Index

A

Academic research, 5, 27, 28, 130, 145

Division of Statistics and, 33

Food and Agriculture Policy Research Institute, 108-109, 117-118, 119

historical perspectives, 33, 34-35, 63, 64, 117-118, 132

land grant colleges, 34, 38, 64, 65, 132

Extension Service, 10, 38, 47, 132, 143

publications of individual ERS researchers, 104, 112, 113, 123

Accounting and accountability, general, 4, 109, 110

see also Evaluation issues

Administration and administrators, 5-9, 10, 14, 16, 46, 56, 73-77, 87-88, 105, 106, 116-146

evaluation, general, 2, 3-5, 8, 91-115

evaluation instruments, 110

evaluation of staff, 110-114

farm management, 33, 34, 36, 40, 61

principles of, 125-132

task analysis and management, 56, 108, 111-112, 113, 114, 123

see also Organization factors;

Procurement

Agency for International Development, 50-51, 62, 65, 109

Agricultural Act, 71

Agricultural Adjustment Act, 43

Agricultural Adjustment Administration, 38, 41, 43

Agricultural Marketing Service, 40

Agricultural Outlook, 41, 95

Agricultural production, see Production indicators and controls

Agricultural Research Service, 6, 10, 21, 40, 131, 132, 143

Agricultural Resource Management Study, 140

Agricultural Resources and Environmental Indicators, 99

Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, 38

Agriculture and Food Act, 60-61

American Agricultural Economics Association, 83

American Economic Association, 35

American Farm Bureau Federation, 40

Animal health, 33

Antitrust, see Monopolies

Assistant Secretary for Economics, 11, 145

Auctions, 22-23, 26, 27-29, 112, 132

Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 118-119

B

Biotechnology, 20, 77-78, 80

intellectual property, 22

Budget, see Funding



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Index A Academic research, 5, 27, 28, 130, 145 Division of Statistics and, 33 Food and Agriculture Policy Research Institute, 108-109, 117-118, 119 historical perspectives, 33, 34-35, 63, 64, 117-118, 132 land grant colleges, 34, 38, 64, 65, 132 Extension Service, 10, 38, 47, 132, 143 publications of individual ERS researchers, 104, 112, 113, 123 Accounting and accountability, general, 4, 109, 110 see also Evaluation issues Administration and administrators, 5-9, 10, 14, 16, 46, 56, 73-77, 87-88, 105, 106, 116-146 evaluation, general, 2, 3-5, 8, 91-115 evaluation instruments, 110 evaluation of staff, 110-114 farm management, 33, 34, 36, 40, 61 principles of, 125-132 task analysis and management, 56, 108, 111-112, 113, 114, 123 see also Organization factors; Procurement Agency for International Development, 50-51, 62, 65, 109 Agricultural Act, 71 Agricultural Adjustment Act, 43 Agricultural Adjustment Administration, 38, 41, 43 Agricultural Marketing Service, 40 Agricultural Outlook, 41, 95 Agricultural production, see Production indicators and controls Agricultural Research Service, 6, 10, 21, 40, 131, 132, 143 Agricultural Resource Management Study, 140 Agricultural Resources and Environmental Indicators, 99 Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, 38 Agriculture and Food Act, 60-61 American Agricultural Economics Association, 83 American Economic Association, 35 American Farm Bureau Federation, 40 Animal health, 33 Antitrust, see Monopolies Assistant Secretary for Economics, 11, 145 Auctions, 22-23, 26, 27-29, 112, 132 Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 118-119 B Biotechnology, 20, 77-78, 80 intellectual property, 22 Budget, see Funding

