Index


Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), 153, 154

Accident

defined, 28

perception of injury as, 199

prevention, 21, 24, 28, 32-33

Accidental Death and Disability report, 18-19, 138, 159, 227, 261

Acute care, 9, 20, 29, 30, 129, 140, 150, 152, 165, 167, 240, 243

Administration for Children and Families, 206

Administration on Aging, 206

Adolescents.

See also Age

firearm-related injuries, 7-8, 132-133, 134

impulsivity, 26

violence prevention programs, 184, 191

worker safety, 225, 227

Advocacy, 36, 180, 185, 199-201

Age

and deaths from injuries, 41, 46-48, 49-50, 86

and emergency department visits, 51-52

and falls, 48, 52

and fire and burn injuries, 48, 52

and firearm injuries, 47, 52, 100

and homicides, 47

and hospitalizations, 50-51

minimum-age drinking laws, 47, 117-118, 123, 200

minimum for firearm purchase, 126, 127

and motor vehicle traffic-related injuries, 46-47, 52, 100

patterns of injury by, 49-52

and poisonings, 48, 52

and response to injury, 154

and risk-taking behavior, 100

and suffocations, 48, 52

and suicides, 47, 86

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), 9, 148, 167, 206

Agent of injury, 93.

See also Product safety

Airbags, 61, 75, 91, 208

Alcohol Incentive Grants, 208

Alcohol use, 26

Blood alcohol level laws, 35, 36, 103, 209

designated driver program, 198

excise taxes and, 94-95, 198

legal sanctions for, 91, 118, 122

minimum-age drinking laws, 47, 72, 117-118, 123, 200

and motor vehicle traffic-related deaths, 46-47

safe ride program, 198

server intervention programs, 92

socioeconomic environment and, 94, 95

and violence, 89, 95

All-terrain vehicles, 34, 215

American Academy for the Certification of Brain Injury Specialists , 184

American Academy of Pediatrics, 179, 196, 215

American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77

American Bar Association, 75

American Board of Medical Specialties, 145

American College of Surgeons, 76, 140, 141, 144, 148

Committee on Trauma, 77, 150

American Medical Association Committee on Medical Education, 145



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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment Index Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), 153, 154 Accident defined, 28 perception of injury as, 199 prevention, 21, 24, 28, 32-33 Accidental Death and Disability report, 18-19, 138, 159, 227, 261 Acute care, 9, 20, 29, 30, 129, 140, 150, 152, 165, 167, 240, 243 Administration for Children and Families, 206 Administration on Aging, 206 Adolescents. See also Age firearm-related injuries, 7-8, 132-133, 134 impulsivity, 26 violence prevention programs, 184, 191 worker safety, 225, 227 Advocacy, 36, 180, 185, 199-201 Age and deaths from injuries, 41, 46-48, 49-50, 86 and emergency department visits, 51-52 and falls, 48, 52 and fire and burn injuries, 48, 52 and firearm injuries, 47, 52, 100 and homicides, 47 and hospitalizations, 50-51 minimum-age drinking laws, 47, 117-118, 123, 200 minimum for firearm purchase, 126, 127 and motor vehicle traffic-related injuries, 46-47, 52, 100 patterns of injury by, 49-52 and poisonings, 48, 52 and response to injury, 154 and risk-taking behavior, 100 and suffocations, 48, 52 and suicides, 47, 86 Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), 9, 148, 167, 206 Agent of injury, 93. See also Product safety Airbags, 61, 75, 91, 208 Alcohol Incentive Grants, 208 Alcohol use, 26 Blood alcohol level laws, 35, 36, 103, 209 designated driver program, 198 excise taxes and, 94-95, 198 legal sanctions for, 91, 118, 122 minimum-age drinking laws, 47, 72, 117-118, 123, 200 and motor vehicle traffic-related deaths, 46-47 safe ride program, 198 server intervention programs, 92 socioeconomic environment and, 94, 95 and violence, 89, 95 All-terrain vehicles, 34, 215 American Academy for the Certification of Brain Injury Specialists , 184 American Academy of Pediatrics, 179, 196, 215 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77 American Bar Association, 75 American Board of Medical Specialties, 145 American College of Surgeons, 76, 140, 141, 144, 148 Committee on Trauma, 77, 150 American Medical Association Committee on Medical Education, 145

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment American National Standards Institute, 218 American Pediatric Surgical Association, 142 American Public Health Association, 31, 179, 194 American School Health Association, 179 American Society for Criminology, 130 American Trauma Society, 21 Anatomic Profile, 153 Antilock brakes, 123 Apoptosis, 99 ASCOT, 154 Assaultive injuries, 24, 29, 86, 88, 89 prevention, 8, 91, 92, 94, 132, 238 research, 89-90, 129 Auto insurance, 91, 163 Aviation safety, 95-96 Baby Safety Showers, 214 Basic Injury Program Development, 189 Behavioral adaptation to safety improvements, 100-101, 122, 215 Behavioral interventions, 32-33 incentives and deterrence, 91-92, 95 self-protection, 92 targeting high-risk groups, 92, 128, 133 Behavioral research, 6, 91, 99-101, 119-120, 128, 130, 208 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 67 Biases in data, 48 Bicycle helmets, 84-85, 87, 92, 102, 122, 189, 190, 198, 215, 241, 242 Biofidelic models, 98 Biological sciences, research in, 99, 128, 130 Biomechanics, 20, 32 interventions, 96, 179, 208 research, 6, 96-98, 99, 106, 119, 129, 130, 208, 211, 244, 245, 247 -248 Biomedical engineering, 185 Blood alcohol level (BAL) laws, 35, 36, 103, 209 Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, 127 Brain and spinal cord injury, 96-97, 99, 119, 122, 151, 155, 157, 158, 184, 187, 189, 228, 231, 241, 243, 245 Brain Injury Association (BIA), 184, 199 Buckle Up America!, 209 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, 126, 127, 207 Project LEAD, 125 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 207 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 66, 207, 221, 222 Bureau of Mines, 223 Bureau of the Census, 69 California, injury prevention plan, 187-188 California Wellness Foundation, 184 Canada motor vehicle safety, 123 trauma care, 142, 151 Carbon monoxide in cooking gas, 26, 87-88 Carnegie Corporation of New York, 232 Case-control studies, 6, 102, 103 Case-crossover studies, 102-103 Case mix, 152-154 Case studies defined, 103 firearm injuries, 124-135 misuse of, 103 motor vehicle injuries, 115-124 Cause of injury behavioral research, 101 biomechanics research, 96 E codes, 63-64, 65 economic costs by, 54 mortality rates by, 42-43, 47, 54, 132 patterns of injury by, 52 phases, 22, 29, 30 years of potential life lost by, 53, 54 Census of Agriculture, 69 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 53, 66, 72, 221 Center on Children and the Law, 75 Center to Prevent Handgun Violence, 197 n.3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 19, 103, 189 n.2, 223, 240 conferences, 31 injury control research centers, 2, 20, 24, 31, 227, 249 injury focus, 206, 239 leadership role, 12, 251, 261 surveillance systems, 67, 73, 125, 147 trauma care funding, 160 violence prevention, 236 Child protective services, 182 Child safety, 21 biomechanical research, 97, 98 child-resistant packaging, 84, 101, 215 cigarette lighter standards, 93, 215 evaluation of programs, 198 gun safe-storage laws, 127, 132 home visits for first-time mothers, 26, 84, 90, 92 playground safety, 85, 232, 241 seat restraints in motor vehicles, 91-92, 95, 119, 120, 179, 190 state and local initiatives, 182, 185, 191, 192, 193 surveillance systems, 68, 75 Children. See also Age agricultural injuries, 227 arrests for weapons offenses, 133

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment causes of death, 142 death review teams, 75, 184 firearm injuries, 124, 130, 134 mortality rates, 49, 84, 86, 124, 132 poisonings, 48, 83-84, 101 trauma care for, 142 Children's Bureau, 206, 230 Children's National Medical Center, 185 Children's Safety Network, 194, 197, 232 Cigarette lighters, child-resistant, 93, 215 Clinical research, 32, 130, 148, 226, 227, 229, 230 Coalition building, 185, 190, 192, 193, 198, 201 Cochrane Collaboration, 198 Coding issues, 29 cause of injury, 63-64, 65, 77 location of injury occurrence, 63-64 nature of injury, 62-63 recommendations, 3 training, 3, 64, 71 Cohort studies, 6, 102, 103 Committee on Injury Prevention and Control, charge to, 20, 30, 37 Community Integrated Service Systems (CISS), 231, 233 Computer models of injury, 98 Conferences, 31, 192, 251 Constituency building, 199-200 Consumer Product Safety Act, 21, 212, 216 Amendments of 1981, 213 Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) achievements, 215-217 hotline, 212 mission and focus, 206, 212 public education, 214-215 recommended role, 3-4, 11, 13, 16, 217, 247, 249, 252, 261 regulatory activities, 21, 126, 207, 213 research, 11, 93, 214, 216-217, 246, 247 resources and structure, 212-213 standards development, 207, 213-214 surveillance activities, 3-4, 13, 67, 70, 7, 79, 125, 213-214, 216 , 252, 261 training role, 249 Controversies advocacy by researchers, 36 boundaries of injury field, 25 federal priority-setting role, 35-36, 266-267 firearms-related, 131-132 motor vehicle safety, 121-123 paternalistic interventions, 34-35 Cooperative Compliance Program, 223 Cost-benefit analysis of preventive interventions, 33, 220, 222 Costs of injury. See also Years of potential life lost direct, 1 n.1, 18 n.1, 41 n.1, 55, 157, 158 economic, 41, 53, 54, 55, 56-57, 97, 154, 156-159 estimates, 1, 18, 41 n.1, 54 fatalities, 55 friction cost method, 56 human capital (cost-of-illness) method, 54-55, 56, 57 indirect, 1 n.1, 18 n.1, 41 n.1, 55, 56 occupational injuries, 48, 226 outcomes and, 157 quality of life, 53, 56, 57-58 revealed-preference method, 56 stated-preference method, 56 total lifetime, 55 trauma care, 9, 154, 156-159, 168 unreimbursed, 157 willingness-to-pay method, 56-57 worker productivity, 158 Counseling, injury prevention, 191, 196-197 Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), 32 Crash Outcome Data Evaluation Systems (CODES), 78 Criminal Justice Periodical Index, 105 Criminal justice system, violence prevention, 88-89 Criminology, 89, 130 Cutting and piercing injuries, 45, 49, 52 Data Elements for Emergency Department Systems (DEEDS), 77, 147 Databases, 105-106. See also Surveillance systems; individual databases and systems Death certificate data, 65, 78 Death review teams, 75, 184 Deaths. See Cause of injury; Mortality Demonstrating Your Program's Worth, 198 Department of Agriculture, 206 Department of Commerce, 206 Department of Defense, 206 Department of Education, 195, 206 Department of Energy, 206 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 8, 68, 69, 88, 90, 134, 148, 206, 239, 243, 253 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Division of Child and Maternal Health, 21 Department of Housing and Urban Development, 207, 239

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment Department of Justice, 4, 8, 71, 74, 126, 128, 134, 207, 235, 237, 238, 239 Department of Labor, 207, 217, 218, 221 Department of the Interior, 223 Department of the Treasury, 207 Department of Transportation, 207, 239 Department of Veterans Affairs, 207 Disability-adjusted life year (DALY), 57-58 Domestic Violence Offenders Gun Ban, 127 Driver education and licensing, 118, 119, 120, 123, 161 Driver/occupant safety, 21. See also Highway safety; Motor vehicle safety airbags and, 61, 75, 91, 123, 208 antilock brakes, 123 Blood alcohol level laws, 35, 36, 103, 209 center high-mounted brake lights, 93, 119 child safety restraints, 91-92, 95, 119, 120, 179, 190 crash testing, 98, 184 enforcement of mandatory requirements, 122, 123 grassroots organizations, 21, 120, 184 minimum-age drinking laws, 47, 72, 117-118, 123, 200 motorcycle helmet laws, 34, 78, 84-85, 92, 120, 122, 209 safety-belt use laws, 34-35, 78, 91-92, 95, 119, 120, 122, 123, 209 , 259 speed limit, national maximum, 46 n.3, 82, 120, 121, 123 zero-tolerance laws, 36 Drownings, 45, 48, 52, 76, 193 Drug Abuse Warning Network, 69 Drunk driving. See also Alcohol use injuries, 46-47, 91, 92, 94-95 E codes, 63-64, 70, 147, 187, 191 Ecologic study design, 103 Educating Professionals in Injury Control series, 196 Education and Research Centers (ERCs), 194, 196, 225, 227 Education Development Center (Newton, Mass.), 232 Education interventions, 3, 32. See also Training child safety seats, 179 firearm injuries, 134 focus of, 180 funding, 197 n.3, 241 helmet use, 85, 241 of legislators and political leaders, 199-200 occupational safety, 225, 226-227 research, 240 state and community initiatives, 179, 180, 185, 190, 191, 199, 200 techniques, 199 traffic safety, 85, 92 violence prevention, 85, 197 n.3 Elderly people. See also Age cause of injury deaths, 52, 245 trauma care for, 143, 168, 245 Emergency department (ED) visits, 41, 48-49, 51-52, 165 costs, 55 number, 1, 18 surveillance systems, 70, 71, 77-78, 147, 187, 209, 213 Emergency medical services. See also Trauma care systems cost containment, 166-167 curriculum development, 196 elderly, 143 funding, 182 helicopter medical transport, 158 infrastructure, 182 legislation, 142, 143, 144 levels of providers, 140 paramedic, 158 pediatric, 142 prehospital, 140, 152, 157, 158 research by, 119, 120 rural, 141-142 training, 145-146 Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMS-C) Program, 13, 142, 144, 160, 231, 233-234, 252 Emergency Medical Services Systems Act of 1973, 143, 144 Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act of 1985, 164 Emergency Nurses Association, 146 Emergency nursing, 146 Emotional sequelae, 27 Enforcement of mandatory requirements, 7, 122, 123, 126, 133, 134, 190, 220-221, 222 Environmental interventions, 26, 33, 84 Epidemiology, injury, 32 childhood, 142 literature, 105 research, 101-103, 128, 130, 211-212, 224 surveillance systems, 76, 77-78 EuroQol, 57 Evaluation of interventions, 3, 24, 60 behavioral research, 101 child safety, 233 factors considered, 90-91 funding for, 189, 233, 238, 242, 243, 252

