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--> D Summary of Treatment Literature Case Studies (n of 1) Author(s)/Year Technique/Approach Follow-up Period Lindner, 1950 Psychoanalytic not specified Reider, 1960 Psychoanalytic not specified Harris, 1964 Psychoanalytic not specified Victor and Krug, 1967 Psychoanalytic (paradoxical intention) not specified Goorney, 1968 Behavioral (aversive therapy) 12 months Kraft, 1970 Behavioral (systematic desensitization) 1 year Cotler, 1971 Behavioral (aversive and covert sensitization) 9 months Bannister, 1977 Cognitive (rational emotive therapy and covert sensitization) 2.5 years Dickerson and Weeks, 1979 Behavioral (behavioral counseling) 15 months Rankin, 1982 Behavioral (behavioral counseling) 2 years Toneatto and Sobell, 1990 Cognitive 6 months Hollander et al., 1992 Pharmacotreatment not specified Seager et al., 1992 Behavioral (marriage counseling) not specified Sharpe and Tarrier, 1992 Cognitive (relaxation training, imaginal and in vivo exposure, cognitive restructuring) 10 months Haller and Hinterhuber, 1994 Pharmacotreatment (carbamazepine) not specified
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--> Noncontrolled/Descriptive Studies Author(s)/Year Sample Size Technique/Approach Follow-up Period Bergler, 1958 60 Psychoanalytic not specified Barker and Miller, 1966 5 Behavioral (aversive therapy) several months-2 years Boyd and Bolen, 1970 9 Psychoanalytic (marital group therapy) end of treatment Seager, 1970 14 Behavioral (electrical aversion therapy) 1-3 years Koller, 1972 20 Behavioral (aversive therapy) 6 months-2 years Moskowitz, 1980 3 Pharmacotreatment (lithium) not specified Greenberg and Marks, 1982 7 Behavioral (desensitization) 6 months Greenberg and Rankin, 1982 26 Behavioral (stimulus control exposure and covert sensitization) 9 months-5 years Salzman, 1982 4 Behavioral (aversion) not specified Russo et al., 1984 60 Multimodal (group therapy, education, Gamblers Anonymous, discharge plan) 1 year Taber et al., 1987 57 Multimodal (group therapy, education, Gamblers Anonymous, discharge plan) 6 months Hudak et al., 1989 99 treated (26 followed-up) Multimodal (education, individual, family and group therapy, communication skills training, specific discharge plan) 4 years Arribas and Martinez, 1991 4 Cognitive (self-monitoring, exposure, stimulus control, response prevention, cognitive restructuring, family intervention, relapse prevention) 3 and 6 months
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--> Author(s)/Year Sample Size Technique/Approach Follow-up Period Schwarz and Lindner, 1992 58 treated 25 contacted at 2-year follow-up) Multimodal (medical, group, individual, occupational and family therapy) 1 and 2 years Sylvain and Ladouceur, 1992 3 Cognitive (education, cognitive restructuring, relapse prevention) 3 and 6 months Bujold et al., 1994 3 Cognitive (cognitive/behavioral) 3, 6, and 9 months Ladouceur et al., 1994 4 Cognitive (information about gambling, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving training, social skills training, relapse prevention) 3 and 6 months Stinchfield and Winters, 1996 274 (sample for whom discharge, 6 and 12 month data obtained) Multimodal (individual and group psychotherapy, lectures, participation in self-help groups, family counseling) Discharge, 6 and 12 months Hand, 1998 68 Multimodal (motivational interviewing, behavior therapy, family counseling) not specified Controlled Studies (random assignment and comparison groups) McConaghy et al., 1983c 20 (imaginal desensitization = 10, aversive = 10) Behavioral 1 year McConaghy et al., 1988 20 (imaginal desensitization = 10, imaginal relaxation = 10) Behavioral 1 month and 1 year
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--> Author(s)/Year Sample Size Technique/Approach Follow-up Period McConaghy et al., 1991 120 (imaginal desensitization = 60a, other behavioral procedures = 60b) Behavioral 2-9 years Echeburua et al., 1994 64 (individual stimulus control = 16, in vivo exposure with response prevention = 16, group cognitive restructuring = 16, waiting list = 16) Cognitive 6 months Sylvain et al., 1997 29 (cognitive/behavioral = 14, control = 15) Cognitive 6 and 12 months a 33 follow-up. b 30 followed-up. c labeled as controlled, but random assignment not mentioned.
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