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Budget and Program Analysis Office, 108 Bureau of Agricultural Economics, 1, 2, 13, 14-15, 16, 17, 30, 34-54 (passism), 66, 68, 81, 87, 89, 117-118, 142, 144 Bureau of Census, 18, 94, 140 Bureau of Crop Estimates, 33 Bureau of Labor/Bureau of Labor Statistics, 46 Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates, 33, 34 Bureau of Plant Industry, 33 Bureau of Statistics, 33 see also Bureau of Crop Estimates Bush administration, 63 C Carter administration, 56 Census Bureau, see Bureau of Census Climate change, see Global warming Colleges and universities, see Academic research; Educational attainment; Education and training Commodity Credit Corporation, 38, 59 Competition Competition in Contracting Act, 5, 125 monopolies, 18, 25, 26, 27-28 sole-source contract awards, 5-6, 125, 127, 128, 132 vertical/horizontal market integration, 78, 103 see also Global economy Competition in Contracting Act, 5, 125 Computational general equilibrium model, 112, 114 Confidentiality, 126-127 Congressional Budget Office, 108 Conversation, see Environmental protection; Natural resources Conservation Reserve Program, 3, 25, 102, 112 Contract procurement, see Procurement Cooperatives, 37 Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, 10, 38, 47, 132, 143 Cost and cost-benefit factors commodity price projections, 109 conservation tillage, 3 data collection, 4, 22 evaluation of services, 93, 100 food assistance, 100 GATT/WTO, 31 information dissemination, 20, 109 policy, general, 37 production and, 18 research, 4, 22, 106, 109, 126, 135 social experimentation, 30 staff evaluation, 109, 114 subsides, cost of production indicators, 55 transaction costs, 126 Council of Economic Advisers, 2 Credibility of research, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 30, 68, 107, 112, 121, 124-125, 132, 133-134, 136, 137, 139, 144, 145, 146 Crop data and estimates, 33, 36 D Data collection, 22-23 historical perspectives, 22, 32-69 mission statement of ERS, 107 see also Secondary data preparation and analysis Demand, see Supply and demand Department of Defense, 27, 120, 144 Department of Health and Human Services, 62, 120, 144 Department of Labor, 46, 120, 144 Department of State, 62 Department of the Interior, 62, 80 Depression and recession see also Economic cycles; Great Depression Developing countries, 52, 55, 58, 60, 100 Agency for International Development, 50-51, 62, 65, 109 food aid, 3, 47, 50, 62, 65, 100 Diet and nutrition, see Food safety; Food supply; Nutrition Division of Foreign Markets, 33, 47 Division of Land Economics, 53 Division of Market Trade and Economics, 100 Division of Statistics, 32-33 E Economic cycles, 51, 58-59, 70, 71 inflation, 51, 58-59, 70, 71 see also Great Depression Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector, 99 Economics, Statistics and Cooperatives Service, 46, 49, 56 Economists Position Classification System, 111, 113

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Educational attainment farmers, 36 researcher staff, 65-66, 67, 85 Education and training Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, 10, 38, 47, 132, 143 Division of Statistics, 33 historical perspectives, 33, 38 market forces, 92-93 staff, 3, 65-66, 67, 123 Eisenhower administration, 40 Electric power, 21 pricing, 25, 26, 27-29 Embargoes, 51-52, 55, 63 Employment issues, see Staffing and staff analysis Energy resources see also Electric power Environmental protection, 8, 20, 26, 73, 90, 102, 105, 135, 141 Conservation Reserve Program, 3, 25, 102, 112 electric power, pollution, 25 global warming, 73, 103, 132 historical perspectives, 47, 49, 52-53, 54, 60, 61, 62 market externalities, 19, 24-25 National Environmental Policy Act, 52 see also Natural resources Environmental Protection Agency, 62 Equity issues, 21, 24, 25, 105 Evaluation issues, 3, 9, 16 accounting and accountability, 4, 109, 110 client, 15, 92, 93, 106, 109, 110, 112 formal/informal, 109-110 instrument development and administration, 110 management framework, 2, 3-5, 8, 91-115 mission statements, 107 peer review, 7, 28, 111, 113, 123, 136, 137 program-level, 105-107, 120 publications of individual ERS researchers, 112, 113, 123 research, general, 2, 11, 14, 29, 31, 44, 91-115 (passism), 136-137 research credibility, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 30, 68, 107, 112, 121 , 124-125, 132, 133-134, 136, 137, 139, 144, 145, 146 research relevance, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 27, 29, 30, 51, 62, 63, 83, 106, 107, 109, 120, 122-123, 124, 130, 131, 133-134, 136, 137, 140, 143, 145, 146 research timeliness, 1-2, 4, 5, 9, 16, 30, 106, 107, 109, 121-122, 123, 126, 133-134 secondary data, 94, 95, 107, 134-136 task analysis and management, 56, 108, 111-112, 113, 114, 123 see also Procurement; Standards Exports and imports, see Foreign trade Externalities, 19, 24-25, 40 Extramural research, general, 2, 5, 7, 123, 130-131, 141-142, 145 see also Private sector; Procurement F Farm Business Economics, 99 Farmer Cooperative Service, 56 Farmer's Home Administration, 38 Farm income, 8, 21, 33, 34, 40, 41, 119, 135 historical perspectives, 33, 34, 40, 41, 52, 55, 59, 60, 117 subsidies, 43, 52, 55, 59, 60, 71, 93 see also Prices and price supports technological innovations, 78 Farm management, 33, 34, 36, 40, 61 Farm Security Act, 59, 60 Farm Security Administration, 38 Farm Service Agency, 38 Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act, 71-72 Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, 38, 65 Federal Energy Administration, 28 Federal government, not USDA, 5, 17, 29, 32, 117-118, 120 market intervention, general, 1, 13, 14, 24-25 mission statement of ERS, 107 policy analysis defined, 29 private sector services overlap, 93-94 see also Funding; Legislation; Procurement; specific departments and agencies Federally funded research and development centers, 5, 117, 120, 126 , 127, 129, 130 Federal Reserve Board, 58 Fiber products, 3 Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act, 61, 71 Food and Agricultural Act, 53, 55

