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out the proportion of African Americans in the nonproblem, problem, and pathological gambling groups. The median values were 18 percent among pathological and problem gamblers and 11 percent among gamblers without problems. The five studies that reported the proportions of Hispanics had a median of 28 percent among pathological and problem gamblers and 22 percent among gamblers without problems. Only three studies reported on the percentage of American Indians among the gambling groups. Across those studies, American Indians were represented among pathological and problem gamblers ranging from 3 to 7 percent, compared with only 1 to 4 percent of the gamblers without problems. These studies are too few in number to allow meaningful comparisons across groups.
Income, Employment, and Education
Seventeen of the studies in Table 3-1 provided income distributions with two or more brackets for gamblers without problems compared with pathological and problem gamblers.10 The most common breakout was to distinguish household income above and below $25,000 per year. Dividing all the income categories reported by any of the studies into these two broad categories showed some tendency for lower-income persons to be overrepresented among pathological and problem gamblers. In particular, the median percentage of the pathological and problem gamblers with income under $25,000 per year was 33 percent compared with 27 percent of the gamblers without problems.
Only seven of the studies in Table 3-1 compared problem and pathological gamblers and gamblers without problems with regard to employment status.11 Employed persons were represented in about equal proportions among the pathological and
Emerson et al. (1994); Laundergan et al. (1990); Reilly and Guida (1990); Volberg (1992, 1993, 1995a, 1996a, 1997); Volberg and Boles (1995); Volberg and Silver (1993); Volberg and Stuefen (1994); Volberg et al. (1991); Wallisch, (1993, 1996); New Mexico Department of Health (1996).
Emerson et al. (1994); Laundergan et al. (1990); Volberg (1997); Volberg and Boles (1995); Wallisch (1993, 1996); New Mexico Department of Health (1996).