•    

    science of computing, in the same way as problems in the physical sciences and engineering have been a main source of ideas and questions in mathematics.

  • 9.  

    Blue, quoted in Norberg and O'Neill (1996), p. 37.

  • 10.  

    Many of the details contained in this section derive from case studies of the VLSI program and MOSIS contained in Van Atta et al. (1991a), although the interpretation here differs in some respects.

  • 11.  

    Silicon Graphics, Inc. had sales of $3.1 billion and employed over 9,800 workers in 1998.

  • 12.  

    Charles Seitz in a presentation to the study committee, February 28, 1997, Stanford, Calif.

  • 13.  

    In order for the program to benefit U.S. industry more than its foreign competitors, there was a general understanding that investigators would delay open publication of results for roughly 1 year, during which time results would be circulated quickly within the community of DARPA-sponsored VLSI researchers (Van Atta et al., 1991a, pp. 17-10 and 17-13, based largely on comments by Robert Kahn on August 7, 1990).

  • 14.  

    Charles Seitz in a presentation to the study committee, February 28, 1997, Stanford, Calif.

  • 15.  

    John L. Hennessy in a briefing to the study committee, February 28, 1997, Stanford, Calif.

  • 16.  

    Data from "Compilation of Data" from the National Science Foundation's annual Summary of Awards between 1973 and 1985.

  • 17.  

    Personal communication from Gordon Bell, July 1998.

  • 18.  

    Personal communication from Vernon Ross, NSF Office of Budget, Finance, and Award Management, July 1997.

  • 19.  

    Personal communication from Vernon Ross, NSF Office of Budget, Finance, and Award Management, July 1997.

  • 20.  

    SDI budgets for computing are difficult to discern with accuracy, as they were buried within other types of contracts. One estimate is between $50 million and $225 million annually from 1985 to 1994 (Paul Edwards, 1996, p. 292).

  • 21.  

    For a discussion of Ada and its use in military and civilian applications, see CSTB (1997a).

  • 22.  

    The Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council has a project under way to document changes in support for information technology research in industry and government and evaluate their implications. For more information on this project, "Information Technology Research in a Competitive World," See <http://www4.nas.edu/cp.nsf>.



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