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Food and Agriculture Policy Research Institute, 108-109, 117-118, 119 Food assistance programs, 3, 47, 50, 62, 65, 100 see also Food stamps Food safety, 8, 33, 47, 49, 62, 73, 90, 100, 101, 105 Food Security Act, 61 Food stamps, 47, 49-50, 53, 55, 62, 63, 72 Food supply, 3, 16, 60, 100-101, 105 global, 78 historical perspectives, 35, 54, 60 see also Food assistance programs; Food safety; Food stamps; Nutrition; Supply and demand Ford administration, 55 Foreign Agricultural Analysis Division, 47 Foreign Agricultural Service, 38, 47, 66 Foreign countries, see Developing countries; International perspectives; specific countries Foreign trade, 3, 70, 71, 100, 102, 119 commodity price projections, 108-109 Division of Foreign Markets, 33 dumping, 37 embargoes, 51-52, 55, 63 food standards harmonization, 101 Foreign Agricultural Service, 38, 47, 66 GATT/WTO, 26, 31, 50, 52, 55, 59, 72, 100, 105, 107 globalization, other than GATT/WTO, 13, 24, 33, 46, 51-52, 70, 72, 78, 79-80, 90, 105-106, 108 treaties, 79, 112, 114 historical perspectives, 33, 37, 41, 46, 47, 48-49, 50, 51-52, 55, 58, 59-60, 62, 66, 70 GATT, 31, 50, 52, 55, 59 NAFTA, 105, 107 secondary data preparation, 41, 95 tariffs, 3 treaties, other than GATT and NAFTA, 79, 112, 114 Forest Service, 22-23, 53, 72 Funding, 2, 3, 5, 18, 21, 74-76, 83-84, 102, 141 Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 118-119 budget deficits, 58 Department of Defense, 120 federally funded research and development centers, 5, 117, 120, 126 , 127, 129, 130 Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute, 119 food programs, other, 63 food stamps, 53, 55, 63, 72 historical perspectives, 50-51, 54, 56, 57, 60, 62, 64-68 interagency transfers, 50-51, 57, 64-65, 109, 143 outlays by category, 1962-1996, 54, 72-73 price projections and, 108 see also Procurement G General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization, 26, 31, 50, 52, 55, 59, 72, 100, 105, 107 Genetic engineering, see Biotechnology Global economy, 13, 24, 33, 46, 51-52, 70, 72, 78, 79-80, 90, 105-106, 108 GATT/WTO, 26, 31, 50, 52, 55, 59, 72, 100, 105, 107 NAFTA, 105, 107 treaties, other than GATT and NAFTA, 79, 112, 114 Global warming, 73, 103, 132 Government Performance and Results Act, 4, 15, 105, 110, 115 Great Depression, 33, 35, 42-43, 53, 59, 79, 80 New Deal, 37 Great Society, 47-48 H Health issues, see Biotechnology; Environmental protection; Food safety Historical perspectives, 2-3, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17-18, 30, 32-69, 71 -72, 117-118, 144 academic research, 33, 34-35, 63, 64, 117-118, 132 biotechnology, intellectual property, 22 committee methodology, 2 credibility of research, 7, 16, 30 education and training, 33, 38 environmental issues, 47, 49, 52-53, 54, 60, 61, 62 farm income, 33, 34, 40, 41, 52, 55, 59, 60, 117 food assistance programs, 47, 50, 62, 65 food safety, 33, 47, 49, 62

