Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 319
--> F Biographical Sketches Charles F. Wellford (Chair) is director of the University of Maryland Center for Applied Policy Studies and professor of criminology and criminal justice at the University of Maryland. He served as chair of the University's Department of Criminal Justice from 1981 to 1995. He serves on numerous federal and state advisory boards and commissions and is a fellow and the immediate past president of the American Society of Criminology. He currently serves as the chair of the National Research Council's Committee on Law and Justice. He has published more than 40 articles in scholarly journals and is the author of numerous reports developed for various federal agencies and the state of Maryland. He is an expert on crime and social justice issues, prosecution policies and sentencing, and civil justice. His current research interests include the determinants of sentencing and the development of comparative crime data. He received a PhD in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1969. Melissa I. Bamba (Research Associate) serves as a research associate to the Committee on Law and Justice for this and other studies. She previously worked as a research associate at CSR, Inc., a private research firm, on projects for the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. She
OCR for page 320
--> received her BA and MA degrees in criminology and criminal justice from Temple University and the University of Maryland, respectively. She is currently working on a PhD degree in criminology from the University of Maryland. Her interests lie in gender and sentencing policy analysis. Colin F. Camerer is Axline professor of business economics (one of three chaired professors in social science) at the California Institute of Technology. He has held teaching positions at the Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University, the Wharton School, and the University of Chicago. His research is primarily published in academic journals and he is on several of their boards, including the Quarterly Journal of Economics, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, Strategic Management Journal , and Games and Economic Behavior. His research concerns whether people make systematic mistakes in their decisions, for example in choosing among risky alternatives, engaging in competitive or strategic interactions, and trading in financial markets. He is interested in how new discoveries in neuroscience inform the basic components of economic decision making (judging probabilities, weighing the future, choosing among goods). He has an MBA in finance and a PhD in decision theory from the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. Linda B. Cottler is professor of epidemiology in the Department of Psychiatry at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Her contributions to the field involve risk factors for substance use, assessment of substance use and psychiatric disorders, and the consequences and prevention of substance use, particularly in connection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). She has published extensively, reviews articles for numerous journals, and is on the board of College on the Problems of Drug Dependence and the American Psychopathological Association. Her latest publication (with colleague Renee M. Cunningham-Williams) focused on the epidemiology of pathological gambling among household residents in Missouri from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. She has an MPH
OCR for page 321
--> from Boston University School of Public Health and a PhD from Washington University, St. Louis. Sara Kiesler is professor of social and decision sciences and a faculty member in the Human Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. She has a PhD in psychology from Ohio State University, with an emphasis in experimental psychology, basic research on groups, group dynamics, relationships, communication, and decision making. Her interests turned to computer networks in the early 1980s, and her current research focuses on social and behavioral aspects of computers and computer-based communications technologies. She is the author of numerous publications on such topics as flaming, electronic group dynamics, changes in decision making and employee participation, and new kinds of teamwork. With Lee Sproull she is the author of Connections: New Ways of Working in the Networked Organization. Most recently she edited Culture of the Internet. Mark W. Lipsey is professor of public policy at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College and co-director of the Center for Evaluation Research and Methodology at the Vanderbilt Institute for Public Policy Studies. His research and teaching interests are in the areas of public policy, program evaluation research, social intervention, field research methodology, and research synthesis. The foci of his recent research have been risk and intervention for juvenile delinquency and issues of methodological quality in program evaluation research. He has published three books and more than 50 articles and technical reports in these areas and has consulted with numerous organizations and projects. He is a former editor-in-chief of New Directions for Program Evaluation and has served on the editorial boards of several journals. He has a BS in applied psychology from the Georgia Institute of Technology and a PhD in psychology from the Johns Hopkins University. Eileen Luna is an assistant professor in the American Indian Studies Program, in the area of law and policy, at the University of Arizona, Tucson. She is an attorney who, for 14 years, directed government agencies that investigated and prosecuted police misconduct cases in California; she is a member of the California,
OCR for page 322
--> Federal, and Native American Bar Associations. She was appointed by Attorney General Janet Reno to a position on the National Citizens Advisory Panel for the Immigration and Naturalization Service and Border Patrol. She is an enrolled member of the White River Band of the Chickamauga Cherokee. She has received a grant from the National Institute of Justice to evaluate tribal government programs aimed at reducing violence against women on reservations. Luna has an MPA from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and a JD from Peoples College of Law, Los Angeles. Samuel C. McQuade (Study Director) has over 20 years of combined criminal justice and research experience. Prior to joining the National Research Council, he managed research on behalf of the National Institute of Justice of the U.S. Department of Justice. From 1977 to 1994 he served as a law enforcement officer in the states of Arizona and Washington. He has consulted nationally on policing issues, has an MPA from the University of Washington's Graduate School of Public Affairs, and is completing doctoral studies at the Institute of Public Policy, George Mason University. Barbara Mellers is professor of psychology at Ohio State University, specializing in psychological models of human judgment and decision making. She currently serves on the executive board of the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological, and Cognitive Sciences and is the immediate past president of the Judgment and Decision Making Society. She is the author of over 40 published papers and the editor of two books: Decision Research from Bayesian Approaches to Normative Perspectives and Psychological Perspectives on Justice: Theory and Applications . She has developed descriptive models to capture judgments that deviate from rational choice theory, either because people are influenced by context effects or response mode effects not specified by the theory, or because they process information differently, which can lead to intransitive choices or violations of dominance. Currently, she is involved in a large, observational study designed to investigate how California lottery winners expect their winnings will influ-
