attain while participating in the open-access fishery that immediately precedes the CDQ opening. Subsequent revisions extended the program to Pacific halibut and sablefish and, most recently, to other groundfish and crab fisheries managed under the Eastern Bering Sea Groundfish Management Plan (NPFMC, 1998). The CDQ program requirements stipulate that the proceeds of CDQ fishing be used to enhance fishery-based economic activities. Profits have been used to invest in factory trawlers, port facilities, marine services and cargo handling facilities, and small multipurpose fishing vessels (for crab, salmon, halibut, and cod fishing).
The 1996 amendments to the Magnuson-Stevens Act authorized the development of CDQs for the Western Pacific and mandated an NRC study of CDQs (NRC, 1999a) (see Box 4.3).
BOX 4.3 Findings and Recommendations of the NRC Committee to Review Community Development Quotas (NRC, 1999a)
The Community Development Quota (CDQ) program was implemented in December 1992 by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council. The CDQ program allocates a portion of the annual fish harvest of certain commercial species directly to coalitions of villages, which because of geographic isolation and dependence on subsistence lifestyles have had limited economic opportunities. The program is an innovative attempt to accomplish community development in rural coastal communities in Western Alaska, and in many ways it appears to be succeeding. The CDQ program has fostered greater involvement of the residents of Western Alaska in the fishing industry and has brought both economic and social benefits. The program is not without its problems, but most can be attributed to the newness of the program and the inexperience of participants. Overall the program appears on track to accomplishing the goals set out in the authorizing legislation: to provide the participating communities with the means to develop ongoing commercial fishing activities, create employment opportunities, attract capital, develop infrastructure, and generally promote positive social and economic conditions.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF THE CDQ PROGRAM
Because the program is still relatively new, the data necessary for detailed evaluation are limited and it is not yet possible to detect long-term trends. The six CDQ groups, organized from the 56 eligible communities (later expanded to 57), were of varying sizes and took varying approaches to harvesting their quota and allocating the returns generated. Although not all groups have been equally successful, there were significant examples of real benefits accruing to the communities. All six groups saw creation of jobs as an important goal and stressed employment of local residents on the catcher-processor vessels and shoreside processing plants. All incorporated some kind of education and training component for residents, although to different degrees and with different emphases. Another benefit of the program is that the periodic nature of employment in the fishing industry