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food stamps, 47, 49-50, 53, 55, 62, 63, 72 food supply, 35, 54, 60 foreign trade, 33, 37, 41, 46, 47, 48-49, 50, 51-52, 55, 58, 59-60, 62, 66, 70 funding, 50-51, 54, 56, 57, 60, 62, 64-68 GATT, 31, 50, 52, 55, 59 information dissemination, 22, 33, 41, 44 nutrition, 35, 47, 49-50, 53, 54, 55, 60, 62 see also subheads beginning ''food" supra organizational factors, 32-34, 37-40, 45-46, 48-51, 56, 61-62 political factors, 32, 35-47 (passim), 51-53, 55, 60-64 prices and price supports, 33, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41, 43, 47, 51, 52-53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 132 production indicators and controls, 41, 43, 45, 53, 63, 71-72, 117 rural development, 37, 45, 47, 49, 50, 52, 61, 117 secondary data, 41, 46, 51, 55, 68 Situation and Outlook, 36, 46, 55, 61-62 staffing, 2, 41, 42, 46, 56, 58, 64, 66 educational attainment, 65-66, 67, 85 supply and demand, 52, 53, 56, 58-59, 60, 62 see also "food supply" supra see also Bureau of Agricultural Economics Hoover administration, 36 I Imports and exports, see Foreign trade Incentives, general, 3, 14, 26, 28, 56 sole-source awards, 5-6, 125, 127, 128, 132 staff, 111-112 taxes, 23(n.5) Income, 60 distribution of, government intervention, 21, 24, 25 equity issues, 21, 24, 25, 105 see also Farm income; Poverty Inflation, 51, 58-59, 70, 71 Information dissemination, 134-136, 139-142 evaluation criteria, 106, 108 historical perspectives, 22, 33, 41, 44 Internet, 21, 128 market forces, 8, 19-20, 24, 33, 41 publications, 2, 41, 73, 86, 95, 99, 104, 112, 123 see also Situation and Outlook public good, information as, 19, 22, 28 technological innovation, 23 see also Secondary data preparation and analysis Innovation, see Technological innovation Institutional factors, 24, 79, 83 historical perspectives, 24 see also Organizational factors; Political factors Intellectual property, 19, 20, 22 public good, information as, 19, 22, 28 Intermediate research, 7, 16, 81, 95, 112, 113, 136-137 International perspectives, 3, 118-119 food standards harmonization, 101 foreign ownership of U.S. farmland, 53, 61 see also Developing countries; Food assistance programs; Foreign trade; Treaties; specific countries Internet, 21, 128 Interstate Commerce Commission, 18 Intramural research, general, 5, 116, 118, 123, 129, 141-142, 145 see also Staffing and staff analysis J Johnson administration, 47-48, 50 K Kennedy administration, 44, 46, 47, 50 L Land grant colleges, 34, 38, 64, 65, 132 Extension Service, 10, 38, 47, 132, 143 Legislation, 5, 8, 17, 47, 52, 53, 55, 59, 60, 64, 71, 79, 107, 135 Agricultural Act, 71 Agricultural Adjustment Act, 43 Agricultural and Food Act, 60-61 Competition in Contracting Act, 5, 125 Farm Security Act, 59, 60 Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act, 71-72 Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act, 61, 71 Food and Agricultural Act, 53, 55

