implemented in 1995. Virtually every meeting of the NPFMC since January 1995 has addressed one or more amendments or refinements to the program. Pautzke and Oliver (1997) briefly describe the modifications:
Biologic and Economic Outcomes for the Fishery. Gilroy et al. (1996) provide a preliminary description of the initial conservation effects of the halibut and sablefish IFQ programs. The IPHC estimates that halibut fishing mortality from lost and abandoned gear decreased from 554.1 metric tons in 1994 to 125.9 metric tons in 1995. The discard of halibut bycatch in the sablefish fishery is estimated to have dropped from 860 metric tons in 1994 to 150 metric tons in 1995. However, Gilroy et al. (1996) caution that the uncertainty of bycatch discard mortality estimates has not been determined under conditions of the IFQ fishery, and it is unclear whether the estimated reduction is statistically significant. There is no clear difference in sablefish bycatch before and after IFQs were introduced. The discard of other groundfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands sablefish fishery was higher in 1995 than in the previous four years, but there was no discernible difference in the Gulf of Alaska. There is no evidence of significant underreporting of catches of halibut or sablefish. The frequency of overharvests was significantly reduced by IFQs (Table G.2).