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment guidelines for, 198, 209 methodological problems, 88, 151 motor vehicle safety, 5, 97, 120, 209 occupational safety, 226 outcome measures, 101, 150-152 process, 95 product, 93 studies, 87, 198 support for, 5, 106, 120, 197, 226, 243 surveillance systems for, 74-75 technical assistance for, 197 trauma systems, 9, 146-147, 148, 149, 150-152, 154-156, 168 violence prevention, 235, 237, 238 Falls age and, 52, 245 mortality rates, 45, 46, 48, 52, 245 nonfatal, 49 prevention, 94 research, 84, 85, 87, 245 years potential life lost, 53 Fatal intentional injury surveillance system, 72-74, 79 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), 4, 68, 72, 79, 117, 209 Federal Aviation Administration, 207 Federal Bureau of Investigation, 67, 72, 125 Federal Emergency Management Agency, 207 Federal Hazardous Substances Act, 212 n.6 Federal Highway Administration, 68, 118, 119, 207, 208 Federal Railroad Administration, 207, 211 Federal response. See also individual departments and agencies agencies involved in injury field, 11-12, 206-207 coordination and leadership role, 12-13, 251-253, 260-262 interagency collaboration, 12-13, 192, 251-253 priority-setting role, 35-36, 200 private-sector partnerships, 260 state infrastructure building, 10, 189, 191, 201 technical assistance to states, 10, 197, 201 training of injury prevention practitioners, 194-195, 197 trauma systems support, 8, 9, 147, 149, 159-161, 168 Federal Transit Administration, 207 Financing/funding construction, tied to highway safety, 36, 118, 123 education, 197 n.3 evaluation research, 189 federal sources, 8, 10, 18, 19, 103-105, 106, 119, 130, 148, 160, 189 infrastructure building, 10, 189, 201 patient care, 161-163 private-sector sources, 179, 184 research, 7, 8, 18, 19, 103-105, 106, 119, 104, 130, 148 state and community sources, 10, 179, 180, 181, 182-183, 188-190, 201 for training, 6, 103-105, 106, 196 trauma care systems, 9, 138, 143, 149, 159-163, 167, 168 violence prevention programs, 235 Fire and burn injuries, 45, 48, 52 mortality rates, 259 prevention, 61, 75, 84, 87, 93, 217, 226-227, 228-229 research accomplishments, 84, 85, 87, 228-229 surveillance data, 75, 189 Fire Prevention Week, 185 Fire safety, 182, 185 Firearm Owner Protection Act, 127 Firearm-related injuries, 89 access issue, 7, 132, 133 age and, 47, 52, 100, 124 child and adolescent vulnerability, 7-8, 132-133, 134 controversies, 131-132 enforcement of regulations, 133 federal role, 7, 130, 134-135 gender and, 47 homicides, 45, 47, 48, 73 individual freedom issue, 7, 131 instrumentality issue, 131 measures of exposure, 129 mortality rates, 7, 45, 46, 47, 48, 52, 103, 115, 124, 132 prevention, 2, 7-8, 24, 86, 89, 126-128, 130, 132-134 recommendations, 7, 8, 131, 134 research, 7, 128-130, 134, 243, 247 state and local programs, 130 suicides, 8, 45, 47, 48, 73, 86 surveillance systems, 7, 71, 73, 125-126, 128, 134, 187, 241 treatment, 129 trends, 46, 124 unintentional, 8, 124, 125, 129, 132 Firearms design interventions, 129, 133 illegal commerce, 128, 132 number in circulation, 7, 132 regulation and legislation, 7, 126-128, 132, 134 safety and performance standards, 126

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment First National Conference on Injury Control, 31 Flammability standards, 87, 93 Flammable Fabrics Act, 212 Functional Independence Measure, 155 Future of Public Health report, 199 Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association, 185 Gender and deaths from injuries, 49-50 and emergency department visits, 51-52 and firearm-related suicides, 47 and hospitalizations, 50-51, 52 and occupational injuries, 53 patterns of injury by, 49-52, 53 and poisonings, 48, 52 General Accounting Office, 214, 216, 220 General Health Status Measure Short Form-36, 155 Glasgow Coma Scale, 151, 153 Government Performance and Results Act, 218-219 Governor's Highway Safety Program, 120, 189 Grassroots organizations, 180, 200, 214. See also individual organizations Gun Control Act, 127 Guns. See Firearm-related injuries Haddon matrix, 22, 23, 29, 33, 117 Handgun access laws, 35 Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program, 85-86 Harlem Hospital Pediatric Trauma Registry, 85 Head injury, 97, 153, 155, 158, 241. See also Brain and spinal cord injury Head Injury Criterion (HIC), 97 Helicopter medical transport, 158 Health Care Cost and Utilization Project, 65, 69 Health Care Financing Administration, 68 Health insurance, private, 162, 163, 164, 165 Health-related quality of life measures, 154-155, 156 Health Resources and Services Administration, 9, 13, 77, 120, 160, 167, 185, 189, 206, 230, 234, 247 n.17, 252, 261 Health Services, Preventive Health Services, and Home and Community-Based Services Act, 144 Health-state classification system, 57 Health status measures, 154-155, 156 Health Utilities Index, 57 Healthy People 2000 goals, 200 High-risk groups, targeting interventions to, 92, 100, 133 Highway Loss Data Institute, 184 Highway safety construction funding tied to, 36, 118, 123 engineered safety features, 94, 118 legislation, 21, 118, 120, 144, 145, 179 strategic planning, 187 Highway Safety Act, 21, 118, 120, 144, 145, 159, 208, 209 Homicide Research Working Group, 130 Homicides, 24 age and, 47, 124 domestic violence, 128 firearm-related, 45, 47, 48, 73, 128, 132 race/ethnicity and, 50 rates, 45, 46, 88 socioeconomic environment and, 94 surveillance systems, 4, 72, 73, 74, 125 workplace, 53, 227 Hospitalizations, 1, 18, 41, 48, 49 costs of, 55 lengths of stay, 150, 154, 158, 165-166 number of, 143 patterns of injury, 50-51, 52 readmissions, 77 surveillance systems, 65, 66, 75-76, 77-78 transfers, 166 IDEA program, 211 Indian Health Service, 68, 194, 195, 206 Industrial safety, 21 Information systems. See Surveillance systems; specific networks and databases Injury and Violence Prevention Program, 231 Injury control. See also Injury field defined, 29-30 Injury Control Research Centers, 2, 6, 19-20, 24, 31, 103, 148, 195 , 196, 240-241, 243, 244-245 Injury Control Act of 1990, 12, 239-240, 251 Injury Control report, 2, 20, 30, 104, 195, 248 Injury field accomplishments, 13-14, 258-259 adjacent fields, 32 barriers to growth, 30, 194 boundaries, 2-3, 23-24, 25, 27 challenges, 15, 32, 198-199, 259 coordination and collaboration in, 2, 6, 31-32, 79, 89, 130, 150, 223, 239, 259, 260-262 core disciplines, 30 databases, 105-106 development of, 2, 30-36

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment integration of methods and perspectives, 2, 259, 264-265 investment priorities, 2-3 mission, 2-3, 23-27, 30, 33, 264-265 organization of report, 36-37 origins, 20-22, 284-295 policy making, informed, 266-268 public health perspective, 22, 23, 33, 260 public support for, 259, 265-266 scientific communication, 265 study background, 18-20 timeline, 284-295 vocabulary, 28-30 Injury in America report, 2, 12, 13, 19, 23, 24, 30, 104, 194, 239 , 244, 248, 250, 251, 262 Injury Prevention report, 198 Injury science, 21, 22, 26, 32, 266-267 Injury Severity Score (ISS), 153 Institute of Medicine, 1, 2, 19, 20, 227 Institutional National Research Service Awards, 238 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 120, 184 Intelligent transportation systems, 211 Intentional injuries, 23-24. See also Homicides; Suicides defined, 28-29 integration with unintentional injuries, 2, 25-26 prevention, 86-90 research on, 24 Interagency Working Group on Violence Research, 239 International Classification for External Causes of Injuries (ICECI) , 64 International Classification of Diseases (ICD), 3, 28-29, 62-64, 70, 79, 153 International Collaborative Effort for Injury Statistics (ICE), 63 Internet, 105-106 Interventions. See also Evaluation of interventions agent, 93 behavioral, 91-92 categories of, 90 biomechanical, 96 development process, 5, 82 effectiveness of, 86, 191 environmental, 94 and health care costs, 163 implementation of programs, 9, 178-180 incentive grants, 242 intentional injuries, 86-95 opportunities for, 22 paternalistic, 33, 34-35 peer training, 92 prevention, 21, 82, 85-86, 90-95 research, 90-95 socioeconomic, 94-95 unintentional injuries, 83-86 John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 1, 20 Johns Hopkins University, 31, 244 Center for Injury Research and Policy, 194 Journal of Emergency Medical Services, 149 Journals, 31, 149 ''Kids Plate" vehicle license tags, 190 Law Enforcement Agency Data, 125 Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 67 Lawnmower performance standards, 215 Learn Not to Burn curriculum, 185 Legislation. See also individual statutes highway safety, 21, 118, 120, 144, 145, 179 trauma care, 139-140, 143, 144, 145, 149, 159-161 Lifesavers Conference, 192 Lobbying, 200 Location of injury occurrence, 63-64 Magnitude of injury cost, 53-58 morbidity, 48-49 mortality rates, 44-48 patterns, 49-53 Maine 2000 program, 221 Major Trauma Outcome Study, 151 Managed care, 150, 162, 163, 164-167, 168, 191 Maternal and Child Health Bureau accomplishments, 142, 185, 234 Block Grant Program, 189, 231 Community Integrated Service Systems, 231, 233 Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMS-C) Program, 142, 144, 160, 231, 233-234 grants and contracts, 232-234 health performance measures, 191 mission and focus, 206, 230-231 recommended role, 10, 196, 249 resources and structure, 231-232 Special Projects of Regional and National Significance, 231, 232-233 technical assistance, 194 training initiatives, 10, 195, 196, 231, 232, 233, 249