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Food Security Act, 61 Government Performance and Results Act, 4, 15, 105, 110, 115 historical patterns, 36, 43, 47, 52, 53, 55, 59, 60, 61, 71-72, 86 -87 National Environmental Policy Act, 52 National Recovery Act, 43 price forecast, 36, 52, 59 Livestock, 33 Long-term research, 4, 7, 8, 16, 41, 51, 81, 95, 112, 113, 136-137, 140 Low-income, see Developing countries; Poverty; Welfare M Marketing and market forces, 1, 13, 100, 117, 141 academic research, 28, 33, 34 education, postgraduate, 92-93 environmental issues, 19, 24-25 evaluation of services and, 92-93 externalities, 19, 24-25, 40 government intervention rationale, 1, 13, 14, 18-21, 36-37, 72 historical perspectives, 33, 34, 36-37, 45, 48-49, 55 information dissemination, 8, 19-20, 24, 33, 41 monopolies, 18, 25, 26, 27-28 research, market for, 3-4, 14, 25-26, 33, 34, 40, 45, 94, 125-126 see also Procurement sole-source contract awards, 5-6, 125, 127, 128, 132 vertical/horizontal market integration, 78, 103 see also Competition; Foreign trade; Global economy; Prices and price supports; Property rights; Supply and demand Mass media, 106 Internet, 21, 128 Monopolies, 18 electric power pricing, 25, 26, 27-28 N National Agricultural Statistical Service, 10, 11, 44, 81, 89, 140 , 143 National Environmental Policy Act, 52 National Institutes of Health, 6, 117, 131-132 National Recovery Act, 43 National Research Initiative, 6, 132 National Science Foundation, 6, 21, 117, 131 Natural Resource Conservation Service, see Soil Conservation Service/National Resource Conservation Service Natural resources, 3, 16, 54, 90 see also Environmental protection; Forest Service New Deal, 37-38, 40, 42-43 Nixon administration, 52-53, 55 North American Free Trade Agreement, 105, 107 Nutrition, 8, 73, 100, 105, 132 food safety, 8, 33, 47, 49, 62, 73, 90, 100, 101, 105 food stamps, 47, 49-50, 53, 55, 62, 63, 72 funding, 63 historical perspectives, 35, 47, 49-50, 53, 54, 55, 60, 62 see also Food supply O Office of Budget and Program Analysis, 108 Office of Chief Economist, 9, 10, 11, 88-89, 95, 143, 144, 145 Office of Farm Management and Farm Economics, 33-34, 36 Office of Management and Budget, 2, 67, 72-73, 74, 83, 108 Office of Personnel Management, 110-111, 113 Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation, 120 Organizational factors, 7, 9-11, 14, 15, 16, 77, 82-84, 87-89, 118 -119, 132-137, 141-146 culture of organization, 32, 82 evaluation framework, 106-107 historical perspectives, 32-34, 37-40, 45-46, 48-51, 56, 61-62 mission statements, 107 organizational charts, 39, 45, 76, 88-89 vertical/horizontal market integration, 78, 103 see also Administration and administrators; Political factors Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 51, 58

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P Patent Office, 22 Peer review, 7, 28, 111, 113, 123, 136, 137 Personnel, see Staffing and staff analysis Political factors, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 72, 73, 82-83, 84, 86-87, 119, 136 GATT/WTO, 26 government intervention in markets, 20 historical perspectives, 32, 35-47 (passim), 51-53, 55, 60-64 long-term research, 81 timeliness of research, 1-2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 16, 30, 106, 107, 109, 121 -122, 123, 126, 133-134 Poverty, 101 historical perspective, 34, 35, 47, 49 see also Developing countries; Food assistance programs; Food stamps; Welfare Prices and price supports, 8, 18, 27, 71, 78, 79, 101, 102, 103, 119, 135, 141 auctions, 22-23, 26, 27-29, 112, 132 commodity price projections, 108-109 cooperatives, 37 electric power, 25, 26, 27-29 equity issues, 21 ERS services, 4 historical perspectives, 33, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41, 43, 47, 51, 52-53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 132 monopolies, 18, 25, 26, 27-28 see also Auctions; Inflation; Subsidies Private sector, 4, 5, 15, 18, 25-26, 68, 79, 83, 85, 118, 119, 120 , 128-129, 145 evaluation process, 109, 114 government services overlap, 93-94 secondary data, 8, 83, 94, 119, 134-135, 140 see also Extramural research; Procurement; Property rights Procurement, general, 4, 5-6, 7, 8, 123, 126-128, 130-132, 143, 144 Competition in Contracting Act, 5, 125 sole-source awards, 5-6, 125, 126, 127, 128, 132 Production indicators and controls, 8, 71-72, 79, 80, 119, 132-133 historical perspectives, 41, 43, 45, 53, 63, 71-72, 117 see also Crop data and estimates Property rights, 1, 13, 20, 24, 25, 79 foreign ownership of U.S. farmland, 53, 61 intellectual property, 19, 20 Publications, 41, 73, 86, 95, 99, 104 Internet, 21, 128 staff of ERS, 104, 112, 113, 123 see also Secondary data preparation and analysis; Situation and Outlook Public goods, 19, 22, 28, 94 R Reagan administration, 56, 63, 65 Recession and depression, see Economic cycles Regional factors, 47, 49, 55, 119, 133 substate, 14 Relevance of research, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 27, 29, 30, 83, 106, 107, 109, 120, 122-123, 124, 130, 131, 133, 134, 136, 137 , 140, 143, 145, 146 historical perspectives, 51, 62, 63 Roosevelt administration, 37-38, 40, 42-43 Rural development, 21, 23(n.5), 80, 81, 90, 100-102, 105 electric power, 38, 102 historical perspectives, 37, 45, 47, 49, 50, 52, 61, 117 Rural Electrification Administration/Rural Utilities Service, 38 Rural Housing and Community Development Service, 38 S Secondary data preparation and analysis, 2, 8, 81, 90, 95, 134-136, 139-141, 142 costs of, 128-129 evaluation issues, 94, 95, 107, 134-136 foreign trade, 41, 95 historical perspectives, 41, 46, 51, 55, 68 mission statements, 107 private sector, 8, 83, 94, 119, 134-135, 140 public good, information as, 20, 94 see also Situation and Outlook Situation and Outlook, 2, 23, 55, 61, 77, 81, 95, 117, 121, 128, 134, 140 historical perspectives, 36, 46, 55, 61-62 Soil Conservation Service/Natural Resource Conservation Service, 37, 50-51, 53, 65, 66 Sole-source contract awards, 5-6, 125, 126, 127, 128, 132 Soviet Union, 51

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Staffing and staff analysis, 6, 8-9, 16, 73-75, 84-86, 95, 96-98, 104, 117, 119, 120, 122, 134, 141-142, 143, 144-145 administrator's role in staff evaluation, 110-114 budget cuts and, 74-77, 84 costs, 109, 114 educational attainment, 65-66, 67, 85 education and training, 3, 65-66, 67, 123 evaluation of staff, 110-114 Forest Service, 72 historical perspectives, 2, 41, 42, 46, 56, 58, 64, 66 requests received, January, 1997, 96-97 salaries, 85 social scientists in ERS, by grade and job series, 98 standards, 110-114, 120, 123-124 task analysis and management, 56, 108, 111-112, 113, 114, 123 time factors, 2, 4, 9, 109, 112, 140 see also Administration and administrators Standard of living, 23 Standards, 79, 123-124 data access, 84 Economists Position Classification System, 111, 113 international food standards harmonization, 101 management evaluation framework, 92, 101, 110-114 peer review, 7, 28, 111, 113, 123, 136, 137 research, 2, 4, 14, 29-30, 36, 61, 92, 101, 110-114, 120, 121, 123 -124 staff evaluation, 110-114, 120, 123-124 State-level actions, 31, 38, 133 Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, 10, 38, 47, 132, 143 Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, 38, 65 land grant colleges, 34, 38, 64, 65, 132 substate regions, 14 Statistical Reporting Service, 44, 56 Subsidies farm, 43, 52, 55, 59, 60, 71 services, 93 see also Prices and price supports Supply and demand, 8, 27, 60, 101 demand modeling, 26 global, 52, 53, 56, 58-59, 70 historical perspectives, 52, 53, 56, 58-59, 60, 62 research, 2, 35, 79, 94, 116 see also Food supply T Tariffs, 3 Task analysis and management, 56, 108, 111-112, 113, 114, 123 Taxes, 79, 112, 114 ethanol exemption, 103 incentives, 23(n.5) Technological innovation, 14, 23-24, 80, 102, 128 biotechnology, 20, 22, 77-78, 80 historical perspectives, 34, 65 Time factors research timeliness, 1-2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 16, 30, 106, 107, 109, 121-122, 123, 126, 133-134 staff analysis, 2, 4, 9, 109, 112, 140 see also Long-term research Trade, see Foreign trade Marketing and market forces Training, see Education and training Treaties, 79, 112, 114 GATT/WTO, 26, 31, 50, 52, 55, 59, 72, 100, 105, 107 NAFTA, 105, 107 Truman administration, 40 U Universities, see Academic research; Educational attainment; Education and training W Welfare, 47, 90, 101-102, 117, 141 see also Food stamps World Agricultural Outlook Board, 61, 95 World Trade Organization, see General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization