added value to the system by searching out new niches and markets for the increased flow of fresh product.

The top five halibut ports have remained the same, with occasional reordering (see Appendix H). The top sablefish ports have also been generally consistent, but since the primary final market for sablefish is Japan, the opportunities for directly marketing are limited, so no change in ports would be expected. The quota share market has been active, with more than 3,800 permanent transfers in the halibut fishery and more than 1,100 in the sablefish fishery. These transfers have led to some consolidation. The number of quota holders declined by 24% in halibut and 18% in sablefish between January 1995 and August 1997. However, the number of quota shareholders still exceeds the annual maximum number of participants in the pre-IFQ fisheries. In both fisheries, the bulk of the consolidation has taken place in the smaller holdings. There is anecdotal evidence that fishermen have reduced crew size and that quota shareholders are crewing for each other. However, since there are few data on pre-IFQ crewing practices, it is difficult to determine the magnitude of changes or the opportunity costs of crew who are no longer in these fisheries.

Economic and Social Outcomes for Fishery-Dependent Communities. The economic and social outcomes of the halibut and sablefish IFQ programs for dependent communities are largely anecdotal. Continued low prices for salmon have made halibut and sablefish catches increasingly important for regional fishing economies. The regional impacts of reductions in crew size are unknown because information on crew participation in the pre-IFQ fisheries, their residencies, demographics, and opportunity costs is limited and has not been compiled adequately.

Administrative and Enforcement Outcomes. Currently, the increased costs of managing and enforcing the IFQ programs are not being recovered from the quota shareholders. However, a cost recovery program is being developed that will assess up to 3% of the exvessel value, which compares favorably with the budget of the RAM Division (see Appendix H). NMFS has successfully prosecuted one case of a sablefish fisherman exceeding his quota share holdings and falsifying landing records. The case resulted in the fishermen forfeiting part of his quota share, and a fine of $16,320 was assessed.

Current Perceived Issues. Some dissatisfaction over the initial allocation continues. This dissatisfaction is related to the delay between the qualifying years and the implementation of the program, and the exclusion of crew members and processors from the initial allocation. The delays in implementation resulted in the exclusion of some fishermen who were active in the years immediately preceding implementation, but were not active during the qualifying years. Similarly, there was dissatisfaction with the award of quota shares to individuals who



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement