• 1.  

    Such statements are invariably subject to the "back to the ancients" process of identifying precursors, such as Edwin Link's work on vehicle simulation in the 1920s. See Ellis (1991, 1994).

  • 2.  

    This project and others are listed on the Advanced Displays and Spatial Perception Laboratory page on the NASA Ames Research Center Web site at <>.

  • 3.  

    See Rowell (1998) and an article posted on the Silicon Graphics Web site at <>.

  • 4.  

    The contributions of this center to scientific visualization and work in VR are discussed by Cruz-Neira et al. (1992).

  • 5.  

    These estimates are based on data compiled from NSF's annual report Summary of Grants and Awards for the years cited.

  • 6.  

    Another noteworthy graduate of the Utah program in the late 1970s was Gary Demos, who started several major computer graphics production companies and had a big impact on the introduction of computer graphics technology in the film industry.

  • 7.  

    The equipment was installed at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston.

  • 8.  

    Jeffrey Potter, Intel Corporation, as quoted in CSTB (1997b). For an evaluation of one of the GE systems, see Brown et al. (1994). This document is also available online at <>.

  • 9.  

    This algorithm could run on Sun, VAX, or IBM systems with conventional graphics displays, such as the GE Graphicon 700. Additional information about Lorensen's work is available online at <>, as is information about the GE Computer Graphics Systems Program at <>.

  • 10.  

    Like the spellcheck program on a word processor, which helps writers avoid typographical errors, the aim of this project is to develop a CAD program that provides "another set of 'eyes' in reviewing images, alerting a radiologist to look closer at specific areas of an image," according to Dr. Martin J. Lipton, chairman of the Radiology Department at the University of Chicago Medical Center, where the CAD technology is being developed. "GE and EG&G Sign Collaboration Pact to Produce Digital X-Ray Detectors," 21 August, 1997, available online at <>.

  • 11.  

    Along with Triple I, MAGI was involved in making the film Tron .

  • 12.  

    Other head-mounted display projects using a television camera system were undertaken by Philco in the early 1960s, as discussed by Ellis (1996).

  • 13.  

    Ivan E. Sutherland in "Virtual Reality Before It Had That Name," a videotaped lecture before the Bay Area Computer History Association.

  • 14.  

    See National Research Council (1995), especially Figure 8.4, "The History of Workstation Computation and Memory."

  • 15.  

    Hennessy et al. (1981) published a description of the Stanford MIPS machine, also developed under DARPA sponsorship.

  • 16.  

    Scott Fisher, "Current Status of VR and Entertainment," presentation to the National Research Council's Committee on Virtual Reality Research and Development, Woods Hole, MA, August, 1993, as cited in National Research Council (1995).

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