allowable biological catch
Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program
annual catch entitlements (New Zealand)
Alaska Department of Fish and Game
Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands
community development quota
Commercial Fisheries Entry Commission (Alaska)
Caribbean Fishery Management Council
community fishing quota
Code of Federal Regulations
catch per unit effort
Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada)
dockside monitoring program
exclusive economic zone
El Niño-Southern Oscillation
Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations
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--> Appendix F Acronyms and Glossary Acronyms ABC allowable biological catch ACCSP Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program ACE annual catch entitlements (New Zealand) ADF&G Alaska Department of Fish and Game BSAI Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands CDQ community development quota CFEC Commercial Fisheries Entry Commission (Alaska) CFMC Caribbean Fishery Management Council CFQ community fishing quota CFR Code of Federal Regulations CPUE catch per unit effort DFO Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada) DMP dockside monitoring program EEZ exclusive economic zone ENSO El Niño-Southern Oscillation F fishing mortality FAO Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations
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--> FCMA Fishery Conservation and Management Act FLPMA Federal Land Policy Management Act FMFC Florida Marine Fisheries Commission FMP fishery management plan GDA Groundfish Development Authority (Canada) GDP gross domestic product GFMC Gulf Fishery Management Council GOA Gulf of Alaska GRT gross register ton IBQ individual bycatch quota ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea ICNAF International Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries IFQ individual fishing quota IPHC International Pacific Halibut Commission ITQ individual transferable quota IVBQ individual vessel bycatch quota IVQ individual vessel quota LATE Local Authority Trading Enterprise (New Zealand) LPUE landings per unit effort MAFMC Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council MEY maximum economic yield MRFSS Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey MSFCMA Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act MSY maximum sustainable yield NAFO Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization NAS National Academy of Sciences NEFMC New England Fishery Management Council NEFSC Northeast Fishery Science Center (NMFS) NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPFMC North Pacific Fishery Management Council NRC National Research Council OAA Office of Administrative Appeals (NMFS) OAE open access equilibrium OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OFL overfishing limit OSB Ocean Studies Board
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--> OY optimum yield PFMC Pacific Fishery Management Council PSP paralytic shellfish poisoning QMA quota management area (New Zealand) QMS quota management system (New Zealand) QS quota share R recruitment RAM Restricted Access Management Division SAFMC South Atlantic Fishery Management Council SAR search and rescue SCOQ surf clam/ocean quahog SFA Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 SSC scientific and statistical committee (of a regional fishery management council) SURFs stock-use rights in fisheries TAC total allowable catch TURFs territorial use rights in fisheries USCG U.S. Coast Guard WPFMC Western Pacific Fishery Management Council Glossary A allowable biological catch (ABC): Maximum amount of fish stock that could be harvested without adversely affecting recruitment or other biological components of the stock. The ABC level is typically higher than the total allowable catch, leaving a buffer between the two. Australian "drop-through" system: Approach developed in the New South Wales fishery that establishes a cascade of fixed-term entitlements for quota shareholders to allow the introduction of new management measures. Under this scheme, initial entitlements of quota share are defined for a finite period, but one long enough to encourage investments. Periodically, a comprehensive review is undertaken to develop a new set of entitlements. These entitlements would confer a similar, but not necessarily identical, set of rights and
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--> obligations on the quota holders. This process would continue until such time as it appeared that no more modifications were necessary. B biomass: Amount or mass of some organism, such as fish. blocked quota: Quota shares in the Alaskan halibut and sablefish IFQ program that are not allowed to be subdivided when transferred. There are limits on the size of the blocked quota and on the number of blocks that an individual may own in a given area. This is intended to ensure the availability of small units of quota for purchase by new entrants. bycatch: Fish other than the primary target species that are caught incidental to the harvest of the primary target species. Bycatch may be retained or discarded. Discards may occur for regulatory or economic reasons. C capital stuffing: Investing in gear, technology, engines, processing lines, and other capital components of a fishing operation in order to maximize the ability of a vessel or processing facility to harvest or process fish. These investments are made so that the vessel or processing facility can harvest and process fish as rapidly as possible under a derby fishery or in a race for fish. Caribbean Fishery Management Council (CFMC): One of eight regional councils mandated in the MSFCMA to develop management plans for fisheries in federal waters. The CFMC develops fishery management plans for fisheries off the coast of the U.S. Virgin Islands and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. catcher vessel: Vessel that harvests fish but does not have onboard processing capacity. catcher-processor vessel: Vessel that can both catch fish and process the catch on-board. Also referred to as factory trawlers or freezer-longliners. catch per unit effort (CPUE): Weight of fish harvested for each unit of effort expended by vessels in the fishery. CPUE can be expressed as weight of fish captured per fishing trip, per hour spent at sea, or through other standardized measures. charterboat: Boat designed for carrying for hire a group of passengers who are engaged in recreational fishing. coefficient of variation: Standard deviation divided by the mean, showing standard deviation as a percentage of the mean. A high coefficient of variation is indicative of wide variation in the data being analyzed.
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--> cohort: Fish born in a given year. (See year class.) Commercial Fisheries Entry Commission (CFEC): Agency responsible for tracking and approving the transfer of permits in Alaska's limited entry fisheries. Although primarily responsible for Alaska's salmon and herring limited entry programs, CFEC has participated in evaluating the effects of the Alaskan halibut and sablefish IFQ programs. common-pool resources: Resources such as groundwater, open-access fisheries, or public grazing lands that are held for public use. Common-pool resources have features that make it difficult to exclude others from their use, and one person's use can affect what is available to another person. common property: Form of resource ownership with a set of well-defined users capable of excluding other potential users and having well-understood rules regarding their rights and obligations with respect to other users and the resource. community development quota: Program in Western Alaska under which a percentage of the TAC of Bering Sea commercial fisheries is allocated to specific communities. Communities eligible for this program must be located within 50 miles of the Bering Sea coast, or on an island within the Bering Sea; meet criteria established by the State of Alaska; be a village certified by the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act; and consist of residents who conduct more than half of their current commercial or subsistence fishing in the Bering Sea or waters surrounding the Aleutian Islands. These communities cannot have previously developed harvesting or processing capable of substantial participation in the Bering Sea fisheries in order to qualify for the program. Currently, 7.5% of the total allowable catch in the pollock, halibut and sablefish, crab, and groundfish fisheries is allocated to the CDQ program (see Box 4.3). control date: Date established for defining the pool of potential participants in a given management program. Control dates can establish a range of years during which a potential participant must have been active in a fishery in order to qualify for quota share. D data fouling: Process whereby improper data reporting and collection procedures from a fishery can result in unrepresentative samples of what is actually being harvested in the fishery (e.g., misreporting of highgrading or bycatch rates). Based on these samples, incorrect inferences may be drawn about the true biological, economic, or social components of the fishery.
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--> Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada (DFO): Federal agency in Canada responsible for management of fisheries in Canadian federal waters. derby: Fishery in which the TAC is fixed and participants in the fishery do not have individual quotas. The fishery is closed once the TAC is reached, and participants attempt to maximize their harvests as quickly as possible. Derby fisheries can result in capital stuffing and a race for fish. discard: Fish that are not retained for market. E economic overfishing: Condition in which a reduction in fishing effort results in an improvement in net revenue from the harvest. economic rent: Difference between total revenue and all necessary costs of production, including a normal return on invested capital. This difference will prevail in a successfully managed fishery because fish stocks cannot be replicated on any scale desired, in contrast to automobile factories and other manufacturing industries. The rent in the fishery reflects the scarcity value of the fish stocks. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): Coupled oceanographic-atmospheric phenomenon resulting in a shift of sea surface temperatures beginning in the tropical Pacific. ENSO has widespread effects on oceanographic and atmospheric phenomena throughout the entire Pacific region and affects Pacific fisheries. exclusive economic zone (EEZ): Zone extending from the shoreline out to 200 nautical miles in which the country owning the shoreline has the exclusive right to conduct certain activities such as fishing. In the United States, the EEZ is split into state waters (typically from the shoreline out to 3 nautical miles) and federal waters (typically from 3 to 200 nautical miles). exploitation rate: Amount of fish harvested from a stock relative to the size of the stock, often expressed as a percentage. externalities: Occur when the costs or benefits of a resource user's actions are not borne fully by the individual user; other resource users share the costs or benefits. Because of the common-pool nature of fisheries (see Box 2.1), fishermen impose externalities on one another. Such externalities occur through highgrading, as well as when fishermen are racing to use up their time allocated to fish. F factory trawler: (See catcher-processor.)
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--> finfish: Vertebrate and cartilaginous fishery species, not including crustaceans, cephalopods, or other mollusks. fishery management plan (FMP): Management plan for fisheries operating in the federal EEZ produced by regional fishery management councils and submitted to the Secretary of Commerce for approval. These plans must meet certain mandatory requirements in the MSFCMA before they can be approved or implemented. fishing effort: In casual usage, this term refers to the amount of fishing. Depending on the context, fishing effort may refer to the number of fishing vessels, the amount of fishing gear (nets, traps, hooks), or the total amount of time that vessels and gear are actively engaged in fishing. Fishery economists often use the term to describe the quantity of productive inputs (e.g., labor, capital, fuel, ice) that are applied in fishing activities. Fishery scientists sometime distinguish between nominal fishing effort, which is the aggregate amount of time spent fishing, and standardized fishing effort, which is the amount of time spent fishing after adjustments are made for differences in fishing power among vessels and gear types. fishing mortality (F): Deaths of fish that result from the fishing process (because fish are caught and retained, because they are discarded and subsequently die, or because they are caught in the gear and escape but subsequently die). Deaths that are not attributable to fishing activities are described as natural mortality. Fishery scientists often measure fishing mortality as an instantaneous rate, which is related mathematically to the exploitation rate and to standardized fishing effort. fishing power: Measure of the relative ability of a fishing vessel (and its gear and crew) to catch fish, in reference to some standard vessel, given that both vessels are fishing under identical conditions (e.g., simultaneously on the same fishing grounds). Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): United Nations organization founded in 1945 with a mandate to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity, and to better the condition of rural populations. FAO is active in land and water development, plant and animal production, forestry, fisheries, economic and social policy, investment, nutrition, food standards, and commodities and trade. G gear restrictions: Limits placed on the type, amount, number, or techniques allowed for a given type of fishing gear.
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--> ghost fishing: Incidental capture of fish caused by gear that is lost or abandoned at sea. groundfish: Collective term loosely applied to most commercially harvested marine fish other than salmonids, scombrids, and clupeids. Although many groundfish species are demersal (e.g., yellowtail flounder, yellowfin sole), other species are semidemersal or pelagic (e.g., pollock, cod, haddock, Atka mackerel). growth overfishing: Condition in which the total weight of the harvest from a fishery is improved when fishing effort is reduced, and this improvement in harvest is due to an increase in the average weight of harvested fish. gross register ton (GRT): A unit of the internal volume of a ship, equal to 100 cubic feet. Gross registered tonnage is the total volume or capacity of a vessel. Gulf Fishery Management Council (GFMC): One of eight regional councils mandated in the MSFCMA to develop management plans for fisheries in federal waters. The GFMC develops fishery management plans for fisheries off the coast of the states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the west coast of Florida. Gulf of Alaska (GOA): Region of the EEZ off the shore of Alaska extending from the southeastern edge of Alaska to the eastern side of the Aleutian Island chain. H highgrading: Form of selective sorting of fish in which higher value, more marketable fish are retained and fish that could be legally retained, but are less marketable, are discarded. I individual fishing quota (IFQ): Fishery management tool used in the Alaska halibut and sablefish, wreckfish, and SCOQ fisheries in the United States, and other fisheries throughout the world, that allocates a certain portion of the TAC to individual vessels, fishermen, or other eligible recipients based on initial qualifying criteria. individual transferable quota (ITQ): Individual fishing quota that is transferable. input controls: Fishery management measures that seek to limit the amount or effectiveness of effort in a fishery. These include limited licenses that restrict the number of fishermen, gear restrictions that limit the type or amount
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--> of gear that may be used, and effort quotas that restrict the amount of effort or time that is allowed in fishing activities. International Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (ICNAF): Fishery management organization founded by the United States and Canada in 1949 for joint scientific and management measures affecting certain groundfish stocks. ICNAF later evolved into NAFO. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES): International body established in 1902, ICES is a scientific forum for the exchange of information and ideas on the sea and its living resources and for the promotion and coordination of marine research by scientists in its member countries. Membership has increased from the original 7 countries in 1902 to the present 19 countries. International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC): International management and advisory body established in 1923 to oversee the management of halibut in the North Pacific region. Member states of the commission include the United States and Canada. The IPHC is responsible for conducting stock assessments and providing recommendations on the appropriate level of harvest and other regulations to managers in Canada and the United States. L landings per unit effort (LPUE): Means of quantifying the CPUE. LPUE is the amount, or biomass, of fish landed per given unit of measure, typically measured on a per-trip or per-day basis. longline: Fishing method using a horizontal mainline to which weights and baited hooks are attached at regular intervals. The horizontal mainline is connected to the surface by floats. The mainline can extend from several hundred yards to several miles and may contain several hundred to several thousand baited hooks. longliner: Vessel specifically designed to catch fish using the longline fishing method. M Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA): Federal legislation responsible for establishing the fishery management councils and the mandatory and discretionary guidelines for federal fishery management plans. This legislation was originally enacted in 1976 as the Fishery Management and Conservation Act; its name was changed to the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act in 1980, and in 1996 it was renamed the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act.
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--> Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey (MRFSS): Primary source of marine recreational data. MRFSS is operated by NMFS with the cooperation of coastal states. MRFSS is a design-based survey that produces estimates of total effort and catch in directed recreational fisheries. maximum sustainable yield (MSY): Largest average catch that can be harvested on a sustainable basis from a stock under existing environmental conditions. MSY is a deterministic single-species construct that may have difficulty reflecting the stochastic nature of stock dynamics. metric ton (mt): 2,000 kilograms (equivalent to 2,206 pounds). Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC): One of eight regional councils mandated in the MSFCMA to develop management plans for fisheries in federal waters. The MAFMC develops fishery management plans for fisheries off the coasts of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Pennsylvania is also represented on the council. multispecies fishery: Fishery in which more than one species is caught at the same time. Because of the imperfect selectivity of most fishing gear, most fisheries are “multispecies." Term is often used to refer to fisheries where more than one species is intentionally sought and retained. N National Academy of Sciences (NAS): Private nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of scientists. The NAS was granted a charter by Congress in 1863 that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS): Federal agency within NOAA responsible for overseeing fisheries science and regulation. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): Agency within the Department of Commerce responsible for ocean and coastal management. National Research Council (NRC): Operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences. New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC): One of eight regional councils mandated in the MSFCMA to develop management plans for fisheries in federal waters. The NEFMC develops fishery management plans for fisheries off the coasts of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
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--> North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC): One of eight regional councils mandated in the MSFCMA to develop management plans for fisheries in federal waters. The NPFMC develops fishery management plans for fisheries off the coast of Alaska. It is comprised of voting members from Alaska, Washington, and Oregon. O open access: Condition in which access to a fishery is not restricted (i.e., no license limitation, quotas, or other measures that would limit the amount of fish that an individual fisherman can harvest). optimum yield (OY): Term defined in the MSFCMA as the amount of fish providing the greatest overall benefit to the nation based on the MSY from the fishery as reduced by any relevant economic, social, or ecological factors. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD): International organization formed in 1961 of member nations in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia to sustain economic growth and improve international trade. output controls: Fishery management measures designed to limit the amount of catch or harvest in a fishery. These measures include catch quotas such as the TAC, IFQs, or IVQs. overfishing: Harvesting at a rate greater than necessary to meet economic or biological goals for fishery. Overfishing is defined in the Magnuson-Stevens Act. overfishing limit (OFL): Point at which fishing seriously compromises a fishery's continued, sustained productivity. Overfishing limits may be set based on standardized biological criteria established for a particular fishery. Overfishing limits may also incorporate economic and social considerations relevant to a particular fishery. P Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC): One of eight regional councils mandated in the MSFCMA to develop management plans for fisheries in federal waters. The PFMC develops fishery management plans for fisheries off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. Idaho is also represented on the council. paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP): Condition in humans caused by the ingestion of bivalve mollusks that have accumulated dangerous levels of neurotoxins from phytoplankton.
