demic research projects can benefit from access to multiple funding sources within the government, as any individual sponsor may assess the value of a new idea from a limited perspective. Although DARPA and ONR declined to support Ingres, for example, the NSF and three other military agencies agreed to do so.

Notes

  • 1.  

    For his work with IDS and the Codasyl group, Bachman was awarded the Association for Computing Machinery's A.M. Turing Award in 1973 (Bachman, 1973; King, 1983).

  • 2.  

    Edgar F. Codd, in an interview with a representative of the Committee on Innovation in Computing and Communications, February 7, 1997.

  • 3.  

    The group included Mike Blasgen, Ray Boyce, Donald Chamberlain, James Gray, Frank King, Leonard Liu, Raymond Lorie, and Franco Putzolu.

  • 4.  

    Donald Chamberlin, in an interview with a representative of the Committee on Innovation in Computing and Communications, February 4, 1997.

  • 5.  

    M. Stonebraker, in interviews with a representative of the Committee on Innovation in Computing and Communications, December 27, 1996, and February 26, 1997.

  • 6.  

    Robert Epstein, in an interview with a representative of the Committee on Innovation in Computing and Communications, March 19, 1997.

  • 7.  

    Kapali Eswaran left IBM in the late 1970s to form his own company, and its code eventually became part of HP and Cullinet products. Jim Gray moved from IBM to Tandem, where he worked on NonStop SQL, and he is now the senior database researcher at Microsoft. Franco Putzolu also went from IBM to Tandem, where he was a principal designer of NonStop SQL, and later went to Oracle as a senior database architect.

  • 8.  

    Donald Chamberlin, in an interview with a representative of the Committee on Innovation in Computing and Communications, February 4, 1997.



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