Figure G.20

 Reported accidents at sea. Quotas were introduced in various fisheries  between 1976 and 1983. Source: G. Pálsson, unpublished analysis.

sure of the number of fishermen at risk, was 147,649, which suggests a mortality of 89.4 per 100,000 person-years. The mortality rate for all accidents did not change appreciably during this period. As mentioned earlier, one of the objectives of the ITQ program was to make fishing safer, resulting in fewer deaths and injuries at sea. It is difficult to evaluate the impact of the quota program in isolation because many other developments have taken place at the same time (the structure of the fleet has changed, as well as the number of fishermen at risk; there are new regulations on safety precautions), and no systematic study has been conducted. Interviews with the people responsible for recording and analyzing accidents at sea do not, however, indicate significant changes in terms of safety and accidents. Data provided from the National Insurance Institute show that the frequency of accidents at sea (including non-quota fisheries in international waters) increased from the onset of the ITQ program to 1994 (see Figure G.20). Additionally, cod are plentiful in the winter, so fishing effort is concentrated then, despite the bad weather. There may also be pressure under the quota program for absentee owners to disregard crew safety.

Current Perceived Issues. Current discontent with the ITQ program can be summarized in several points:

  1. Many people oppose the privatization of fishing rights entailed by ITQ management because fishing rights are still very much intertwined with the symbolic notions of national sovereignty and equity. The "Cod Wars" with Britain in


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