•    

    gress would raise questions about AI research, particularly with regard to its focus on the playing of games such as chess and checkers but extending to the research on speech understanding, which is discussed in Box 9.2.

  • 27.  

    Fleck (1982) also said the Lighthill report "led to a considerable sharpening of the focus of AI research." Not all leaders in AI research agree with Fleck's assessment of the impact of the report. Amarel (1988), for example, maintained that "it didn't affect this country."

  • 28.  

    For more information, see Microsoft's home page at <www.research.microsoft.com/research/dtg/horovitz/lum.htm>.

  • 29.  

    These data were obtained from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office database, available online at <http://patents.uspto.gov>, and IBM's patent database, also available online at <http://patent.womplex.ibm.com>.

  • 30.  

    These technologies are the results of the efforts of AI researchers as well as researchers in other, related fields.

  • 31.  

    See, for example, Fleck (1982).

  • 32.  

    A report by the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (1994) paraphrased a former director of ARPA in saying that DART (the intelligent system used for troop and materiel deployment for Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm in 1990 and 1991) "justified ARPA's entire investment in artificial-intelligence technology." (The report is also available on the association's Web site at <http://www.aaai.org/Policy/Papers/arpa-report.html>).



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