Current Perceived Issues. Some dissatisfaction continues over the initial allocation. This dissatisfaction is related to the delay between the qualifying years and the implementation date, and to the exclusion of crew members and processors from the initial allocation. The delays in implementation resulted in the exclusion of some fishermen who were active in the years immediately preceding implementation but were not active during the qualifying years (CFEC, 1997). Similarly, there was dissatisfaction with the award of QS to persons who were active during the qualifying years but inactive in the years immediately preceding implementation. Crew members and processors are discontented that the initial allocation, in addition to rewarding vessel owners, also changed output and factor market power in favor of QS holders.
There are ongoing concerns about the adequacy of enforcement and community impacts. With implementation, have come a heightened awareness of subsistence and sport catches and an effort to define limits on these competing fisheries. This competition has led to concerns about localized depletion and preemption of productive sportfishing grounds by commercial fishermen. Expansion of the fishery for sablefish in Alaska State waters and possible creation of a Gulf of Alaska CDQ program are also of concern.
The fishery for spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is conducted primarily in the Florida Keys. It is principally a trap fishery, with additional small commercial dive and substantial recreational dive components. Most lobsters are harvested relatively close to shore in shallow water.
Before the trap certificate system was implemented, the state required fishermen to purchase “crawfish licenses." Catch was limited by a minimum carapace
Unless otherwise noted, this information is summarized from the SAFMC/GFMC (1992). The program described for this fishery is based on individual transferable "trap certificates," a gear and effort-based system. There are no restrictions on the amount of catch, either for the fishery as a whole or for individuals. Input limitations are equivalent to output limitations only if there are no substitutes for the limited input. Because there is limited opportunity to substitute unconstrained inputs for lobster traps, the program appears to achieve many of the objectives that are also achieved by IFQ programs. Transferability allows fishermen to match the number of traps they use to the capacity of their vessel and their cycle of fishing and non-fishing activities. Nevertheless, there is some opportunity for fishermen to change their practices to increase the fishing power of individual traps through changes in the average soak time, changes in the spatial distribution of pots, and the choice of baits and other attractants.