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment Traumatic Brain Injury Program, 231 violence prevention program, 90, 194, 195, 231 Medical Examiner and Coroner Alert Project, 213 Medical examiner and coroner data, 4, 5, 48, 73, 75, 77, 78, 209 Medical Examiner and Coroner Information Sharing Program, 73, 74 Medical informatics, 105 Medicaid, 162, 164, 165, 166 Medicare, 162, 164 Mental health, 27, 86, 130 Metropolitan Life Foundation, 197 n.3 Minimum-age drinking laws, 47, 72 Model Trauma Care System Plan, 143, 144, 161 Molecular biology, 32 Monitoring the Future Study, 69 Morbidity, injury-related coding, 62, 63 costs of, 18 measures of, 152, 154 by nature of injury, 49, 62, 63 overall burden of, 48-49 Mortality, 18. See also Deaths; Years of potential life lost age-related, 41, 42-43, 46-47, 49-50, 84 aviation-related, 96 by cause of death, 42-43, 47, 54 coding of data, 62-63 consumer product-related, 212 firearm-related injuries, 7, 45, 46, 47, 48, 52, 103, 115, 124, 132 , 259 gender and, 49-50 by manner of death, 45-46, 86 motor vehicle-related, 7, 45, 46, 48, 50, 52, 94, 95, 115-116, 121 , 123, 141, 259 number, 1, 18, 41, 44-45, 83 occupational injuries, 48, 52, 226, 259 race/ethnicity and, 49-50 sex ratios, 50 socioeconomic environment and, 94 surveillance systems, 65, 66, 67, 72-74 trends, 5, 46-48 Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), 21, 120, 184, 199 Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act, 205 Motor vehicle and traffic-related injuries. See also Driver/occupant safety age and, 46-47, 52, 100 alcohol-related, 46-47, 91, 92, 94-95 cellular telephones and, 103 controversies, 121-123 evaluation of interventions, 87, 97, 120, 209 hospital lengths of stay, 166 mortality rates, 7, 45, 46, 48, 50, 52, 94, 95, 115-116, 121, 123, 141, 179, 259 nonfatal, 49 number, 24 occupational, 52-53 perceptions of risk and, 100-101, 122 prevention, 6, 7, 84, 85-86, 87, 91-92, 93, 94-95, 99-100, 116-120 , 191 public support for safety, 120 race/ethnicity and, 50 regulation and legislation, 118-119 research, 6, 83, 84, 99-100, 119-120, 123, 208, 243, 247 socioeconomic conditions and, 94 speed limit and, 46 n.3, 82, 119 state and local programs, 120, 209 surveillance data, 4, 65, 68, 71, 72, 78, 117-118 trends, 46 Motor vehicle safety design mismatches, 123 inspections, 119 literature, 105 organizations, 184 research, 208 standards, 21, 118, 205 Motorcycle headlights, 121 helmet laws, 34, 78, 84-85, 92, 120, 122, 209 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), 63, 65, 66 National Association of EMS Physicians, 146 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS), 68, 69, 72, 117, 209 National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , 206 National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), 4, 73, 206 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 4, 62, 65, 66, 67, 125 National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) accomplishments, 243-247, 250 Basic Injury Program Development, 250 cooperative agreements, 240, 241-242, 249-250 educational activities, 240, 241, 243 evaluation research, 120, 197-198, 242, 243, 252 extramural research, 243-244, 245, 247

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment Injury Control Research Centers, 2, 6, 19-20, 24, 31, 103, 148, 195 , 196, 240-241, 243, 244-245, 249 mission and focus, 206, 240 nurturing role, 12, 250-251 origins, 239-240 priority areas for research, 12, 242, 245-248, 268 recommended role, 4, 6, 9, 10, 12-13, 16, 104-105, 167, 190, 196, 245-249, 250-251, 252, 261-262 research grants, 240-241, 243-247 resources and structure, 240 state and community infrastructure building, 12, 128, 181, 188, 189 , 190, 241, 242, 249-250, 251 suicide prevention, 246, 252, 262 surveillance activities, 4, 13, 70, 71, 147, 148, 240, 241, 242, 243, 245, 249, 252 technical assistance, 10, 12, 188, 197, 241, 249 training activities, 6, 10, 12, 104-105, 195, 196, 240, 241, 243, 244, 248-249, 262 trauma systems research, 9, 77, 120, 147, 148, 167, 247 n.17 violence prevention, 90, 128, 195, 236, 238, 246, 247-248, 252 National Center for Maternal and Child Health, 232 National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, 206, 228 National Center for Statistics and Analysis, 209 National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), 68 National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety, 197 National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, 63 National Consortium on Violence Research, 128, 130, 239 National Council on Accident Prevention, 19 National Crime Victimization Survey, 66, 72, 88, 125 National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 105 National Directory of Injury Prevention Professionals, 31 National Drive Safely@Work Week, 209 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), 3-4, 67, 70, 71, 79, 125, 213-214, 216, 261 National Farm Medicine Center, 227 National Fire Administration, 69 National Fire Code, 185 National Fire Incident Reporting System, 69 National Fire Protection Association, 185 National Firearms Act, 127 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 63, 65, 66, 70 National Highway Safety Act of 1995, 36 National Highway Safety Bureau, 21, 118, 205 National Highway System Designation Act of 1995, 121 n.1 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) achievements, 47, 209-212 child safety initiatives, 12, 185, 233, 252 collaborative programs, 192 mission and focus, 21, 118, 205, 207 recommended role, 6, 10, 13, 16, 104, 196, 212, 249, 252, 261, 262 regulatory activities, 205, 207 research, 6, 21, 105, 119, 130, 198, 208, 212, 247 resources and structure, 207-208 Safe Communities program, 193 Special Crash Investigation (SCI) program, 61 Section 402 grants, 189, 208 surveillance systems, 4, 32, 69, 71, 73, 78, 209, 212 training activities, 6, 10, 194, 196, 212, 249, 262 trauma systems development, 13, 142, 145, 147, 148, 160, 188 workshops, 194 National Highway Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, 118 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), 63, 65 National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), 65, 66, 157 National Incident-Based Reporting System, 67 National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect, 68 National Injury and Violence Prevention Resource Center, 194, 197 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) accomplishments, 219, 225-226 educational activities, 198, 225, 226-227 mission and focus, 206, 218, 223, 261 motor vehicle safety research, 120 recommended role, 6, 10, 11, 16, 196, 226-227, 249, 252, 261 research priority setting, 11, 224, 225-226, 268 resources and structure, 223-224, 240 surveillance activities, 67, 223-224, 226 technical assistance, 197