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--> pelagic: Referring to the open ocean. poaching: Catching fish for which no quota is held. Illegally harvesting fish. purse seine fishing: Fishing for certain species (e.g., tuna, herring, salmon) in which the school of fish is encircled with a large vertical net. The fish are trapped by "pursing" (closing) the bottom of the net by pulling it up from the center. Q quota: Percentage or amount of fish that can be harvested. quota busting: Harvesting fish in excess of the amount allowable for an individual's quota share. quota management area (QMA): Geographic area used in the management of New Zealand fisheries. There are 10 QMAs. quota management system (QMS): Overall management system used in the New Zealand fisheries managed by IFQs. quota share (QS): Amount of quota, translated into pounds or number of fish, that a particular individual or corporation is allowed to harvest or process. R recruitment (R): Number, or percentage, of fish that survive from birth to a specific age or size. The specific size or age at which recruitment is measured may correspond to when the fish first become vulnerable to capture in a fishery or when the number of fish in a cohort can be estimated reliably by stock assessment techniques. race for fish: Situation that can result in a fishery having a TAC without any limitation on fishing by the individual fisherman. This situation provides incentives for all participants in the fishery to harvest the TAC as quickly as possible before the fishery is closed. It typically leads to excessive fleet capacity and fishing effort (capital stuffing) and increasingly shorter fishing seasons. recreational fishing: Fishing whose primary intent is for sport and pleasure, not for the sale, barter, or trade of fish. recruitment overfishing: This condition results from fishing at a high enough level to reduce the biomass of reproductively mature fish (spawning biomass) to a level at which future recruitment is reduced. Recruitment overfish-
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--> ing is characterized by a decreasing proportion of older fish in the fishery and consistently low average recruitment over time. regional fishery management council: Eight regional fishery management councils are mandated in the MSFCMA to be responsible for developing fishery management plans for fisheries in federal waters. Councils are composed of voting members from NMFS, state fishery managers, and individuals selected by governors of the coastal states. Nonvoting members include individuals from the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other federal officials. Regional councils exist for the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, Mid-Atlantic, New England, North Pacific, Pacific, South Atlantic, and Western Pacific regions. riparian: Living on or near the bank of a river or lake. S scientific and statistical committee (SSC): Fishery management advisory body composed of federal, state, and academic scientists that provides scientific advice to a fishery management council. South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC): One of eight regional councils mandated in the MSFCMA to develop management plans for fisheries in federal waters. The SAFMC develops fishery management plans for fisheries off the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and the east coast of Florida. Superexclusive area registration: A management tool used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game for some (small) Bering Sea crab fisheries. Participation is open to any vessel, provided that the vessel agrees not to participate in any other crab fishery. Because this tool is applied to crab fisheries with low guideline harvest levels and because participation in the fishery precludes participation in any other Bering Sea crab fisheries, few vessels will choose to participate. Most of the vessels that do choose to participate will be small and local to the fishery. surf clam/ocean quahog (SCOQ): Surf clam and ocean quahog IFQ fishery managed by the MAFMC. surimi: Protein paste derived from processing raw fish, primarily pollock and whiting. Surimi can be combined with flavoring agents and other substances and extruded to create marketable foodstuffs (e.g., imitation crab meat). T total allowable catch (TAC): Total catch permitted to be caught from a stock in a given period, typically a year. In the United States, this limit is determined
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--> by regional fishery management councils in consultation with NMFS and scientific and statistical committees where they are used. transshipment: Transfer of product from one ship to another at sea for its further transport. trawling: Fishing technique in which a net is dragged behind the vessel and retrieved when full of fish. This technique is used extensively in the harvest of pollock, cod, and other species in North Pacific fisheries. It includes bottom- and midwater fishing activities. trolling: Fishing technique in which a lure is attached to a line dragged through the water. This technique is used in fishing for tuna and other pelagic species. two-fee system: System for recovering administrative costs and collecting additional fees using two different methods of fee collection. Monitoring, enforcement, and administrative costs would be covered by a per-unit fee levied on quota share determined by the magnitude of the costs it is designed to cover. Fees above administrative costs could be funded by a per-unit fee on actual catch. This fee would be relatively stable, although it could be indexed to some measure of inflation to ensure that its real value did not decline over time. two-pie system: Form of quota allocation in which both harvesters and processors are allocated shares of quota. The harvester and processor allocations would be transferable within but not between each category. U unblocked quota: Quota shares in the Alaskan halibut and sablefish IFQ programs that are allowed to be subdivided when transferred. There are limits on the total number of unblocked quota shares that an individual may own. underexploited: Fish species that are not exploited to the optimum yield or maximum sustainable yield. W Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (WPFMC): One of eight regional councils mandated in the MSFCMA to develop management plans for fisheries in federal waters. The WPFMC develops fishery management plans for fisheries off the coasts of Hawaii, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and uninhabited U.S. territories in the Western Pacific. Y year class: Fish of a given species spawned or hatched in a given year; a three-
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--> year-old fish caught in 1998 would be a member of the 1995 year class (See cohort). Z zero-revenue auction: Form of auction used in the Acid Rain Program to control sulfur emissions. Under this system, the government takes back some proportion of the allocation each year for sale in an auction. Quota holders are allowed to buy back the quota they put up to bid, but they will succeed only if they are the highest bidder. Quota shares are auctioned to the highest bidders, and the revenue is returned to the holders of the auctioned quota shares. In principle, the auction could involve either quota shares or annual quota in fisheries. Significantly, all components of auction transactions (e.g., price, identification of buyers, quantities transacted) are public information.