OCR for page 323
--> ence their jobs, lifestyles, risk attitudes, and personal happiness. She has a PhD from the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Clinton V. Oster, Jr., is a professor in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs and in the School of Business (part time) at Indiana University. His current research centers on aviation safety, transportation economics, international aviation, airport and airway infrastructure, environmental and natural resource policy, and environmental remediation. He was principal investigator on a study of the economic impacts of riverboat gambling for the Indiana Gaming Commission. He is the coauthor of books on public policy, aviation safety, and various aspects of the U.S. airline industry's adaptation to deregulation. He has a BSE from Princeton University, an MS from Carnegie Mellon University, and a PhD from Harvard University. David Rados is a professor of management at the Owen Graduate School of Management at Vanderbilt University. His research interests include the development and application of normative decision models to marketing, exploration of consumer needs for information and the value of such information, and the marketing of nonprofit goods and services. He is the author of three books on these topics, the latest of which is Marketing for NonProfit Organizations. His most recent publications include ''The Luck Business," published in the Journal of Macromarketing . He has been a referee for the Journal of Marketing and for Decision Sciences. He was the recipient of a Fulbright scholarship in 1989, and was awarded a research fellowship at Macquarie University in Australia. He has a BS in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an MBA from the Harvard Business School, and a PhD in marketing from the Stanford Business School. Richard J. Rosenthal is a board-certified psychiatrist who has been involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of pathological gamblers for almost 20 years. He was founder and first president of the California Council on Problem Gambling and was director of the Gambling Treatment Program at CPC Westwood Hospital. He is currently assistant clinical professor of psychiatry at the
OCR for page 324
--> School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles and on the faculty of the Los Angeles Psychoanalytic Institute. He coauthored the official diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling that appears in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). He was coinvestigator on the first genetic study that indicated a possible physiological predisposition for the disorder. Other contributions to the gambling literature have dealt with patterns of self-deception, transference-countertransference issues, phases of treatment, and the relationship between gambling problems and criminal behavior. He is currently on the board of directors of the National Council on Problem Gambling, the advisory board of the Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, and the national advisory board of the American Academy of Health Care Providers in the Addictive Disorders. He has a BA from Cornell University and an MD from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Howard J. Shaffer is associate professor at Harvard Medical School and director of the Harvard Medical School Division on Addictions. He is the founding director of the Norman E. Zinberg Center for Addiction Studies at Harvard Medical School and the Department of Psychiatry at the Cambridge Hospital. He is also founder and president of the board of trustees of the American Academy of Health Care Providers in the Addictive Disorders, the first international credentialing body for clinicians working in the addictive disorders. Recent research projects on which he has served as principal or coprincipal investigator include the Addiction Training Center of New England, the Harvard Project on Gambling and Health, and Estimating the Prevalence of Disordered Gambling in the United States and Canada, a meta-analysis of over 150 gambling prevalence studies. His major research interests include the social perception of addiction and disease, the philosophy of science, impulse control regulation and compulsive behaviors, disordered gambling, addiction treatment outcomes, and the natural history of addictive behaviors. He has a PhD in psychology from the University of Miami, Florida. Jerome H. Skolnick came to New York University School of Law
OCR for page 325
--> after taking early retirement from the University of California, Berkeley, where he was Claire Clements Dean's professor of law, jurisprudence, and social policy, a chair he now holds as professor emeritus. For 10 years he was director of the University of California's Center for the Study of Law and Society. At New York University Law School, Skolnick teaches seminars on police and on the regulation of vice and is co-director of the Center for Research in Crime and Justice. Among his best-known books are Justice Without Trial, a study of police in a democratic society; The Politics of Protest, written as director of the Task Force on Violent Protest and Confrontation of the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence; House of Cards, a study of the regulation of casino gambling; The New Blue Line, analyzing community-oriented policing (with David Bayley); and, most recently, Above the Law, a study of police use of excessive force (with James J. Fyfe). He was elected a fellow and is a past president of the American Society of Criminology (1993-1994), and recently (1997) completed a three-year term as chair of the National Research Council's Committee on Law and Justice. Skolnick has a bachelor's degree in economics and philosophy and a PhD in sociology from Yale University. Ken Winters is director of the Center for Adolescent Substance Abuse and associate professor of psychiatry at the University of Minnesota. He also serves as senior research associate in the Department of Psychiatry at the university. He is a member of the American Psychological Association and is currently the principal investigator or coinvestigator for five projects supported by a variety of research organizations, including the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), the Walker Foundation, the National Institute on Responsible Gaming, and the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. His research interests include the assessment and treatment of adolescent drug abuse, root causes of addiction, and problem gambling. His previous experience includes appointments as a research scientists at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and as a staff psychologist at a community mental health center. He has a BA from the University of Minnesota and a PhD in clinical psychology from the State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Representative terms from entire chapter: