Index

A

Aboriginal fishing rights, 127, 139

Native Americans, 27, 28, 70(n.8)(n.8), 124, 125, 126, 127, 269, 303

New Zealand, Maori, 92, 94, 128, 354-355, 360, 364

see also Subsistence fishing

Absentee ownership of quota shares, 3, 10, 171-172, 208, 340

see also Leasing of quota shares

Administrative issues, see Co-management processes; Enforcement issues; Fees and taxes; Reporting requirements; Research, monitoring and evaluation

Air quality and pollution, 45-48

Clean Air Act, 145, 162-163

Alaska, 32(n.10)(n.10), 48, 168, 174, 217, 245

community development quotas, 125-128, 138, 206

Gulf of Alaska, 17, 77, 272, 300, 301, 306, 310, 312, 317

see also Bearing Sea-Aleutian Islands

Alaska halibut and sablefish fisheries, 194, 367, 381-407

blocked quota shares, 74, 204, 205, 222-223, 268

case study, 70-77, 78-80, 98, 108, 298-317

catch and participation trends, 17, 302, 304, 305, 306

derby fishing, 2-3, 306, 307

fees and taxes, 76, 79, 372-380, 387-388

IFQs, general, 2-3, 33, 146, 169, 170, 172-173, 199, 221, 222, 246 , 247, 381-407

Aleutian Islands, see Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands

Allocation of quota shares, see Initial allocation of quota shares; Transfer of quota shares

Allowable biological catch, 3, 25, 74, 177(n.5)(n.5), 302, 310

defined, 267

Alternative management approaches, general, 5, 112-138, 245, 317-322

bag limits, 119, 120-121

seasonal limits, 2, 70, 78, 94, 118-119, 286, 301

sex limitations, fish, 36, 132, 177(n.5)(n.5)

see also Area restrictions;

Effort quotas;

Entry limits, general;

Gear and gear restrictions;

Input controls;

Output controls;

Size and size limits, fish;

Trip limits

American Fisheries Promotion Act, 7, 15

Area restrictions, 88, 94, 132-134

harvest privilege and, 8

superexclusive area registration, 134, 277

territorial use rights, 134-135

Arizona Groundwater Management Act, 53



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--> Index A Aboriginal fishing rights, 127, 139 Native Americans, 27, 28, 70(n.8)(n.8), 124, 125, 126, 127, 269, 303 New Zealand, Maori, 92, 94, 128, 354-355, 360, 364 see also Subsistence fishing Absentee ownership of quota shares, 3, 10, 171-172, 208, 340 see also Leasing of quota shares Administrative issues, see Co-management processes; Enforcement issues; Fees and taxes; Reporting requirements; Research, monitoring and evaluation Air quality and pollution, 45-48 Clean Air Act, 145, 162-163 Alaska, 32(n.10)(n.10), 48, 168, 174, 217, 245 community development quotas, 125-128, 138, 206 Gulf of Alaska, 17, 77, 272, 300, 301, 306, 310, 312, 317 see also Bearing Sea-Aleutian Islands Alaska halibut and sablefish fisheries, 194, 367, 381-407 blocked quota shares, 74, 204, 205, 222-223, 268 case study, 70-77, 78-80, 98, 108, 298-317 catch and participation trends, 17, 302, 304, 305, 306 derby fishing, 2-3, 306, 307 fees and taxes, 76, 79, 372-380, 387-388 IFQs, general, 2-3, 33, 146, 169, 170, 172-173, 199, 221, 222, 246 , 247, 381-407 Aleutian Islands, see Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands Allocation of quota shares, see Initial allocation of quota shares; Transfer of quota shares Allowable biological catch, 3, 25, 74, 177(n.5)(n.5), 302, 310 defined, 267 Alternative management approaches, general, 5, 112-138, 245, 317-322 bag limits, 119, 120-121 seasonal limits, 2, 70, 78, 94, 118-119, 286, 301 sex limitations, fish, 36, 132, 177(n.5)(n.5) see also Area restrictions; Effort quotas; Entry limits, general; Gear and gear restrictions; Input controls; Output controls; Size and size limits, fish; Trip limits American Fisheries Promotion Act, 7, 15 Area restrictions, 88, 94, 132-134 harvest privilege and, 8 superexclusive area registration, 134, 277 territorial use rights, 134-135 Arizona Groundwater Management Act, 53

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--> Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program, 219 Auctions, 6, 47, 96, 143, 144-145, 164-165, 203, 207, 211, 215, 244 price factors, 47, 57, 144, 145, 164, 165, 279 zero-revenue, 6, 47, 145, 211 Australia, 32, 108, 109, 135 Australian drop-through allocation system, 150-151, 201, 203, 222 defined, 267-268 B Bag limits, 119, 120-121 Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands, 71, 73, 104, 124, 300, 301, 308, 310, 312 Biologic and ecologic conservation factors, general, 2, 14 allowable biological catch, 3, 25, 74, 177(n.5)(n.5), 267, 302, 310 case studies, 59, 60, 63-67, 69, 71, 74, 75, 77, 84-85, 88, 89, 92, 93, 95, 105, 106, 107, 112, 283-284, 291-292, 301-302, 312-313, 318, 321, 328-330, 344, 358-360 initial allocation criteria, 144, 148-149, 150, 203, 204, 224 quota auctions, 144 legislation, 17, 140 recommendations, 9, 196, 197, 198, 199, 223 refuges and reserves, 133-134, 303 regional uniqueness, 2, 4, 194 rent and, 24 research needs, 24-25, 217, 218, 388 stock size, 20, 110, 114, 120, 214, 218, 297, 344, 357, 360 sustainable yield, 1, 13, 28-29, 31, 93, 140, 274 see also Common-pool resources; Stewardship issues Blocked/unblocked quotas, 74, 204, 205, 309, 312, 369, 374 defined, 268, 278 Boats, see Vessels British Columbia, 29, 31, 70, 107, 173, 256, 297 Bycatch and bycatch quotas, 11, 16, 33, 123-124, 142, 177, 244 case studies, 71, 74-75, 80, 83, 91, 93, 108, 292, 300, 303, 304, 330, 336, 352-354 defined, 268 IFQ allocation criteria, 149, 216 individual bycatch quotas, 21, 123, 124, 212 mixed-stock fisheries, 113-114 net mesh size, 115, 116, 132 see also Discard fish C California, 41, 43, 49-50, 52-52 Canada, 129 community factors, 128-129, 187, 196 entry limits, 29-31 halibut fishery, 70, 179(n.6)(n.6), 298, 302 IFQs/ITQs, 2, 31, 32, 35, 99, 106, 107, 129, 136-137, 146, 172, 174 , 191, 302, 313 individual vessel quotas, 122-123 lottery allocation of quotas, 146 rent recovery, 163, 164 see also Nova Scotia Capelin, Iceland, 77, 82, 325-326 Capital gains taxes, 161, 165, 213, 214, 244, 368-378, 380, 387, 388, 408 Capital stuffing, 117, 118, 120, 199, 270, 276 defined, 268 Case studies, 59-111, 280-365 see also "case studies" under other entries; specific fisheries Catcher-processor vessels, 125, 128, 129 case studies, 70, 74, 301, 310, 312 defined, 268 Catch per unit effort, 14 case studies, 65, 75, 110, 284, 292, 301, 306, 313, 357 defined, 268 Central registry system, 8, 202, 218, 250-251, 297, 387 Charterboats, 133, 141, 244, 268 Cheating, see Illegal activities Clean Air Act, 145, 162-163 Coastal communities, see Fishing communities Coast Guard, see U.S. Coast Guard Cod, 24, 77, 81-87 (passim), 122, 125, 136, 256, 278, 324-330, 335, 336, 340, 341 Co-management processes, 135-138, 191, 215, 285 Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Anti-Reflagging Act, 157

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--> Common-pool resources community-level factors, 183, 186 cultural factors, 39, 46 defined, 38, 39, 269 fees and taxes and, 57-58, 129, 162 general, 13, 26-27, 29, 37, 38-45 Icelandic fisheries, 86, 337, 338 litigation, 40-44, 48, 49 other than fisheries, 45-58, 145, 147, 162-163 price factors, 47, 52 see also Public trust doctrine Communities, see Fishing communities Community development quotas, 124-128, 172, 206, 250 employment issues, 124, 125-126 defined, 269 Community fishing quotas, 9, 10-11, 128-129, 147, 206-207 Computer applications enforcement, 381 monitoring, 178-179, 388-389 reporting, 90, 347 Concentration of quota shares, 3, 4, 5, 167-174, 207-210, 222-223 case studies, 63, 76, 85-86, 87, 96, 97-98, 102-104, 297, 310, 312 , 315-316, 320, 322, 332-337, 341, 349 excessive shares, 6, 33, 66, 138, 191, 208, 209, 210, 248, 259, 297 , 332-335, 341 see also Transfer of quota shares Conservation factors, see Biologic and ecologic conservation factors Control dates, 10, 199, 223 defined, 269 Cooperatives, 129, 130 Cost and cost-benefit factors, 140, 213-217, 259, 366-408 administrative costs, 175-176, 178-179, 193, 196, 214, 215, 249-250, 366-367, 380-388 individual fishery case studies, 69, 76, 83, 92, 95, 98-99, 107, 286, 291, 311, 320-321 bioeconomics, Gordon-Schaefer model, 22-23 case studies, 69, 76, 79, 83, 92, 95, 97-99, 107, 109, 284, 286, 291, 311, 320-321, 330-331 co-management, 135, 215 data lacking, 8, 92, 366, 408 enforcement, 175-176, 193, 216-217, 286, 349, 366, 381-387, 388 fees and taxes to cover, 5-6, 18, 76, 79, 97-98, 130-131, 162-167, 214, 316, 366-367 individual fishery case studies, 69, 76, 83, 92, 95, 98-99, 107, 316 externalities, 18, 26, 36, 270 fees and taxes to cover IFQs, 5-6, 18, 76, 79, 97-98, 130-131, 162 -167, 215, 249-250, 291, 311, 320-321, 366-380 highgrading, 109 national standards on, 114 new fishermen, market entry, 4, 210-211, 387 resource rents and, 21-25, 48 TACs, 72 see also Price factors Court proceedings, see Litigation Crews, see Employment issues Cultural factors, 19, 181-185 common-pool resources, 39, 46 other property issues, 27-28 transfer of quota shares, 11, 173 see also Aboriginal fishing rights; Subsistence fishing D Data collection and analysis, see Research, monitoring and evaluation; Statistical analyses Data fouling, 106, 107, 175, 216, 217, 269, 293(a) Department of Commerce, see National Marine Fisheries Service; U.S. Department of Commerce Derby fisheries, 2-3, 67, 107, 270, 306, 307 Discard fish, 122, 124, 175, 177, 391 case studies, 65, 71, 74-75, 83, 91, 108, 304, 312, 329, 351 defined, 270 see also Highgrading; Bycatch Dockside monitoring, 120, 123, 137, 163, 223, 385 E Ecological factors, see Biologic and ecologic conservation factors

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--> Economic factors, 12, 112, 243-244 bioeconomics, Gordon-Schaefer model, 22-23 capital stuffing, 117, 118, 120, 199, 268, 270, 276 community development quotas, 124-128 gross domestic product, 81, 322, 324 IFQs case studies, 61, 62, 64, 65, 67-68, 69, 71-72, 75-76, 81, 82, 85-89 (passim), 93, 95, 101, 103, 105, 287-288, 292-296, 297, 302-304, 313-316, 318, 321, 322, 324-325, 327, 328-342, 344, 346, 360-363 central registry, 8, 202, 218, 250-251, 297, 387 general, 3-4, 33-34, 142, 161-162, 192, 197-212, 243-244, 388-391 windfall profit, 6, 10, 14, 142, 144, 155, 161, 169, 202, 203, 213 -214, 222, 321 overcapitalization, 4, 5, 9, 13-14, 16, 30-34 (passim), 119, 122, 141, 170, 173-174, 186, 192, 193, 205, 381 case studies, 68, 82, 88, 93, 94, 95, 287, 288, 294, 324-325, 326, 343, 344, 361 regional councils view of, 9 research and monitoring of, 7, 8, 69, 218-219 transfer of quota shares, 168-169, 173-174 vertical integration, 153, 154, 172, 205, 210 case studies, 60, 61, 87, 285, 289, 294-295, 296, 331, 336, 337, 341 see also Catcher-processor vessels windfall profit, 6, 10, 14, 142, 144, 155, 161, 169, 202, 203, 213 -214, 222, 321 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Concentration of quota shares; Employment issues; Fees and taxes; Funding; Price factors Economic rents, 6, 21-25, 31, 48, 161-167, 210, 211, 214-217, 277 defined, 270 case studies, 64, 79, 85 price factors, 21, 24, 25, 162, 165, 167 Effort quotas, 78, 115, 118-119 case studies, 60, 95, 326-327 seasonal fishing limits, 2, 70, 78, 94, 118-119, 286, 301 El Niño-Southern Oscillation, 51, 270 Employment issues, 217, 367, 391-392, 405 case studies, 61-62, 64, 65, 76, 84, 86, 101-102, 285-286, 295, 336 -337, 339 community development quotas, 124, 125-126 crew- and skipper-based quota allocations, 151-152, 203, 204-205, 219, 244, 317, 337, 341, 398-403, 405, 407 crew size factors, 76, 115, 116, 122, 316 negative impacts of IFQs, 3, 4, 14, 34, 105, 167, 174, 181, 285-286, 295, 336-337, 339 see also Safety Enforcement issues, 17-18, 35, 36, 142, 175-176, 179-180, 216-217, 244, 261, 262 case studies, 66, 68, 74, 76, 83, 91, 95, 98, 107, 290, 296-297, 316, 319, 320, 349 Coast Guard, 179-180, 249, 381, 382-386 co-management, 135, 191 computer applications, 381 costs of, 175-176, 193, 216-217, 286, 349, 366, 381-387, 388 fees and taxes to cover, 5-6, 18, 76, 79, 97-98, 130-131, 162-167, 214, 316, 366-367 individual fishery case studies, 69, 76, 83, 92, 95, 98-99, 107, 316 NMFS, 68, 74, 76, 180, 296-297 see also Fines and penalties; Illegal activities; Reporting requirements Enterprise schemes, 88, 90-91 Entry limits, general, 8, 29-32, 176, 195, 197, 210-211, 213, 244, 249 case studies, 96, 105, 282-283, 308, 325 central registry, 250-251 control dates, 10, 199, 223, 269 fishing communities, 9 see also Alternative management approaches Equipment, see Gear and gear restrictions; Vessels Evaluation, see Research, monitoring and evaluation Exclusive economic zones, 15, 29, 31, 32, 44, 136, 140, 261, 262 case studies, 77, 86, 282, 298, 324, 325, 332, 341, 343 defined, 270

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--> Exploitation rates, 20 air resources, 45 case studies, 70, 77, 110, 293, 324, 356 data lacking, 24-25 defined, 270 fishing mortality defined, 271 nationwide, 13 overfishing defined, 292 see also Alternative management approaches; Input controls; Output controls; Overfishing limits; Total allowable catch F Factory trawler, see Catcher-processor vessels Federal government role Department of State, 249 IFQs, general, 4, 14, 17-18, 20-21, 33-34, 139-224 NOAA, 274 public trust doctrine, 43-44 regional issues and, 2, 4, 5, 8, 15, 193, 194-195, 209 state coordination with, 195-196 stewardship issues, 12, 168, 224, 199-200, 201, 203, 204 Supreme Court, 40, 41(n.7)(n.7), 42, 43, 48, 50-51 see also Legislation; National Marine Fisheries Service; U.S. Coast Guard Federal Land Policy Management Act, 58 Fees and taxes, 5-6, 10, 18, 40, 54, 129-131, 161, 165-167, 207, 208, 213-214, 247-248, 249-250, 366-380, 387-388 capital gains taxes, 161, 165, 213, 214, 244, 368-378, 380, 387, 388, 408 case studies, 57-58, 76, 79, 86, 97-98, 291, 337, 341 common-pool resource issues, 57-58, 129, 162 enforcement, financing of, 5-6, 18, 76, 79, 97-98, 130-131, 162-167, 214, 316, 366-367 IFQs, financing of, 5-6, 18, 76, 79, 97-98, 130-131, 162-167, 214-216, 249-250, 291, 311, 316, 320-321, 366-380, 407-408 Magnuson-Stevens Act, 6, 162, 176, 213, 214, 215, 246, 249-250, 367 -368, 377, 387 open access fisheries, 367 price factors, 131, 341, 367, 369, 374-378, 379, 380 research, financing of, 5-6, 18, 76, 79, 97-98, 130-131, 162-167, 214, 215-216 transfer of quota shares, 368, 370-376, 379-380, 387, 390, 407-408 Fines and penalties, 18, 35, 36, 128, 136, 180, 217, 261, 262, 263 , 264 case studies, 76, 83, 91, 329-330, 351 Fisheries Acts (New Zealand), 87-88, 90, 93, 342-344, 346, 363-365 Fishery Conservation and Management Act, see also Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Fishery management plans, general, 5, 197 case studies, 59-111, 280-365 defined, 271 evaluation provisions, 9, 64, 68 Magnuson-Stevens Act, 6, 16, 194, 247, 248-249, 258-259, 261, 263, 264 see also Alternative management approaches; Individual fishing quotas Fishing communities, 10-11, 34, 181-187, 196, 215, 217, 243-244, 392-407 case studies, 65, 69, 76, 86, 87, 285-286, 295-296, 304, 306, 316, 322-323, 339, 363 common-pool resources, 183, 186 community development quotas, 124-128, 172, 206, 250, 269 community fishing quotas, 9, 10-11, 128-129, 206-207 defined, 19-20, 181 entry limits, 9 Magnuson-Stevens Act, 9, 19, 125, 196 transfer of quotas allocations, 11, 158-159, 170-171 see also Aboriginal fishing rights; Employment issues Fishing effort, 35, 95, 105, 293, 350 defined, 271 see also Catch per unit effort; Effort quotas Fishing power, 18, 72, 87, 117, 119, 136, 317, 343 defined, 271 Florida, 118, 215, 317-322

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--> Food and Agriculture Organization (United Nations), 29, 30, 271 Foreign countries limitation of foreign entry, 7, 14, 15, 31, 91, 155-158, 211, 243, 249, 257, 262, 263, 290, 298; see also Exclusive economic zones U.S. safety standards applied to, 262 vessel ownership and registration, 7, 14, 15, 31, 91, 257 see also International perspectives; specific countries Forests, see Timber resources Funding enforcement, 180 fees and taxes to cover IFQs, 5-6, 18, 76, 79, 97-98, 130-131, 162 -167, 214-216, 249-250, 291, 311, 316, 320-321, 366-380, 407-408 research and monitoring, 7, 8, 176, 198, 218 small fishermen, 4, 18, 210-211, 248, 387 G Gas, see Oil and gas Gear and gear restrictions, 28, 33, 34, 115-116, 244, 389-390 case studies, 70, 73, 88, 301, 306, 307, 317-322 defined, 271 Florida lobster fishery, tradable permits, 317-322 net mesh size, 115, 116, 132 quota allocation criteria, 70, 136, 147, 149, 150 recreational fishing, 116, 160 technological innovations, 21, 25, 28, 31, 46, 58, 114, 117-118, 170, 182, 324 territorial use rights and, 134, 135 see also Ghost fishing; Vessels Gender, see Sex of fish Ghost fishing, 2-3, 71, 108, 304, 312, 389 defined, 272 Gifting of quota shares, 4, 10, 207, 378 Gordon-Schaefer model, 22-23 Government role, see Federal government role; Enforcement issues; Fees and taxes; Legislation; Licensing; Litigation; Reporting requirements; Research, monitoring and evaluation; State government role Grazing lands, 57-58 Gross domestic product, 81, 322, 324 Groundfish fisheries, general, 32, 119, 120-121, 122, 187, 191 case studies, 82, 83, 326-327 defined, 272 see specific species Groundwater, 51-55 Gulf of Alaska, 17, 77, 272, 300, 301, 306, 310, 312, 317 Gulf of Maine, 60 Gulf of Mexico, 33, 35, 194, 221, 252-253 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, 190, 221, 245, 252-253, 272, 318, 319 H Haddock, 77, 87, 136, 330, 336, 341 Halibut, see Alaska halibut and sablefish fisheries Halibut Treaty of 1923, 70 Hawaii, 245 Herring, 30, 31, 32, 77, 81-85 (passim), 109, 119, 172, 269, 324, 325-330 (passim), 377, 403 Highgrading, 36, 122, 175, 177, 216 case studies, 75, 91, 108-110, 313, 329, 351 defined, 272 Historical perspectives foreign fishing in domestic waters, 155, 211 IFQs, 2, 17-18, 26-33 Magnuson-Stevens Act, 15-18, 31, 60, 211, 260-264 quota allocation based on participation in fishery, 4, 10, 207, 90 , 94, 96, 118, 143, 145, 148, 149, 150, 199, 203-204, 206-207, 223 , 224, 289-290, 308-309, 317, 325, 339, 341, 346-347, 378 public trust doctrine, 40-43, 49-51, 55, 56 sustainable yield, 1 see also Case studies I Iceland, 2, 77, 81-87, 101, 102, 139, 170, 171-172, 174, 209, 322-342 Illegal activities, 11, 13, 18, 175, 216-217, 263-264, 385 case studies, 76, 83, 91, 107-108, 110, 287, 351

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--> poaching, 175, 177, 216, 276 see also Discard fish; Enforcement issues; Highgrading; Quota busting Individual bycatch quotas, 21, 123, 124, 212 Individual fishing quotas, general advantages and concerns, general, 3-4, 33-37, 99-111, 210-211 area restrictions and, 133 case studies, 59-111, 280-365 cost-benefit analysis, 366-408 defined, 1-2, 14, 17-18, 20-21, 245-246, 272 excessive shares, 6, 33, 66, 138, 191, 208, 209, 210, 248, 259, 297 , 332-335, 341 harvest privilege and, 7-8, 9, 14, 84, 97, 337-338, 339 moratorium on, 2, 5, 14, 18, 61, 62, 140, 191, 194, 196, 200, 247 national policy, 4, 14, 17-18, 20-21, 33-34, 139-224 non-fishery common-pool resources vs, 45-58 public trust doctrine, 45 recommendations, 5-12, 192-224 TACs and, 20, 32-36 (passim), 47-48, 142, 143, 146, 147-148, 175, 178, 184, 186, 187, 192, 193, 200, 245-246 case studies, 57, 63, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 74, 75, 82, 84, 85, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 106, 107, 108, 110, 137, 291, 310, 311, 313, 318, 325, 328, 329, 335, 336, 339, 345, 346, 348, 352, 353, 355-360, 362 , 403 threshold criteria, 5, 141-142, 192, 244 see also Concentration of quota shares; Initial allocation of quotas; Quota busting; Transfer of quota shares; “IFQ" subheadings under other entries Individual transferable quotas, 128, 136-137, 150, 163, 167, 173-174 case studies, 61-70, 82-94, 285, 286-297, 317(n.4)(n.4), 322-365 defined, 272 Individual vessel quotas, 21, 62-63, 73, 82, 123, 124, 212, 313 Initial allocation of quota shares, 5, 10, 34, 96, 142-155, 202-207, 210 air pollutant emissions as example, 46-47, 207 appeals, 73, 94, 186, 219, 220, 223, 309, 320, 348, 364, 377, 382 attenuation of, 165 auctions, 6, 47, 57, 96, 143, 144-145, 148, 164-165, 203, 207, 211 , 215, 244, 279 Australian drop-through allocation system, 150-151, 201, 203, 267, 222 blocked/unblocked shares, 74, 204, 205, 268, 278, 309, 312, 369, 374 bycatch criteria, 149, 216 case studies, 63, 68, 70-77 (passim), 82-84 (passim), 86, 88, 89, 90-91, 94, 102, 104, 289-290, 294, 308-310, 317, 320, 327, 341, 347 -349 central registry system, 8, 202, 218, 250-251, 297, 387 co-management practices, 138, 215 community development quotas, 124-128, 172, 206, 250, 269 community fishing quotas, 9, 10-11, 128-129, 147, 206-207 conservation criteria, 144, 148-149, 150, 203, 204, 224 control dates and, 10, 199, 223 cooperatives, 129, 130 crew- and skipper-based, 151-152, 203, 204-205, 219, 244, 317, 337 , 341, 398-403, 405, 407 enterprise schemes, 88, 90-91 fairness, general, 4, 18, 244, 258 foreign interests, 15, 91 gear-based, 70, 136, 147, 149, 150 gifting, 4, 10, 207, 378 historical participation in fishery, 4, 10, 118, 143, 145, 148, 149 , 150, 199, 203-204, 206-207, 223, 224, 378 case studies, 90, 94, 96, 289-290, 308-309, 317, 325, 339, 341, 346 -347 lotteries, 143, 145-146, 148, 149, 158, 161, 207 price factors, auctions, 47, 57, 144, 145, 164, 165, 279 other, 158, 166, 168, 169, 174, 177, 211, 218, 221-222, 295, 327, 330, 336-337, 341, 348, 367, 368, 369, 374-378, 380, 390, 405, 408 procedural/priority ranking, 146, 148 processor awards, 152-155, 203, 205, 243, 244, 317

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--> public trust doctrine, 12, 27, 38, 45, 47, 50, 51, 52, 54 regional councils, role in, 142-155, 203-208 (passim), 210 rent dissipation, 25 vessel-based, 10, 21, 118, 119, 121-123, 130, 136, 147, 148, 149, 151, 157, 203, 205, 209, 212, 222, 244, 247, 403 case studies, 62-63, 73, 82-83, 86, 96, 99, 102, 104, 288-290, 309 , 310, 313, 317, 325, 341 windfalls resulting from, 6, 10, 14, 142, 144, 155, 161, 169, 202, 203, 213-214, 222, 321 see also Aboriginal fishing rights; Fees and taxes; Transfer of quota shares Input controls, general, 4, 89, 115-119, 346 defined, 1, 115, 272 TAC-based controls vs, 3-4, 118 see also Area restrictions; Effort quotas; Gear and gear restrictions; Vessels International Commission for Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, 273 International Pacific Halibut Commission, 29, 70, 73, 74, 75, 109, 298, 301, 306, 310, 311, 312, 370-371, 373-376, 382 International perspectives air pollution regulation, 46-47 IFQs, 2, 139-140 see also Exclusive economic zones; Foreign countries; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; United Nations; specific countries J Japan, 27, 57, 71, 76, 130, 196, 302, 315, 343, 361, 377 Jones Act, 157 Jurisdictional issues, 16, 26, 219, 262 community-based governance, 183-185 multiple jurisdictions, 39, 43, 44, 112, 195 public trust doctrine, 39, 43, 44, 51, 194-196 state-regional cooperation, 195 UN Convention, 15 see also Exclusive economic zones L Leasing, nonfishery resources, 41, 55, 57-58 Leasing of quota shares, 3, 4, 10, 28, 30, 171-173, 201, 208, 210, 218 case studies, 65, 73, 74, 79, 85-86, 96, 295, 309, 327-328, 330, 336, 352 Legislation, national American Fisheries promotion Act, 7, 15 antitrust, 97-98, 174, 209, 290, 297 Clean Air Act, 145, 162-163 Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Anti-Reflagging Act, 157 community fishing quotas, 128-129 Iceland, 77, 326, 337-339 Federal Land Policy Management Act, 58 Fisheries Acts (New Zealand), 87-88, 90, 93, 342-344, 346, 363-365 Marine Mammal Protection Act, 16 Marine Reserves Act (New Zealand), 133 Merchant Marine Act (Jones Act), 157 Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, 55 New Zealand, 87-88, 90, 93, 133, 342-344, 346, 363-365 North Pacific Halibut Act, 198 Processor Preference Act, 15, 61 Shipping Act, 155, 243, 257 Taylor Grazing Act, 58 see also Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act; Sustainable Fisheries Act Licensing, 28, 29, 30-31, 32(n.10)(n.10), 83, 87, 117-118, 252, 368 case studies, 59, 60, 61, 82, 88, 95, 96, 105, 317-322, 325, 326, 343, 350 Florida lobster fishery, tradable permits, 317-322 stewardship issues, 224 Litigation antitrust, 297 common-pool property, 40-44, 48, 49, 50-51 entry limits, 30 open access, 31 privilege of harvest, 7-8, 84, 337-338, 339 public trust doctrine, 40-44, 49 U.S. Supreme Court, 40, 41(n.7)(n.7), 42, 43, 48, 50-51 Lobster fisheries, 116, 118, 134, 215, 317-322, 361, 362 Local factors, see Fishing communities; Social factors

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--> Longline fishing, 115, 116, 122, 386, 389 case studies, 66, 70, 71, 73, 75, 301, 304, 306, 308, 311, 313, 327 defined, 273 Lottery allocation of quotas, 143, 145-146, 148, 149, 158, 161, 207 M Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 1, 15-21, 114, 190-191 bycatch, 124, 200, 259 central registry system, 8, 202, 250-251 community-based quotas, 125, 206 concentration of IFQ shares, 174, 209 defined, 273 fees and taxes, 6, 162, 176, 213, 214, 215, 246, 249-250, 367-368, 377, 387 fishery defined, 18-19 fishery management plans, general, 6, 16, 194, 247, 248-249, 258-259, 261, 263, 264 fishing communities, 9, 19, 140, 196 foreign ownership, 7 historical perspectives, 15-18, 31, 60, 211, 260-264 IFQs, 1-2, 14, 17-18, 20-21, 33-34, 139-140, 174, 193, 194-195, 196 , 199-201, 204, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 215, 222 case studies, 59-77, 96, 281-322 fees and taxes, 6, 162, 176, 213, 214, 246, 249-250, 367-368, 377, 387 text of, relevant sections of act, 243-253 limited entry, 8, 96, 213 marine protected areas, 57 new entry into fisheries, 210-211, 387 privilege of harvest, 7-8, 17-18, 20-21, 40, 199-201 public trust doctrine, 40, 44, 57 regional councils, 1, 5, 6, 7, 15-16, 96-97, 193, 194-195 review of, 15-18, 243-244 text of, relevant sections of act, 243-253, 258-259 see also Sustainable Fisheries Act Maine, 60, 134, 289, 291 Marine Mammal Protection Act, 16 Marine Reserves Act (New Zealand), 133 Maryland, 28, 29 Maximum economic yield, 23 Maximum sustainable yield, 28-29, 31, 93 defined, 274 Gordon-Schaefer model, 23, Merchant Marine Act, 157 Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 32, 61, 274, 282, 284, 285 , 286, 291 Migratory species, general, 39, 112, 113, 133, 134, 186 Mineral Leasing Act, 55 Monitoring, see Reporting requirements; Research, monitoring and evaluation Multispecies fisheries, 141, 193, 264 case studies, 91, 92, 107, 108, 110, 351, 352, 353, 354, 364 defined, 274 mixed-stock fisheries, 113-114 see also Bycatch and bycatch quotas; Discard fish N National Marine Fisheries Service, 1, 14, 32, 220, 274 allowable biological catch, 3 case studies, 64, 68, 69, 74, 76, 286, 292, 296-297, 311, 319 central registry system, 8, 202, 218, 250-251 community-level delegation, 196 control dates, 10, 199 enforcement, 68, 74, 76, 180, 296-297 entry limits, 32 research and monitoring, 7, 9, 64, 68, 69, 199, 218-221, 292, 311, 367, 369, 381, 392 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 274 see also National Marine Fisheries Service National Sea Grant College Program, 7 Native Americans, 27, 28, 70(n.8)(n.8), 124, 125, 126, 127, 269, 303 Natural gas, see Oil and gas Netherlands, The, 101, 137, 167, 173, 191, 196 Net mesh size, 115, 116, 132 New England Fishery Management Council, 32, 264, 274 New Jersey, 32(n.10)(n.10), 40, 60, 61. 65, 282-287 (passim), 292

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--> New York, 287 New Zealand, 129, 157 community fishing quotas, 128 ITQs, 2, 32, 33, 87-94, 106, 107, 108, 110, 128, 129, 139, 174, 217 , 342-365 refuges, 133 rent recovery, 163, 164, 214 Nontarget species, see Bycatch and bycatch quotas; Discard fish North Pacific Fishery Management Council, 70, 72, 73, 74, 125, 129 , 155, 157-159, 246, 275, 298, 308, 309, 310, 311-312, 382, 385 North Pacific Halibut Act, 198 Northwest Atlantic Ocean Fisheries Reinvestment Program, 264 Norway, 101, 102, 104, 120-121, 326 Nova Scotia, 106, 136-137, 191, 196 O Occupational safety, see Safety Ocean quahog fishery, see Surf clam/ocean quahog fisheries Oil and gas, 55-56 Open access, 3, 14, 16, 26, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 38, 143, 176, 223, 381, 382 case studies, 68, 72, 283, 287, 314, 343 fees from, 367 defined, 275 resources other than fisheries, 45 Optimum yield, 15 case studies, 63-64, 282 Oregon, 70 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 115, 118, 275 Output controls, general, 119-129, 223 defined, 1-2, 119, 275 TAC-based controls vs, 3-4 see also Individual fishing quotas, general Overfishing limits, 5, 15, 16, 33, 114 case studies, 74, 81, 95, 292, 311 defined, 275, 292 P Pacific Fishery Management Council, 70, 275, 298 Paralytic shellfish poisoning, 275, 283 Pelagic fisheries, general, 127, 263, 272, 276, 325, 326 see specific species Penalties, see Fines and penalties Permits, see Licensing Poaching, 175, 177, 216, 276 Political factors, 9, 12, 26, 28, 39, 142, 143, 147, 215 case studies, 81, 82, 325, 326 Pollock, 16, 57, 124, 132, 136, 154, 255, 269, 277, 278, 388 Price factors, 117, 123, 136, 389, 402, 403-404, 407 case studies, 69, 71, 72, 75, 76, 85, 95, 99, 107, 284, 285, 289, 292, 294-295, 303, 304, 307, 313-314, 316, 318, 327, 330, 331, 336 , 342, 348, 352, 361, 379 common pool resources, 47, 52 economic rents, 21, 24, 25, 162, 165, 167 fees and taxes, 131, 341, 367, 369, 374-378, 379, 380 monopoly power and, 65 quota auctions, 47, 57, 144, 145, 164, 165, 279 quota shares, other, 158, 166, 168, 169, 174, 177, 211, 218, 221-222, 295, 327, 330, 336-337, 341, 348, 367, 368, 369, 374-378, 380, 390 , 405, 408 processors, impacts on, 34, 152-155 (passim), 205, 280, 342, 390 underharvest, 69 see also Highgrading Processor Preference Act, 15, 61 Processors and processing quotas, 4, 57, 77, 91, 188, 203, 243 case studies, 70, 74, 77, 91, 284-285, 290, 314 community dependence on, 186, 205 cooperatives, 129, 130 excess capacity, 33, 34 initial quota allocations, 152-155, 203, 205, 243, 244, 317 price factors, 34, 152-155 (passim), 205, 280, 342, 390 substitutability of species, 24, 67, 285 vertical integration, 153, 154, 172, 205, 210 case studies, 60, 61, 87, 285, 289, 294-295, 296, 331, 336, 337, 341 see also Catcher-processor vessels

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--> Public trust doctrine, 12, 27, 39-45, 49-51, 86, 140-141, 162, 186 defined, 40-41 gifting, 4 initial quota allocations, 12, 27, 38, 45, 47, 50, 51, 52, 54 litigation, 40-44, 49 Magnuson-Stevens Act, 40, 44, 57 Purse seine fishing, 101, 102, 121, 122, 324 defined, 276 Q Quahog fishery, see Surf clam/ocean quahog fisheries Quota allocation, see Initial allocation of quota shares; Concentration of quota shares; Transfer of quota shares Quota busting, 36, 122, 137, 175, 177, 193, 195, 216, 269 case studies, 91, 107, 110, 312, 351, 381 defined, 276 see also Discard fish; Highgrading R Rangelands, see Grazing lands Recreational fishing, 11, 19, 27, 33, 119, 141, 159-161, 212, 261 bag limits, 119, 120-121 case studies, 71, 77, 89, 303, 317, 344, 345, 346 charterboats, 133, 141, 244, 268 defined, 276 gear restrictions, 116, 160 TAC allotments, 159, 212 Recruitment annual variation in, 54, 60, 112, 113, 120, 283 case studies, 60, 92, 106, 282, 283, 284, 292, 302 defined, 276-277 TACs and, 113, 120, 141, 282 Refuges and reserves, 133-134, 303 Regional factors IFQs, case studies, 76, 346, 347 IFQs, discretion on, 5, 6, 9-11, 185-186, 193, 194-195, 206, 210 national regulation and, 2, 4, 5, 8, 15, 193, 194-195, 209 sociocultural, 182 subregional cooperation, 8, 11, 196 territorial use rights and, 134-135 see also Cultural factors; Fishing communities; Social factors Regional fishery management councils, 9-11, 193, 194-195 defined, 277 enforcement issues, 216-217 history of, 15-16, 32 Magnuson-Stevens Act and, 1, 5, 6, 7, 15-16, 96-97, 193, 194-195 procedural allocation mechanisms, 146-147 quota allocation mechanisms, types of, 142-155, 203-208 (passim), 210 research and monitoring, 7, 9, 198, 218, 220, 221 stakeholder representation, 9, 10, 12, 93-94, 97, 135-138, 203, 220 state cooperation with, 195-196 sunset provisions, 8, 201-202 see also Fishery management plans; specific regional councils Rent and rent extraction, see Economic rents Reporting requirements case studies, 66, 75, 90, 91, 93, 107, 282, 290, 296, 301, 347, 349 , 350, 363, 347, 349-350, 357-358, 363 computerized, 90, 347 costs, 381 data fouling, 106, 107, 175, 216, 217, 269, 293 price information, 308 see also Quota busting Research, monitoring and evaluation, 13, 35, 36, 175, 177-179, 263 . 264 air pollution control, 47 biologic and ecologic, 24-25, 217, 218, 388 stock size, 20, 110, 114, 120, 214, 218, 297, 344, 357, 360 case studies, 64, 68, 69, 70, 74, 76, 79, 83, 90, 91, 92-93, 97-99, 107, 286, 290, 291, 296, 311-312, 320, 321, 349-351, 354, 363, 365 central registry system, 8, 202, 218, 250-251, 297, 387 Coast Guard, 179-180, 249, 381, 382-386 co-management, 135, 215 computer applications, 178-179, 388-389 confidentiality of information, 219, 251-252, 263

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--> costs of, 175-176, 193, 363 fees and taxes to cover, 5-6, 18, 76, 79, 97-98, 130-131, 162-167, 214, 215-216 individual fishery case studies, 69, 76, 83, 92, 95, 98-99, 107, 286, 363 economic factors, 7, 8, 69, 218-219 data fouling, 106, 107, 175, 216, 217, 269 dockside monitoring, 120, 123, 137, 163, 223, 385 funding for, 7, 8, 176, 198, 218 fees and taxes to cover, 5-6, 18, 76, 79, 97-98, 130-131, 162-167, 214, 215-216 Gulf of Mexico red snapper, 252-253 NMFS, 7, 9, 64, 68, 69, 199, 218-221, 292, 311, 367, 369, 381, 392 output controls, 119-120 recommendations, 6-7, 8-9, 193, 198-199, 216, 217-224 regional councils, 7, 9, 198, 218, 220, 221 state role, 11, 195 stock size, 20, 110, 114, 120, 214, 218, 297, 344, 357, 360 study at hand, methodology, 2, 37, 243-245 see also Reporting requirements; Statistical analyses Reserves, see Refuges and reserves Resource rents, 6, 21-25, 31, 48, 161-167, 210, 211, 214-217, 270, 277 case studies, 64, 79, 85 Riparian areas and species, 27, 48, 277 S Sablefish, see Alaska halibut and sablefish fisheries Safety issues, 4, 36, 192, 244 case studies, 61-62, 71, 86, 99, 101, 286, 296, 304, 339-340 derby fishing, 2, 3, 307 search and rescue operations, 99, 180, 383, 407 standards, 114, 259, 262 weather conditions, 2, 36, 62, 95, 99, 170-171, 262, 286, 296, 307 , 385, 389 Saithe, 77, 83, 328 Salmon, 14, 19, 29, 30, 32, 76, 113, 114, 116-117, 125, 141, 159, 172, 269, 316, 403 Search and rescue operations, 99, 180, 383, 407 Seasonal fishing limits, 2, 70, 78, 94, 118-119, 286, 301 see also Derby fisheries Sex limitations, fish, 36, 132, 177(n.5)(n.5) Sherman Anti-Trust Act, 297 Shipping Act, 155, 243, 257 Size and size limits, fish, 36, 113, 123, 131, 132, 160, 175, 177 case studies, 60, 64, 65, 75, 78, 91, 93, 101, 107, 108, 109, 283, 284, 287, 291, 292, 351, 363 see also Highgrading Size factors, other, see Net mesh limits; Vessels (crew size factors); Vessels (fleet size factors); Vessels (vessel size factors) Snapper fisheries, 33, 121, 152, 190, 194, 221, 252-253, 351, 356, 359, 361 case studies, 67, 68, 69, 91 Social factors, 2, 6-7, 9, 31, 33, 140, 197-212, 243-244 case studies, 61-62, 65, 69, 75-76, 81, 85, 86, 88, 95, 105, 292-296, 316 political factors, 9, 12, 26, 28, 39, 81, 82, 142, 143, 147, 215, 325, 326 public trust doctrine, 27 research and monitoring of, 7, 8, 218-219 transfer of quota shares, 169-171 see also Cultural factors; Employment issues; Fishing communities; Safety issues South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 66, 67, 69, 277, 317, 319 South Atlantic wreckfish fishery, IFQs, 2, 32, 37, 209, 408 case studies, 66-70, 78-80, 110 Soviet Union, 264 Sport fishing, see Recreational fishing Stakeholder participation, general, 143, 188, 193, 197, 200, 202-203, 219, 221, 224, 249, 364 regional councils, 9, 10, 12, 93-94, 97, 135-138, 203, 220 Standards, 113-138 air quality, 46, 145, 162-163 National Standards for Fishery Conservation and Management, 114-115, 196, 248, 258-259, 262 net mesh size, 115, 116, 132

