Serving Science and Society in the New Millenium: DOE’s Biological and Environmental Research Program

U.S. Department of Energy

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C. 1998



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Serving Science and Society in the New Millenium: DOE’s Biological and Environmental Research Program Serving Science and Society in the New Millenium: DOE’s Biological and Environmental Research Program U.S. Department of Energy National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998

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Serving Science and Society in the New Millenium: DOE’s Biological and Environmental Research Program NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave. NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard to appropriate balance. The report was supported by the Department of Energy under cooperative agreement DE-FG02-97ER62422. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06249-7 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Serving Science and Society in the New Millenium: DOE’s Biological and Environmental Research Program COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES THOMAS D. POLLARD (CHAIRMAN), The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, DC JOHN C. BAILAR III, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL PAUL BERG, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA JOANNA BURGER, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ SHARON L. DUNWOODY, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI JOHN L. EMMERSON, Fishers, IN (Retired) NEAL L. FIRST, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI URSULA W. GOODENOUGH, Washington University, St. Louis, MO HENRY W. HEIKKINEN, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO HANS J. KENDE, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI CYNTHIA J. KENYON, University of California, San Francisco, CA DAVID M. LIVINGSTON, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA THOMAS E. LOVEJOY, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC DONALD R. MATTISON, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA JOSEPH E. MURRAY, Wellesley Hills, MA EDWARD E. PENHOET, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA MALCOLM C. PIKE, Norris/USC Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA JONATHAN M. SAMET, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD CHARLES F. STEVENS, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA JOHN L. VANDEBERG, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX National Research Council Staff: PAUL GILMAN, Executive Director NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Editor

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Serving Science and Society in the New Millenium: DOE’s Biological and Environmental Research Program The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Serving Science and Society in the New Millenium: DOE’s Biological and Environmental Research Program Preface Department of Energy (DOE) involvement in the life sciences has its roots in the research of the Atomic Energy Commission on the possible health effects of irradiation. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 also mandated research on the beneficial applications, including medical, of nuclear technology. That research progressed from the determination of the health consequences of high levels of radiation exposure, on the basis of the study of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, to more fundamental research on the mechanisms of biologic damage and repair after radiation exposure and other environmental insults associated with energy production. More recently, DOE has focused on molecular and cellular mechanisms of long-term health effects, including research on structural and computational biology, global climate change, the Human Genome Project, the human health consequences of various energy-related activities, and fields of biology related to energy production, such as plant biology. Many of those activities are administered by DOE' s Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER). Future contributions of biologic sciences to the energy and environmental-quality missions of DOE could exceed those of the past. Biology could become as important a core discipline in DOE as physics has been. In fact, if the 20th century was the age of physics, many see the 21st century as the age of biology. In early 1997, DOE asked the National Research Council to cosponsor a symposium to assist the agency in identifying major gaps or research needs that are not being addressed by the current OHER program and in identifying opportunities to take advantage of the recent biologic advances in understanding the health effects of energy technologies and environmental remediation. A symposium titled "Serving Science and Society into the New Millennium: The Legacy and the Promise" was held at the National Academy of Sciences on May 21-22, 1997. Speakers and panelists discussed the accomplishments and future of DOE's Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program. They also discussed a variety of multidisciplinary research activities, such as developing advanced medical diagnostic tools and treatments for human disease; assessing the health effects of radiation; tracking the regional and global movement of energy-related pollutants, and establishing the first human genome program. At the end of the symposium, 13 scientists who have been associated with the BER program and who have made significant contributions to its advancements and progress were honored. The proceedings volume includes the presentations made at the symposium. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures for reviewing NRC and IOM reports approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will

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Serving Science and Society in the New Millenium: DOE’s Biological and Environmental Research Program assist the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals, who are neither officials nor employees of the NRC, for their participation in the review of this report: Dr. Rob Coppock, Washington, D.C. Dr. William Ellett, Crofton, Maryland Dr. James Tavares, Department of Energy Dr. David Smith, Boonsboro, Maryland It must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this volume rests entirely with the authors and the NRC.

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Serving Science and Society in the New Millenium: DOE’s Biological and Environmental Research Program CONTENTS Welcome Kenneth L Shine   1 A Celebration of 50 Years of Health and Environmental Research Martha A. Krebs   3 The BER Program at 50 Ari A. Patrinos   5 Keynote Address: Impact of Biotechnology and Environmental Research on Science and Society in the 21st Century Leroy H. Hood   7 Part I ENABLING RESEARCH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: BIOTCHNOLOGY   11     Biotechnology and the Human Genome Project Charles R. Cantor   13     Panel Discussion: James Fickett Keith O. Hodgson Dagmar Ringe    

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Serving Science and Society in the New Millenium: DOE’s Biological and Environmental Research Program Part II BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR A HEALTHY CITIZENRY   31     Biologic Imaging: From Mouse Genome to Human Disease Michael Phelps   33     Panel Discussion: Nora Volkow Edward Coleman Harvey Herschman         Health Effects Research at the Crossroads: Molecular-Based Tools for Biological Dosimetry and Individual Susceptibility Anthony Carrano   56     Panel Discussion: John Boice Roger McClellan Kenneth Olden E. Morton Bradbury Lisa Stubbs     Part III PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT   83     Environmental Research Ari A. Patrinos   85     Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Contemporary Budget, Historical Context, and Implications for the Future Michael McElroy   86     Panel Discussion: W. Lawrence Gates Warren Washington Paul Falkowski         Restoring the Environment via Bioremediation and Molecular Sciences: Prospects for Better Understanding and New Science-Based Solutions Michael L. Knotek   104     Panel Discussion: Thom H. Dunning Ronald W. Harvey James Tiedje    

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Serving Science and Society in the New Millenium: DOE’s Biological and Environmental Research Program Part IV SCIENCE POLICY AND SOCIETAL IMPACTS   123     Science Policy and Society: Current Challenges, Future Priorities Mina Bissell   125     Panel Discussion: Mary Clutter David Cox Charles V. Shank Daniel Goldin     Part V BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM RECOGNITION AWARDS   141

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