Recommendations: The committee recommends that councils consider a broad range of criteria for determining participation in and allocation of initial quota shares in addition to catch history. The specific criteria may vary from fishery to fishery and from region to region. Examples of factors that may be taken into account beyond catch history include (1) the extent of dependence and commitment to fishing as a way of life, as in the Alaskan Limited Entry program; (2) evidence for or against good stewardship and acceptance of conservation goals (e.g., bycatch rates, violation histories, types of fishing gear used); (3) whether rule following is the norm in the fishery; and (4) other criteria that councils deem appropriate. These factors reflect the conservation and equity goals of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, as discussed in Chapter 5.

Skippers and Crew Allocations

Findings: In the existing IFQ programs, non-owning captains, mates, and deckhands have not been allocated quota shares in the initial allocation. Testimony and documents provided to the committee indicate that this is due partly to alleged difficulties in obtaining information on the historical participation of non-owners in the fisheries and partly to the philosophical position that those who have put their capital at risk are the proper recipients of quota share. Crew members and skippers (whether or not they own the vessel) are an integral part of the harvesting process in many fisheries. In a number of fisheries, crew members and skippers are considered co-venturers who have invested their time and risked their lives, even if they have not risked their capital. Moreover, in many fisheries, skippers and deck crew are paid on a share basis and consequently assume much of the financial risk as well as all of the physical risk associated with fishing.

Measures have been devised to help hired skippers and crew members participate in IFQ holding, including the "block" system and the loan system activated in 1998 for the Alaska halibut and sablefish fisheries. These measures partially redress the inequity created by making the initial allocation only to vessel owners, and in fact, crew members owned 11.2% of halibut quota and 4.6% of sablefish quota as of December 31, 1997. Detailed skipper and crew catch data are not necessary for allocating quota to them, unless the allocation rule requires the allocation to be proportional to landings.

Recommendations: In order to achieve the stewardship and equity goals of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, regional councils should consider including hired skippers and crew members in the initial allocation of IFQs where appropriate to the fishery and goals of the specific IFQ program. Detailed skipper and crew catch data are not necessary for allocating quota to them, because quota could be allocated in equal shares. As with other measures, the appropriateness of skipper and crew allocations is expected to vary among fisheries. For ex-

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