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--> safety, 114, 259, 262 water resources, 51 see also Input controls; Output controls; Size and size limits, fish; Technical measures State Department, see U.S. Department of State State government role, 11, 28, 29, 32(n.10)(n.10), 195-196, 215, 245, 261 Arizona Groundwater Management Act, 53 community development quotas, 126 data collection, 70 enforcement, 66, 179-180 public trust doctrine, 40, 42, 43, 44, 49-54 regional councils, cooperation with, 195-196 see also specific states Stewardship issues, 25, 36, 41, 127, 135 case studies, 97, 105, 106, 329 licensing, 224 national policy, 12, 168, 224, 199-200, 201, 203, 204 quota allocation criterion, 148-149, 150, 203, 204, 224 Stock assessments bioeconomics, Gordon-Schaefer model, 22-23 data fouling, 106, 107, 175, 216, 217, 269 fish stock measurement, 114, 120 Stock use rights, 134-135 harvest privilege, 7-8, 9, 14, 84, 97, 337-338, 339 Subsistence fishing, 19, 27, 74, 77, 125, 182, 218, 269, 306, 308, 310 see also Aboriginal fishing rights Sunset provisions, 8, 97, 180-181, 200-202, 297 Superexclusive area registration, 134, 277 Supreme Court, see U.S. Supreme Court Surf clam/ocean quahog fisheries, 2, 3, 32-33, 37, 194, 209, 210, 221, 247, 368, 408 case study, 60-66, 78-80, 119, 281-297 defined, 277 Sustainable Fisheries Act, 2, 16, 139, 158, 248, 366 central registry system, 8, 202, 250-251 duration of IFQs, 180 moratorium on IFQs, 2, 5, 14, 18, 61, 62, 140, 191, 194, 196, 200 Sustainable yield, 1, 13, 140 maximum sustainable yield, 28-29, 31, 93, 274 T Taylor Grazing Act, 58 Taxes, see Fees and taxes Technical measures, 115, 131-135 Technological innovations, 21, 25, 28, 31, 46, 58, 114, 117-118, 170, 182, 324 Territorial use rights, 134-135 Timber resources, 56-57, 144 Time factors, see Control dates; Derby fisheries; Effort quotas; Fishing effort; Seasonal fishing limits; Sunset provisions Total allowable catch, 1, 32, 120, 379 area restrictions and, 133 case studies, 57, 63, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 74, 75, 77, 78, 81, 82, 84, 85, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 137, 282, 284 , 290, 291, 301, 310-311, 313, 318, 325, 328, 329, 335, 336, 339, 344, 345, 346, 348, 352, 353, 355-360, 362, 403 defined, 3, 120, 277-278 derby fisheries, 2-3, 67, 107, 270, 306, 307 harvest privilege and, 8 IFQs/ITQs and, 20, 32-36 (passim), 47-48, 142, 143, 146, 147-148, 175, 178, 184, 186,, 187, 192, 193, 200, 245-246 case studies, 57, 63, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 74, 75, 82, 84, 85, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 106, 107, 108, 110, 137, 291, 310, 311, 313, 318, 325, 328, 329, 335, 336, 339, 345, 346, 348, 352, 353, 355-360, 362 , 403 individual vessel quotas, 121-123 mixed-stock fisheries, 113-114 new fishery entrants, 158, 200 public trust doctrine, 12 recreational fishing, 159, 212 recruitment and, 113, 120, 141, 282 resource rent and, 25 stock assessment and, 110, 120 trip limits, 121 Transfer of quota shares, 3, 5, 6, 7, 34, 167-174, 207-209, 210, 243, 244, 246, 408 air pollutant emissions as example, 46-47 case studies, 63, 68, 73-74, 83, 90-91, 92, 96, 97-98, 103-104, 290 , 310, 312, 315, 320, 325-328, 341-342, 349, 352, 364

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--> central registry system, 8, 202, 218, 250-251, 297, 387 diversity and, 158-159 economic factors, general, 168-169, 173-174 fees and taxes for, 368, 370-376, 379-380, 387, 390, 407-408 fishing communities, 11, 158-159, 170-171 foreign recipients, 156-157 gifting of quota shares, 4, 10, 207, 378 lottery allocation, 146 see also Absentee ownership of quota shares; Concentration of quota shares; Fees and taxes; Individual transferable quotas; Leasing of quota shares Transshipment, 278, 350 Trawling and trawlers, 88, 90, 116, 122, 123, 278, 325, 343, 348, 352 see Catcher-processor vessels Trip limits, 3, 24, 66, 119, 120-121, 122, 206, 252 case studies, 94, 286, 287, 300, 306, 318 U United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas, 15 see also Food and Agriculture Organization (United Nations) U.S. Coast Guard monitoring and enforcement, 179-180, 249, 381, 382-386 search and rescue operations, 99, 180, 383, 407 U.S. Department of Commerce, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Marine Fisheries Service U.S. Department of State, 249 U.S. Supreme Court, 40, 41(n.7)(n.7), 42, 43, 48, 50-51 V Vertical market integration, 153, 154, 205, 210 case studies, 60, 61, 87, 285, 289, 294-295, 296, 331, 336, 337, 341 defined, 172 Vessels bioeconomic models, 23, 34 case studies, individual fisheries, 62-63, 64, 67, 73, 77, 81, 82-83, 96, 99, 101, 102, 282, 283, 284, 288-289, 294, 309, 310, 325, 327, 330, 331-332 crew- and skipper-based share allocation, 151-152, 203, 204-205, 219, 244, 317, 337, 341, 398-403, 405, 407 crew size factors, 76, 115, 116, 122, 316 excessive IFQ shares and classes of, 6 fleet size factors, 68, 77, 85, 117, 136, 197, 244, 327, 330, 331-332 foreign ownership, 7, 14, 15, 31, 91, 257 quota allocations to, 10, 21, 118, 119, 121-123, 130, 136, 147, 148 , 149, 151, 157, 203, 205, 209, 212, 222, 244, 247, 403 case studies, 62-63, 73, 82-83, 86, 96, 99, 102, 104, 288-290, 309 , 310, 313, 317, 325, 341 quota share transfers across classes of, 10 restrictions on, types of, 116-117, 209 vessel size factors, 34, 82, 99, 102, 115, 116, 117, 118, 121, 122 , 136, 169, 173, 203, 309, 310, 327, 329, 350, 351, 369 see also Charter boats; Catcher-processor vessels; Gear and gear restrictions; Individual bycatch quotas; Individual vessel quotas; Licensing; Trip limits Voluntary cooperatives, 129, 130 W Washington State, 70 Water resources and pollution, 48-54, 147 Weather conditions, 2, 36, 62, 95, 99, 170-171, 262, 286, 296, 307 , 385, 389 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council, 127, 206, 278 Windfall profit, 6, 10, 14, 142, 144, 155, 161, 169, 202, 203, 213 -214, 222, 321 see also Capital gains taxes Wisconsin, 109 Wreckfish, see South Atlantic wreckfish fishery X Y Z Zero-revenue auctions, 6, 47, 145, 211