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment training grants, 6, 10, 103-104, 194, 196, 224-225, 249, 262 violence prevention, 128, 227 National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases , 206 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 142, 206 , 215, 228 National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 11, 16, 206, 228-230 , 261 National Institute of Justice (NIJ) accomplishments, 237-238 evaluation of programs, 237, 238 mission and focus, 207, 235 recommended role, 4, 11, 16, 73, 238-239, 252, 261-262 research, 235, 236-237, 238, 246 resources and structure, 235-236 technical assistance, 236 training activities, 11, 235, 237, 238 surveillance system, 4, 73, 74, 125 National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers, 235 National Institute of Mental Health, 90, 128, 206, 246, 252, 262 National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 206, 228 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 206 National Institute on Aging, 119, 206 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 90, 119-120, 206 National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, 142, 147, 206 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 69, 90, 206 National Institute on Trauma, 19 National Institutes of Health accomplishments, 229-230 center-based research, 244 grant process, 240, 242 institutional training grants, 238 mission and focus, 206, 227 recommended role, 11, 19, 227, 230, 261, 263, 267-268 resources, 228 trauma research, 11, 148, 226, 227, 230 training, 11, 104, 228-229, 230, 262 violence prevention, 238 National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE database, 105 National Mortality Followback Survey, 66 National Occupant Protection Use Survey, 69 National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA), 11, 224, 225-226, 247 , 268 National Pediatric Trauma Registry, 142 National Personal Transportation Survey, 68 National Program for Playground Safety, 197 National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians, 145 National Research Council, 145 Transportation Research Board, 211 National SAFE KIDS campaign, 179, 185, 190, 193, 199 National Safety Council, 21, 185 National Science Foundation, 128, 207, 239 National Suicide Prevention Conference, 88 National Technical Information Service, 105 National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, 205 National Transportation Safety Board, 207 National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), 76, 147 National Traumatic Occupational Fatality Surveillance System, 67, 72 National Vital Statistics System, 65, 67, 117 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, 68 Nature of injury coding, 62-63 morbidity trends, 49 surveillance systems, 64 Network of Employers for Traffic Safety, 209 New Injury Severity Score, 153 9-1-1 systems, 138, 140, 149, 165 Nonprofit organizations, 180, 184-185, 199-200. See also individual organizations Northern Manhattan Injury Surveillance System, 85, 86 Occupational injuries costs, 48, 226 high-risk occupations, 53 mortality rates, 48, 52, 226, 259 patterns of, 52-53 prevention, 91 research, 103-104 surveillance systems, 4, 60, 64, 66, 71, 72 Occupational Safety and Health Act, 21, 217-218, 219, 221, 223, 261 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). See also National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health accomplishments, 222-223 enforcement activities, 220-221, 222 mission and focus, 21, 207, 218, 261 outcome studies of regulation, 222-223 reforms, 218-219, 223 regulatory activities, 218, 219-220, 222 research priority setting, 226 resources and structure, 217-218, 219 state programs, 182, 218 surveillance activities, 218, 221-222 technical assistance from, 219 training activities, 222

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment Office of Justice Programs, 90, 128, 130, 207, 234-235. See also National Institute of Justice Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 195, 207 Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, 195 Office of Technology Assessment, 220 Omnibus Crime Control Act of 1968, 235 Osteoarthritis, 99, 245 Outcomes and costs, 157 managed care and, 165, 166 measures of effectiveness, 101, 149, 154-156 modeling, 154 nonfatal, measures of, 154-156 of occupational safety regulation, 222 prediction of, 152-154 surveillance systems, 76 trauma systems, 149, 150-156, 161, 165, 166, 261 Passive protection, 33, 121-122 Pathophysiology, 6, 99 Patient care, financing, 161-163 Patient-oriented measures of health status, 155 Patient risk factors, 156 Patterns of injury by age, 49-52 by cause, 52 by gender, 49-52 occupational, 52-53 by race/ethnicity, 49-52 Pew Charitable Trust, 196 Physical environments, engineered safety features, 94 Playground safety, 85, 232, 241 Poison control centers, 21, 78, 84, 183, 193 Poisoning Prevention Packaging Act of 1970, 84, 212 n.6 Poisonings age and, 48, 52 gender and, 52 mortality rates, 45, 46, 48, 84 nonfatal, 49 research, 84, 85, 245 surveillance systems, 76, 84 Police reports, 4, 65, 73, 78, 187, 209 Prevention of injury. See also Interventions; Research on prevention accident prevention distinguished from, 24 Accidental Death and Disability recommendations, 18 barriers to, 104 core program elements, 181 cost-benefit analysis, 33 defined, 29, 30 federal role in, 35-36 firearm-related, 2, 7-8, 24, 86, 89, 126-128, 130, 132-134 integration into existing programs, 191 intentional injury, 25-26, 86-90 literature, 105-106 managed care and, 165 model programs, 85-86 pediatric programs, 142 public health role, 23 social action, 21, 26 state programs, 21 trauma systems role, 146-147 treatment linked to, 31-32, 146-147 Privacy and confidentiality issues, 76, 78, 187 Private-sector organizations, 179, 180, 260 Product safety. See also Consumer Product Safety Commission corporate role, 180, 214 deaths, 212 design interventions, 26, 93 regulations and legislation, 34, 212 n.6 research, 214, 216-217 surveillance systems, 3, 67, 70, 213-214, 216 Professional organizations, 179, 180, 186, 265. See also individual organizations Psychological trauma, 27 Public awareness, raising, 178, 180, 198-199, 201, 259 Public education. See Education interventions Public health departments funding of injury prevention, 7, 104, 183 perspective on injury prevention, 22, 23, 24, 33, 260 program placement, 181 state infrastructure strengthening, 181-191 on violence prevention, 26, 89 Public support for motor vehicle safety, 120, 122, 133 for firearm safety, 133-134 nurturing, in injury field, 259, 265-266 Qualitative research, 101 Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), 57 Quality of life costs of injury, 53, 56, 57-58 measures of, 57, 154 and suicide, 86 Quality of Well-Being Scale, 57, 155 Race and ethnicity and deaths from injuries, 50

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment and emergency department visits, 51-52 and hospitalizations, 50-51 patterns of injury by, 49-52 Rand Health Insurance Measures for Child Health Status, 155 Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 6, 102, 103 Recommendations of Accidental Death and Disability, 18-19 coding, 3, 15, 64 fatal intentional injury surveillance system, 4-5, 15, 73-74 federal role, 6, 10, 11-12, 16, 104, 196, 212, 217, 226-227, 230, 238, 245-249, 250 firearm-related injuries, 7, 8, 15, 131, 134 of Injury Control, 104, 195 of Injury in America, 12, 19-20, 104, 251 occupational injuries, 11, 16, 226-227 outcomes research, 9, 15, 161, 167 research on prevention, 6-7, 15, 98, 99, 101, 103, 104-105, 212, 217, 226-227, 247-248 state infrastructure building, 10, 16, 190, 196, 250 summary of, 15-16 surveillance systems, 3, 4-5, 15, 64, 71-72, 73-74, 212 technical assistance, 10 training, 3, 10, 15, 16, 64, 104-105, 196, 212, 230, 238 trauma care systems, 8-9, 15, 161, 167, 230 violence prevention, 11, 12, 16, 238, 248 Recreational activities, injury prevention, 85-86, 106, 244, 245-246 , 247-248, 264 Refrigerator Safety Act, 212 n.5 Regulation child-resistant packaging, 93 cost-benefit balancing, 222 firearm safety, 7, 126-128, 132, 134 flammability standards, 87, 93 motor vehicle safety, 118-119 occupational health and safety, 218, 219-220, 222 paternalism controversy, 33, 34-35 water heater temperatures, 87 Rehabilitation, 9, 29, 30, 140, 150, 152, 155, 157, 158, 161, 165, 167, 184, 228, 240, 243 Remediation of injuries, 23 Remove Intoxicated Drivers (RID), 21, 120 Research on prevention. See also Evaluation of interventions; individual disciplines Accidental Death and Disability recommendations, 18 accomplishments, 5, 82, 83-95 animal experiments, 97, 98 on assaultive injuries, 24, 129 behavioral, 91-92 bias, 36, 102 cadaver use, 97, 98 capacity building, 2, 259, 262-264 centers, 2, 6, 19-20, 103, 148, 195, 240-241, 243, 244-245 challenges in, 6, 83, 88, 93, 95, 97 childhood injury, 142 collaborative approach, 238-239 communicating results, 105-106, 198, 201, 265 cost-effectiveness, 104, 159 extramural, 6, 104, 148, 208, 211, 212, 223, 226, 228, 230, 235, 236, 238, 240, 243-244, 245, 263 federal funding, 8, 14, 18, 19, 103-105, 106, 130, 148, 208, 210-212 , 240, 243 firearm injuries, 7, 128-130, 134, 243, 247 Injury in America recommendations, 19-20 investigator-initiated, 104, 142, 208, 211, 224, 226, 228, 236, 240 , 243, 245, 247, 262-263 motor vehicle safety, 6, 21, 83, 84, 99-100, 119-120, 123, 208, 210 -212, 243, 247 multidisciplinary nature of, 5, 7, 95-103, 119, 129-130, 134, 198, 224-225, 230 occupational safety and health, 223-226 opportunities, 95-106, 123 organization of researchers, 106 peer review of, 6, 104, 105, 211, 224, 228, 236, 240, 244 priority setting, 224, 225-226, 242, 245-248, 262, 267-268 product safety, 214, 216-217 qualitative, 101 recommendations, 6, 7, 14, 98, 99, 101, 103, 104-105, 212, 226, 230 , 247-248 rehabilitation, 228 state and community sponsorship of, 180, 185 training for, 6, 103-105, 106, 212, 230, 238, 243, 262 trauma care, 8, 9, 19, 119, 120, 129, 148, 149, 150-156, 159, 168, 224, 226, 227, 230, 245, 247 n.17 validation, 98 violence prevention, 235, 236-237, 238, 239 Residential injury prevention, 21, 244, 245-246, 247-248, 264

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment Resource libraries, 198 Revised Trauma Score (RTS), 153, 154 Risk analysis, 34, 85 factors, patient, 156 perception, 100-101, 122, 215 regulation, 34 significant, 220 Risk-taking behavior, 34 age and, 100 identification of, 101-102 monitoring, 67 perception of risk and, 6, 100-101, 122, 215 response to safety improvements, 100-101, 122, 215 research on, 120, 243 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 1, 20 Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (England), 21 Safe America Conference, 31 Safe Communities program, 193, 209 Safety-belt use laws, 34-35, 78, 91-92, 120, 122, 123, 209 Safety innovation, 23 Scaling multiple injuries, 151, 152-154 Self-inflicted injuries, 29. See also Suicides Self-protection, 92, 122 Severity Index, 97 Sheppard-Towner Act of 1922, 231 Sickness Impact Profile, 155 SIDS Alliance, 215 Skylights, 60 Smoke detectors/alarms, 61, 84, 87, 91, 189, 242 Snell Memorial Foundation, 185 Social Security Act, Title V, 231 Society of Automotive Engineers databases, 105 Society of Trauma Nurses, 146 Socioeconomic environments, 94-95 Space heaters, unvented, 215 Special Crash Investigation (SCI) program, 61 Special Projects of Regional and National Significance, 231, 232-233 Speed limit, national maximum, 46 n.3, 82, 120, 121, 123 Sport-utility vehicles, 123 Sports injuries, 87, 185 State and Community-Based Injury Control Programs, 242 n.15 State and Community Formula Grant Program, 208 State and Community Highway Safety Grant Program, 120 State and Territorial Injury Prevention Directors' Association (STIPDA) , 10, 77, 181, 188, 190, 196 State and community response advocacy, 180, 185, 199-201 agencies and organizations, 180, 182-183 barriers to, 9-10, 186, 194 coalition building, 185, 190, 192, 193, 201 collaboration, 191-193, 201 educational, 179, 180, 185, 190, 192, 197 n.3, 199, 200, 201, 225 evaluation of programs, 197-198, 209 federal role, 10, 189, 191, 192, 194, 197, 200, 201, 241 firearm regulation, 127-128, 130 funding for programs, 10, 179, 180, 181, 182-183, 184, 186, 188-190 , 196, 198, 201, 209, 232-234, 241, 242 grassroots organizations, 180, 193, 200 implementation of programs, 9, 178-180, 197 injury prevention programs, 21, 118, 120, 130, 181, 187-188, 191, 192, 209, 241 motor vehicle accident related programs, 120, 209 nonprofit organizations, 180, 184-185, 199-200 occupational safety and health programs, 218 private-sector organizations, 179, 180, 185 professional organizations, 179, 180, 186 public awareness, raising, 178, 180, 198-199, 201 public health infrastructure, 181-191, 242, 249-250, 264 recommendations, 10, 190, 196 research sponsorship, 180, 185, 198, 209 strategic planning, 10, 187-188 surveillance systems, 3, 61, 74-78, 85, 117, 125, 128, 147, 187, 189 technical assistance, 10, 179, 187, 188, 190, 194, 197, 201, 209, 241 training, 10, 179, 185, 191, 194-197, 201 trauma systems management, 8, 143-145, 147, 149 Steps to Prevent Firearm Injury (STOP) Program, 196-197 Substance abuse, and violence, 89, 130. See also Alcohol use Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 69, 206 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, 215 Suffocation, 45, 46, 48, 52, 53, 76, 85, 87, 214, 215

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment Suicides age and, 47, 86, 124 carbon monoxide and, 87-88 clusters, 87, 88 firearm-related, 8, 45, 47, 48, 73, 86, 132 gender and, 47 magnitude of, 58 mortality rates, 45, 86, 259 prevention, 24, 26, 86-88, 106, 191, 246, 247-248, 252 race/ethnicity and, 50 research, 88, 101, 106, 246, 247-248 risk factors, 86, 94, 246 surveillance systems, 4, 72, 73, 74, 125, 246 trends, 46, 58 Surveillance systems, 3. See also specific systems coding issues, 62-64, 147-148, 187 defined, 60 evaluation of, 71, 72 fire and burn injuries, 75, 189 firearm-related injuries, 7, 71, 73, 125-126, 134, 187, 189 funding, 187, 241, 242, 245, 249, 259 intentional injury data, 4, 72-74, 79 intentionality issue, 25-26 limitations, 3, 70, 74, 75, 76 linkages between, 70, 77, 78, 79, 105-106, 117, 147-148, 239 motor vehicle injuries, 4, 65, 68, 71, 72, 78, 117-118 national data sources, 3, 61, 64-74 needs, 3-5, 61-62, 76, 78-79, 125-126 occupational injuries, 53, 66, 72, 218, 221-222, 223-224 privacy and confidentiality issues, 76, 78, 187 product-related injuries, 3, 67, 70, 213-214, 216 quality of data, 3, 76 recommendations, 3, 4, 62, 71-72, 73 research on, 226, 243, 259 software, 77, 78 state and local data sources, 3, 61, 74-78, 85, 117, 125, 128, 147 , 187, 189 structure of database, 64 technical assistance, 187 trauma care, 147-148, 149, 187, 189 uniform data sets, 3, 75, 77-78, 147, 148 uses, 3, 4, 60-62, 70, 72, 74-75, 76, 83, 85, 117-118, 125, 266 Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 66, 72, 221 Technical assistance, 10, 179, 187, 188, 190, 194, 197, 201, 209, 219, 241, 249 Terminology, 28-30 The Injury Prevention Program (TIPP), 196 Timeline, 284-295 Time-series study designs, 103 Tolerance to injury, 96-97, 119 Toy Manufacturers of America, 185 Toy standards, 217 Training burn program, 228-229, 262 coding, 3, 64, 71 funding for, 6, 103-105, 106, 224-225, 241, 243, 248-249, 262 health care professionals, 196-197, 226, 241 injury prevention practitioners, 10, 179, 185, 201, 243, 262 interdisciplinary model, 195 occupational safety, 222, 224-225 peer, 92 recommendations, 3, 10, 64, 104-105, 196, 248-249, 262 of researchers, 6, 103-105, 106, 211-212, 238, 240, 248-249, 243, 262 trauma-care providers, 145-147, 191, 228-229, 243, 262 violence prevention, 195, 235, 237, 238 Transportation Research Information Services, 105 Trauma and Injury Severity Score, 151, 154 Trauma care systems. See also Acute care; Emergency department visits; Emergency medical services; Rehabilitation case mix, 152-154 components, 8, 139, 140, 167-168 computer applications in, 105 cost-effectiveness, 9, 158-159, 168 costs of, 9, 154, 156-159, 168 criteria to identify, 150 evaluation of effectiveness of, 9, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150-152, 154 -156 exclusive, 139 federal support for, 8, 147, 149, 159-161, 168, 188, 261 financing of, 9, 138, 143, 149, 159-163, 167, 168 growth in, 138, 145, 148-150 inclusive, 139-140 injury severity, 152-154 legislation, 139-140, 143, 144, 145, 149, 159-161 limits on number of centers, 144-145, 149 managed care and, 150, 162, 163, 164-167, 168 management, 139, 143-145

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Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment outcomes of, 9, 149, 150-156, 161, 165, 166, 168, 261 overview of, 139-146 patient-care financing, 161-163 pediatric, 142 personnel, 145-146 prevention role, 146-147 recommendations, 8-9, 161, 167 research, 8, 9, 19, 119, 120, 129, 148, 149, 150-156, 159, 168, 244 , 247 n.17 special populations, 142-143, 168, 245 state and regional agencies, 8, 143-145, 147, 149 state support for, 149, 159-161 surveillance systems, 147-148, 149 training, 145-147 unreimbursed care, 157, 162, 166 utilization measures, 165 volume of patients, 144-145 Trauma Care Systems Planning and Development Act, 139-140, 143, 144, 149, 160, 161 Trauma centers, 140, 141-142, 144, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 157, 163 Trauma Foundation, Injury and Violence Prevention Library, 198 Trauma registries, 75-77, 79, 85, 142, 144, 147, 149, 151, 155-156 Traumatic Brain Injury Program, 231 Treatment of injuries, 29. See also Trauma care systems costs, 55, 154 prevention linked to, 31-32 research on, 99, 104 surveillance systems, 76 training, 104 Triage, 140, 151, 159, 166-167 Understanding Violence Against Women report, 236 Undetectable Firearms Act, 127 Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) System, 72, 125 Uniform data sets, 147, 148 Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation, 147 Uniform hospital discharge data, 3, 75, 77-78, 187, 209 Unintentional injuries, 28-29 deaths, 83 research accomplishments, 83-86, 87 University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center, 195 U.S. Coast Guard, 207 U.S. Fire Administration, 185, 207 U.S. Public Health Service Act, 227, 233 U.S. Surgeon General, 88 Workshop on Violence and Public Health, 89 Vehicle Research Center, 184 Vermont Healthy Vermonters 2000 program, 192 Violence. See also Assaultive injuries; Homicides against women, 236-237, 238-239 defined, 25 n.2 domestic, 75, 88, 128, 191, 232, 237, 239 evaluation of programs, 235 magnitude of, 58 prevention, 2, 24-25, 26-27, 85-86, 88-90, 94, 106, 184, 191, 195, 196-197, 232, 235, 238, 246, 247-248, 252 public health perspective, 89 research, 101, 106, 128, 130, 235, 246, 247-248 risk factors, 89, 94, 95, 128 surveillance systems, 66, 67, 72 workplace, 128 Violence Against Women Act of 1994, 236 Violence in Families report, 90, 237 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, 89, 127, 234 , 235, 246 Vital statistics system, 65, 67, 75, 77, 125, 209 Voluntary Protection Program, 221 Walsh-Healy Act of 1936, 218 War Revenue Act, 127 Whiplash, 97-98 Whitaker Foundation, 185 W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 1, 20, 21 Worker safety, 21, 180, 225, 226-227. See also Occupational injuries Workers' compensation, 91, 158, 162, 163 World Bank, 57 World Conference on Injury Prevention and Control, 64 World Health Organization, 57, 62. See also International Classification of Diseases Working Group on Injury Surveillance Methodology, 64 Years of potential life lost (YPLL), 1 by cause of death, 53, 54, 263 research investment relative to, 18, 19 Young Worker Community-Based Health Education Project, 225 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 67 Zero-tolerance laws, 36