in the openness of university research, owing to increased links to industry-funded research of a proprietary nature.

  • 5.  

    Estimates based on data extracted from the National Science Foundation's database on Federal Research Obligations to Universities and Colleges for basic and applied research in electrical engineering and computer science between fiscal years 1981 and 1995. Online access to the database is available via WebCASPAR at <http://caspar.qrc.com>.

  • 6.  

    Additional information on DOE's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative is available online at <http://www.llnl.gov/asci/>.

  • 7.  

    One notable exception is the Semiconductor Research Corporation, which funds university research of interest to its member companies--most of the large semiconductor companies.

  • 8.  

    Researchers at Bolt, Beranek, and Newman modified Honeywell computers for use as switching devices, or routers, on the ARPANET.

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