and American Indian gamblers have been lacking. The few studies that include diverse populations have in general failed to distinguish the specific racial or ethnic background of the minority group being included, thus limiting conclusions regarding specific subgroups. A few studies have specifically compared gambling among minority and majority populations (Volberg and Abbott, 1997; Zitzow, 1996; Cunningham-Williams et al., 1998). Since the passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988, gambling among and sponsored by American Indians on reservations has increased substantially (Rose, 1992). In the Zitzow study, American Indian adolescents exhibited more serious problems from gambling, earlier onset of gambling problems, and greater frequency of gambling problems than their non-Indian peers. The Volberg study found that indigenous populations reported more gambling involvement, gambling expenditures, and gambling-related problems than white populations from the same areas. However, the sampling strategies and questionnaires of these two studies were not identical (Volberg and Abbott, 1997). Thus, the Cunningham-Williams et al. study, using a sample of the St. Louis general population, remains one of the few studies of race that controlled for race and other factors. The finding that problem gambling (but not pathological gambling) is more likely to affect whites than African Americans remains unchallenged. Among African Americans in this study, problem gambling was more common than gambling without problems or social and recreational gambling (Cunningham-Williams et al., 1998).
Studies have also generally failed to disentangle race and ethnicity from issues of poverty and sociodemographic status. A series of analyses of Georgia residents identified 10 sociodemographic variables that correctly discriminated nearly 80 percent of nongamblers from (nonproblematic) social and recreational gamblers; 84 percent of the cases of nongamblers from problem gamblers; and 94 percent of gamblers without problems from pathological gamblers. When compared with nongamblers, problem gamblers tended to be nonwhite (race/ethnicity was not specified), male, and single, and to have low self-esteem (Volberg and Abbott, 1997). An earlier multistate analysis found that the only significant difference between probable pathological gamblers from different states is that those from the East Coast states