ON PROGRAM AND TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE U.S. ARMY CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE COMMAND

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--> Acknowledgment This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the National Research Council in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Albert Venosa, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio Fred McLafferty, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Rob Staffan, Environgen, Inc., Lawrenceville, New Jersey George W. Parshall, DuPont Company, Wilmington, Delaware Anne Street, GEO-CENTERS, Rockville, Maryland Wayne Askew, University of Utah, Salt Lake City While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council.

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--> Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction   12     Background   12     Charge to the Committee   13     Differences between the Mass Spectrometry and Bioremediation Programs   14     Study Approach   15     Basis for the Review   15     Preview   19 2   Mass Spectrometry   20     Description   20     Technical Capabilities   22     Program Review   26     Opportunities for Reengineering   33     Stages of Maturity and Priority Indices   35     Conclusions and Recommendations   35 3   Bioremediation   38     Description   38     Technical Capabilities   38     Program Review   42     Opportunities for Reengineering   46     Stages of Maturity and Priority Indices   46     Conclusions and Recommendations   48

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--> 4   Management   50     General Context   50     Quality Management and Systems Thinking   51     Balancing Project Portfolios   51     Networking and Internal Sharing of Best Practices   52     Contractors and Technicians   52     Long-Term Basic Research   53     Conclusions and Recommendations   54     References   56     Appendices         A Assessment Model   59     B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   85

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--> Tables, Figures, and Boxes FIGURES 1-1   The ERDEC organization   15 2-1   Research and Technology Directorate of the ERDEC   21 TABLES ES-1   Categories and Characteristics of the Assessment Model   4 1-1   Differences in Business Approaches of the Mass Spectrometry and Bioremediation Programs   16 1-2   Categories and Characteristics of the Assessment Model   17 2-1   Programmatic Review of the Mass Spectrometry Group   34 3-1   Programmatic Review of the Bioremediation Group   47 A-1   Customer Focus Category   61 A-2   Resources and Capabilities Category   63 A-3   Strategic Vision Category   70 A-4   Value Creation Category   74 A-5   Quality Focus Category   77 BOX 1-1   Example of the Four Stages of Maturity   18

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--> Acronyms CB chemical and biological CBD chemical and biological defense CBW chemical and biological warfare CBDCOM Chemical and Biological Defense Command CSC CBDCOM Standing Committee on Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command CW chemical warfare CWA chemical warfare agent DETA diethylenetriamine DOD U.S. Department of Defense DS2 decontaminating solution 2 EGME ethylene glycol monomethyl ether ERDEC Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center ESI electrospray ionization ETT Environmental Technology Team MALDI matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MIST man-in-simulant test MS/MS mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (any device that records the product ion spectrum generated from a precursor ion) NRC National Research Council

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--> ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory RD&E research, development, and engineering RTD Research and Technology Directorate TOF time of flight VX a chemical warfare nerve agent